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THE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



FIRST edit 


ion, published in three volumes, 


1768- 


-I77I. 


SECOND , 


, ,, ten 


99 


1777- 


-1784. 


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, „ eighteen 


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, „ twenty-two 


9) 


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-i860 


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, „ twenty-five 


99 


I37S- 


-I889. 


TENTH , 


, ninth edition and eleven 










supplementary volumes, 




1902- 


-I903. 


ELEVENTH , 


, published in twenty-nine volumes, 


IQIO- 


-I9II. 



COPYRIGHT 

in all countries subscribing to the 

Bern Convention 

by 

THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS 

of the 
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 



All rights reserved 



THE 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 



DICTIONARY 

OF 

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL 

INFORMATION 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XXIII 

REFECTORY to SAINTE-BEUVE 



New York 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 

342 Madison Avenue 



Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911,1 

fcy 
The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company- 



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXIII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL 

CONTRIBUTORS,! WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE 

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED. 

A. B. Chatwood, Ass.M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.Elec.E. ' ] Safes, Strong-rooms and Vaults 

Albert Charles Lewis Gotthilf Guenther, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. f 

Keeper of Zoological Department, British Museum, 1875-1895. Gold Medallist, J pontile*' TJUtnrv (i« hart} 
Royal Society, 1878. Author of Catalogue of Colubrine Snakes, Batrachia, Salientia, I ne P lue5 ' flMW J WM P an >- 
and Fishes in the British Museum ; &c. L 

HENRY AUSTIN DOBSON, LL.D. f Rjphardcnn SamiiAf 

See the biographical article : Dobson, Henry Austin. \ «icnarason, Samuel. 

Anson Daniel Morse, M.A., LL.D. f 

Emeritus Professor of History at Amherst College, Mass. Professor at Amherst -i Republican Party. 
College, 1877-1908. I 

A. G.* Arthur Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.C.P., LL.D., D.Sc. (1841-1909). .. fp«nrfr*timr Swtam- WW 

Formerly Fullerian Professor of Physiology, Royal Institution of Great Britain, and J Kespiratory System. Move- 
Professor of Physiology in the University of Manchester. Author of Text-Booh of 1 ments of Respiration, 
the Physiological Chemistry of the Animal Body: &c. L 



A.B. 


Cb, 


A. C. 


G. 


A. D. 




A. D. 


Mo 



A. Go.* Rev 



A. 


Ha. 


A. 


H.-S. 


A. 


H. Sm. 


A. M. C. 


A. M. F. D 


A. 


N. 


A. 


P. H. 



Alexander Gordon M. A J" Ribadeneira, Pedro A. 

Lecturer in Church History 111 the University of Manchester. \ 



A. H.* Albert Hauck, D.Th., D.Ph. 

Professor of Church History in the University of Leipzig, and Director of the 

Museum of Ecclesiastical Archaeology. Geheimer Kirchenrat of Saxony. Member 

of the Royal Saxon Academy of Sciences and Corresponding Member of the i Relics. 

Academies of Berlin and Munich. Author of Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands; &c. 

Editor of the new edition of Herzog's Realencyklopadie fur protestantische Theologie 

und Kirche. '- 

Adolf Harnack, D.Ph. f Cft-.™,,, 

See the biographical article: Harnack, Adolf. \ «"»euius. 

Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, CLE. f „ . . 

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. y «esnt. 

Arthur Hamilton Smith, M.A., F.S.A. r 

Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. J Ring (in part). 
Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Catalogue of\ 
Greek Sculpture in the British Museum ; &c. L 

Agnes Mary Clerke. / Peffiomontanus 

See the biographical article : Clerke, A. M. \ "egiomontanus. 

Agnes Mary Frances Duclaux. f Rfinan 

See the biographical article: Duclaux, A. M. F. \ nouau - 

Alfred Newton, F.R.S. f Rhea; Rifleman-bird; 

See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred. 1 Roller (Bird); Ruff. 

Alfred Peter Hillier, M.D., M.P. r 

Author of South African Studies; The Commonweal; &c. Served in Kaffir War, 
1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical practice in South Africa till -i Rhodesia: History (in part). 
1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and Political Prisoner at 
Pretoria, 1895-1896. M.P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 1910. L 

A. S. P.-P. Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. r 

Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford J «... «.!,„_,_. /•„ A „„,\ 
Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy. 1 Kem > lnomas V» part). 
Author of Man's Place in the Cosmos ; The Philosophical Radicals ; &c. t 

A. S. Wo. Arthur Smith Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S. f Reilt ji«. . m< lnrv a n aw* nJM - 

Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Secretary of 1 Ke P ulcs • a lstor y } m P art ' am 
the Geological Society, London. [ ^Mial Characters. 



1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 

V 



VI 

A. W. H.* 

A. W. R. 

G. Ba. 

C. B. P. 
C. E.* 
C. F. A. 

C. H. Ha. 

C. H. W. J. 

C. L. K. 
C. M. P. 
C. R. B. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



c. 


We. 


D. 


B. 


Ma 


D. 


C. 


T. 


D. 


F. 


T. 


D. 


H. 




D. 


H. 


M. 


D. 


LI. 


T. 


D. 


M. 


W. 



D. 


R.-M 


E. 


B. 


E. 


Cu. 


E. 


C. B. 



Arthur William Holland. 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. 

Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B. 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws 
of England. 

Cyril Bailey, M.A. 

Fellow, Tutor and Librarian of Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The Religion of 
A ncient Rome ; &c. 

Catherine Beatrice Phillips, B.A. (Mrs W. Alison Phillips). 
Associate of Bedford College, London. 

Charles Everitt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S. 
Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Charles Francis Atkinson. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London- (Royal 
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. 

Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member 
of the American Historical Association. 

Rev. Claude Hermann Walter Johns, M.A., Litt.D. 

Master of St Catharine's College, Cambridge. Canon of Norwich. Author of 
Assyrian Deeds and Documents. 



\ Regicide; Rienzi, Cola di. 
Rent. 

Roman Religion. 
Robes. 



Charles Lethbridge Kingseord, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. 

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. 
of Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London. 



Editor 



Charles Murray Pitman. 

Sometime Scholar of New College, Oxford. 
versity Eight. 



Formerly Stroke of the Oxford Uni- Rowing. 



f Refraction: Refraction of 
\ Light. 

[Rifle {in part); 
1 Rossbach. 

Rosary. 

J Sabbath: Babylonian and 
[ Assyrian. 

("Richard II.; Richard III.; 
I Rivers, Richard Woodville, 
I Earl; 
I Russell, Bishop. 



r 



Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow 
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. 
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of 
Henry the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography ; &c. 

Cecil Weatherly. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. 

Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D. 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn. 
Author of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional 
Theory; Selections from Ibn Khaldun; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c. 



Rubruquis, William of 

{in part). 



\ Saddlery and Harness. 
J Rum, or Roum. 



David Croal Thomson. 

Formerly Editor of the Art Journal. Author of The Brothers Maris; 
School of Painters; Life of " Phiz " ; Life of Bewick ; &c. 

Donald Francis Tovey. 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The' 
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works. 

David Hannay. 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal • 
Navy ; Life of Emilio Castelar ; &c. 

David Heinrich Muller, D.Ph. 

Professor of Semitic Languages in the University of Vienna. Hofrat of the Austrian ' 
Empire. Knight of the Order of Leopold. Author of Die Gesetze Hammurabi; &c. 

Daniel Lleufer Thomas. 

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. 
Rhondda. 

Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O. 

Extra Groom of the Bedchamber to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign 
Department of The Times, 1891-1899. Member of Institut de Droit International 
and Officier de 1' Instruction Publique of France. Joint-editor of New Volumes 
(10th ed.) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt and Egyptian 
Question ; The Web of Empire ; &c. 

David Randall- Maciver, M.A., D.Sc 

Curatorof Egyptian Department, University of Pennsylvania. Formerly Worcester • 
Reader in Egyptology, University of Oxford. Author of Medieval Rhodesia ; &c. 

Edward Breck, M.A., Ph.D. 

Formerly Foreign Correspondent of the New York Herald and the New York Times. ■ 
Author of Fencing; Wilderness Pets; Sporting in Nova Scotia; &c. 



The Barbizon { Rousseau, Pierre E. T. 



Rhythm: in music; 
Rondo. 



Rigging. 



Sabaeans. 



Stipendiary Magistrate at Pontypridd and I Rhondda. 



Edmund Curtis, M.\. 
Keble College, Oxford. 



Lecturer on History in the University of Sheffield. 



Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, M.A., O.S.B., D.Litt. 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius,' 
in Cambridge Texts and Studies. 



Russia: History {in part). 



Rhodesia: Archaeology. 



Sabre-fencing. 

Robert Guiscard; 
Roger I. of Sicily; 
Roger II. of Sicily. 

Sabas, St. 



23 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



vn 



E. F. S. 



E. G. 

E. Gr. 
E. Ha. 
E. He. 

E. H. B. 

E. H. M. 

E. L. B. 
E. 0.* 

E. Pr. 

P. C. C. 

F. G. P. 

F. G. S. 

F. Ha. 
F. J. H. 

F. J. S. 
F. LI. G. 

F. L. L. 

*. p. 

F. R. C. 
F.We. 



Edward Fairbrother Strange. 

Assistant Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of . 
Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects. Joint-editor 
of Bell's " Cathedral " Series. 



Edmund Gosse, LL.D., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund 



Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A. 

See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy. 

Rev. Edwin Hatch, M.A., D.D. 

See the biographical article: Hatch, Edwin. 



Repin, Ilja. 



Rhyme; Rhythm (in verse); 

Rimbaud, Jean; 

Rivers, Anthony Woodville, 

Earl; 
Rossetti, Christina; 
Runes, Runic Language 

and Inscriptions; 
. Rydberg, Abraham; Saga. 

Rhodes (in part). 



J Sacrifice: In the Christian 
\ Church. 



Edward Heawood, M.A. 

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. 
Society, London. 



["Rudolf (Lake); 
Librarian of the Royal Geographical < Ruwenzori; 

s Sahara (in part). 

Sir Edward Herbert Bunbury, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895). f 

M.P, for Bury St Edmunds, 1 847-1 852. Author of A History of Ancient Geography; 1 Rhodes (in part). 
&c. l 



Russian Language. 



Ripley, George. 



Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A. 

University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian 
at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College. 

Edward Livermore Burlingame, A.M., Ph.D. 

Editor of Scribner's Magazine. Formerly on the Staff of New York Tribune. 

Edmund Owen, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. f 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, j 

Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Ex- -j Respiratory System: Surgery. 
aminer in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author 
of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. 



Edgar Prestage. 

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Ex- 
aminer in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Com- 
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal " 
Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society; &c. Editor of Letters of a 
Portuguese Nun ; Azurara's Chronicles of Guinea ; &c. 



Resende, Andre de; 
Resende, Garcia de; 
Ribeiro, Bernardim; 
Sa de Miranda, Francisco de. 






Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. 

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford, > 

Editor of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle. Author of Myth, Magic and~) Sacrament. 

Morals; &c. [ 

Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S. r 

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on J Reproductive System; 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, 1 Respiratory System: Anatomy. 
London. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. [ 



F. G. Stephens. 

Formerly Art Critic of the Athenaeum. Author of Artists at Home; George Cruik- 
shank ; Memorials of W. Mulready ; French and Flemish Pictures ; Sir E. Land- ' 
seer; T. C. Hook, R.A.; &c. 

Frederic Harrison. 

See the_biographical article: Harrison, Frederic. 

Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. 

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of 
Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Censor, Student, 
Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907. 
Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c. 

Frederick John Snell, M.A. 

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The Age of Chaucer; &c. 

Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A. r 

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey J Rosetta. 
and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial 1 
German Archaeological Institute. [ 



Rossetti, Dante Gabriel (in 

part). 

Ruskin, John. 



Roman Army. 



Robin Hood (in part). 



Rhodes, Cecil. 



Lady Lugard. 

See the biographical article: Lugard, Sir F. J. D. 

Frank Podmore, M.A. (1856-1910). r • 

Sometime Scholar of Pembroke College, Oxford. Author of Modern Spiritualism ; J Retro-COgnition. 



Mesmerism and Christian Science; &c. 

Frank R. Cana. 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. 

Frederick Wedmore. 

See the biographical article: Wedmore, Frederick. 



I 



Rhodesia: History (in part); 
Sahara (in part). 



j Ribot, Theodule. 



viii INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. f Rock-Crystal* 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. ■) Tj I1 j,- ]rt ' D ,',i,„ 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. I * u °eiure, KUDjr. 

G. A.* Gertrude Franklin Atherton. f , 

Author of Rezdnov; Ancestors; The Tower of Ivory; &c. "^Rezanov. 

G. Ch. George Chrystal, M.A., LL.D. f 

Professor of Mathematics and Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Edinburgh University, -s Riemann, Georg. 
Hon. Fellow and formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. I 

G. C. W. George Charles Williamson, Litt.D. f 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures ; Life of Richard J D „ t n u„ / n ■ 1 \ 
Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of the New 1 Kusseu > Jonn (fainter). 
Edition of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. I 

G. Du. George Duthie, M.A., F.R.S. (Edin.). ("Rhodesia: Geography and 

Director of Education, Southern Rhodesia. I Statistics. 

G. J. T. George James Turner. f 

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden -s Ridings. 
Society. [ 

G. R. P. George Robert Parkin, LL.D., C.M.G. J Rhodes, Cecil: Rhodes 

See the biographical article: Parkin, G. R. I Scholarships. 

r, c n c- ttt>t-»^t f Retz > Cardinal de; 

G. Sa. George Saintsbury, LL.D., D.C.L. J Bomanea . Ronsard- 

See the biographical article: Saintsbury, George E. B. 1 « omanee > Konsara, 

[Rousseau, Jean Jacques. 

G. Sn. Grant Showerman, A.M., Ph.D. r 

Professor of Latin at the University of Wisconsin. Member of the Archaeological J , 

Institute of America. Member of the American Philological Association. Author of 1 Rhea (Mythology). 

With the Professor ; The Great Mother of the Gods ; &c. [ 

H. B. Hilary Bauermann, F.G.S. (d. 1909). f 

Formerly Lecturer on Metallurgy at the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author of t Safety-Lamp. 
A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron. I 

H. Br. Henry Bradley, M.A., Ph.D. [ 

Joint-editor of the ifew English Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British "! Riddles. 
Academy. Author of The Story of the Goths ; The Making of English ; &c. I 

H. B. M. The Very Rev. Canon H. B. Mackey, O.S.B. / Sacred Heart. 

Author of Four Essays on St Francis de Sales. { 

H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A. f Representation* 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the iith edition of ■< D . „ .' . 

the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Co-editor of the 10th edition. [ KOseoery, Jiari 01. 

H. De. Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J. f p ocn st . 

Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications: Analecta Bollandiana \ _ '*«,!«,.* 
and Acta Sanctorum. \ Rupert, St; Saint. 

H. E. Karl Hermann Ethe, M.A., Ph.D. [" _ .. 

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Aberystwyth (University of J " uln, > 
Wales). Author of Catalogue of Persian Manuscripts in the India Office Library, 1 Sa'di. 
London (Clarendon Press) ; &c. I 

H. F. G. Hans Friedrich Gadow, F.R.S., Ph.D. _ C Rel)tiles . Anatomv and 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge, -j ' .', * 

Author of " Amphibia and Reptiles," in the Cambridge Natural History. L Distribution. 

H. F. P. Henry Francis Pelham, LL.D., D.C.L. J Rome: Ancient History 

See the biographical article: Pelham, H. F. \ (in part). 

H. Go. Henry Goudy, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. f 

Regius Professor of Civil Law, Oxford, and Fellow of All Souls' College. Author -| Roman Law. 
of The Law of Bankruptcy in Scotland ; &c. [ 

H. H. Henri Simon Hymans, Ph.D. f 

Keeper of the Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique, Brussels. Author of Rubens: sa\ Rubens {in part), 
vie et son ceuvre. I 

f Respiratory System: 
H. L. H. Harriet L. Hennessy, M.D. (Brux.), L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I. \ Pathology {in part); 

{ Rheumatoid Arthritis. 
H. M. V. Herbert M. Vaughan, F.S.A. f 

Keble College, Oxford. Author of The Last of the Royal Stuarts; The Medici Popes; ■< St Davids. 
The Last Stuart Queen, (_ 

H. R. T. Henry Richard Tedder, F.S.A. f Pvmor Thnm ,. 

Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London. \ K y mer * Anomas. 

H. St. Henry Sturt, M.A. j R p, ativitv of Knowledee 

Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; Personal Idealism. I Kelallv "y 0I »>nowieuge. 

H.S.J. Henry Stuart Jones, M.A. r Roman Art; 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British J Rome: Ancient City (in part), 
School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. _ Author | Christian Rome {in part) and 
of The Roman Empire; &c. " [ Ancient History {in part). 

H. S.-K. Sir Henry Seton-Karr, C.M.G., M.A. f „.„ 

M.P. for St Helen's. 1885-1906, Author of My Sporting Holidays; &c. I ™ ue " 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



IX 



H.Tr. 

H. W. C. D. 

H. W. S. 

H. Y. 
LA. 

J. A. H. 



Sir Henry Trotter, K.C.M.G., C.B. 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Royal Engineers. H.B.M. Consul-General for Roumania, . 
1894-1906, and British Delegate on the European Commission of the Danube. 
Victoria Medallist, Royal Geographical Society, 1878. 



Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. -Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 
1 895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. 



Rumania: History (in part). 



Richard, Earl of Cornwall; 
Richard I.; 
Richard of Devizes; 
Robert of Gloucester; 
Roger of Hoveden; 
Roger of Wendover. 



H. Wickham Steed. f 

Correspondent of The Times at Vienna. Correspondent of The Times at Rome, < Rjeasoli Baron. 
1897-1902. (_ ' 



J. 


A. S. 


J. 


Bra. 


J. 


Bt. 


J. 


B. B. 


J. 


B. M 



J. D. B. 

J. E. C. 
J. F. H. B. 

J. F.-K. 

J. F. M. 

J. F. W. 
*J. G. 
J. G. H. 
J. H. A. H. 

J. H. M. 
J. H. R. 



Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I., C.B. 

See the biographical article: Yule, Sir Henry. 

Israel Abrahams, M.A. 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. 
Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short 
History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c. 

John Allen Howe, B.Sc. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of 
The Geology of Building Stones. 

John Addington Symonds, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Symonds, J. A. 

Joseph Braun, S.J. 

Author of Die Liturgische Gewandung ; &c. 

James Bartlett. 

Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c, at King's . 
College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior 
Engineers. 

John Bagnall Bury, D.Litt., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article: Bury, J. B. 

James Bass Mullinger, M.A. 

Lecturer in History, St John's College, Cambridge. Formerly University Lecturer 
in History and President of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Birkbeck Lecturer • 
in Ecclesiastical History at Trinity College, Cambridge, 1890-1894. Author of 
History of the University of Cambridge ; The Schools of Charles the Great ; &c. 

James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. 
Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of 
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. 

Rev. Joseph Estlin Carpenter, M.A., D.Litt., D.D., D.Th. 

Principal of Manchester College, Oxford. Author of The First Three Gospels, their 
Origin and Relations; The Bible in the Nineteenth Century; &c. 

Sir John Francis Harpin Broadbent, Bart., M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. 
Physician to Out- Patients, St Mary's Hospital, London; Physician totheHamp- 
stead General Hospital; Assistant Physician to the London Fever Hospital. 
Author of Heart Disease and Aneurysm; &c. 

James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S. 

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. 
Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. 
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of 
Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c. 

James Fullarton Muirhead, LL.D. 

Editor of many of Baedeker's Guide Books. Author of America, the Land of 
Contrasts. 

John Forbes White, M.A., LL.D. (d. 1904). 

Joint-author of the Life and Art of G. P. Chalmers, R.S.A. ; &c. 

His Eminence Cardinal James Gibbons. 
See the biographical article : Gibbons, James. 



(Ricci, Matteo; 
Rubruquis, William of 
{in part). 
Ritual Murder; 
Sabbatai Sebi; 
Sabbation; 
L Sachs, Michael. 

Rhaetic. 



< Renaissance. 
-I Rochet. 

Roofs. 

Roman Empire, Later. 

Richard of Cirencester. 



Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I.Mech.E. 

Author of Plating and Boiler Making ; Practical Metal Turning ; &c. 

John Henry Arthur Hart, M.A. 

Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John's College, Cambridge. 

John Henry Middleton, M.A., Litt.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896). 

Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-1895. Director 
of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1 889-1 892. Art Director of the South 
Kensington Museum, 1 892-1 896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Times; 
Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times. 

John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. 

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Feudal England ; Studies in Peerage and Family 
History; Peerage and Pedigree. 



\ Ristitch, Jovan. 
-j Religion. 
1 Rheumatism. 

Ruiz, Juan. 

Rhine (in part). 

-I Rembrandt (in part). 

/Roman Catholic Church: 

1 United States. 

J Rolling-mill. 

-! Sadducees. 

Rietsehel, Ernst; 

Ring (in part) ; 

Rome: The Ancient City (in 

part); and Christian Rome 

(in part) ; 
Round Towers. 

Register. 



J. L. W. 



x INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

J. H. R.* James Harvey Robinson, A.M., Ph.D. f 

Professor of History, Columbia University, New York. Author of Petrarch, the\ Reformation, The. 
First Modern Scholar ; History of Western Europe ; &c. I 

J. HI. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D. f 

Christ's College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge J Reichstadt Duke of. 
University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I. ; Napoleonic 1 ' 

Studies ; The Development of the European Nations ; The Life of Pitt ; &c. L 

J. H. V. C. John Henry Verrinder Crowe. r 

Lieut.-Colonel, Royal Artillery. Commandant of the Royal Military College of RusSO-Turkish War* 
Canada. Formerly Chief Instructor in Military Topography and Military History \ i o _ o\ 
and Tactics at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Author of Epitome of the v. I °77 _ 7"A 
Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78; &c. (• 

J. J. L.* Rev. John James Lias, M.A. f 

Chancellor of Llandaff Cathedral. Formerly Hulsean Lecturer in Divinity and . 
Lady Margaret Preacher, University of Cambridge. Author of Miracles, Science 1 
and Prayer ; &c. L 

J. J. T. Sir Joseph John Thomson, D.Sc., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics and Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. President of the British Association, 1909-1910. Author of A Treatise on ■ 
the Motion of Vortex Rings; Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry; 
Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism ; &c. 



Reuseh, Franz H. 



Rontgen Rays. 



Jessie Laidlay Weston. f Round T h]p Th 

Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory. ^nounu lauie, ine. 



J. Mt. James Mofeatt, M.A., D.D. 

Minister of the United Free Church of Scotland. Jowett Lecturer, London, 1907. -j Romans, Epistle to the. 
Author of Historical New Testament ; &c. [ 

J. S. P. John Smith Flett, D.Sc, F.G.S. f 

PetYographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edin- J Rhvolite 
burgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby ] 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. I. 

J. S. H. John Scott Haldane, M.A. , M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. r 

Fellow of New College, Oxford, and University Reader in Physiology. Metro- Respiratory System: Physio- 
politan Gas Referee to the Board of Trade. Joint-editor and founder of the Journal s ;_,,., 
of Hygiene. Author of Blue-books on " The Causes of Death in Colliery Explo- ° 

sions "; &c. I 

J. S. R. James Smith Reid, M.A., LL.M., Litt.D., LL.D. [ ^ chl ' Friedrich W.; 

Professor of Ancient History and Fellow and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College, J "Unnken, Da Via; 
Cambridge. Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Lecturer, of Christ's College. ] RutiliUS, Claudius 
Editor of Cicero's Academica; De Amicitia; &c. I Namatianus. 

J. T. Be. John Thomas Bealby. f Riga _(*» part) ; 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical < Russia: Geography and 
Magazine.' Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. [ Statistics (in part). 

J. T. S.* James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D. J" Richelieu, Cardinal; 

Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. \ Sacrilege. 

J. W. James Williams, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. T Roman Catholic Church- 

All Souls' Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln 4 M0 ™,. 7* ln0UC ^ nuren - 
College. Barrister-at-Law of Lincoln's Inn. Author of Law of the Universities ; &c. I English Law. 

J. Wal.* James Walker, M.A. f 

Christ Church, Oxford. Demonstrator in the Clarendon Laboratory. Formerly J Dofrnntinn • n™,/,7„ P^/tW,™ 
Vice-President of the Physical Society. Author of The Analytical Theory of Light; \ Reftactl0n - DouUe Reaction. 
&c. I 

J. We. Julius Wellhausen, D.D. J «„;„,„ T m,„„„ to„„», 

See the biographical article: Wellhausen, Julius. ^KeiSKe, jonann jacoo 

J. W. H. John Wesley Hales, M.A. 

Emeritus Professor of English Literature at King's College, London. Hon. Fellow, 

formerly Fellow and Tutor, of Christ's College, Cambridge. Clark Lecturer in -J Robin Hood (in part), 

English Literature at Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Shakespeare Essays 

and Notes; Folia Litteraria; &c. 

K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger. 

Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the - 
Orchestra. 

L. F. A. , Lawrence F. Abbott. f D ., _. , 

President of The Outlook Company, New York. \ "OOSevelt, Theodore. 

L. F. V.-H. Leveson Francis Vernon-Harcourt, M.A., M.Inst.CE. (1839-1907). r 

Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London, 1882-1905. Author J River Engineering 
of Rivers and Canals ; Harbours and Docks, ; Civil Engineering as applied in Con- 1 
struction ; &c. \_ 

L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A. r 

Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of J ] 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineral- 1 
ogical Magazine. \_ 

L. L. S. Lionel Lancelot Shadwell, M.A. J n - , t . 

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. One of H.M. Commissioners in Lunacy. -^ Kegisnauon. 

M.A. Matthew Arnold " f Sainte-Beuve. 

See the biographical article: Arnold, Matthew. ^ 



Regal; Rotta; 
Sackbut. 



Rutile. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



XI 



M.Cr. 
H.G. 

M. fla. 
M. H. S. 

M. 0. B. C. 
M.P,* 

N. W. T. 

0, A. 

O.Ba. 
O.M.* 

P. A. A. 

P. A. K. 
P. C. M. 

P. Gi. 

P. G. K. 

P.V. 
R. A.N. 

R. C. J. 
R. H. C. 



Francis Marion Crawford. 

See the biographical article: Crawford, F. Marion. 

Moses Gaster, Ph.D. 

Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist 
Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine . 
Literature, 1886 and 1891. President, Folk-lore Society of England. Vice- 
President, Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular 
Literature; &c. L 



J Rome: The Modem City. 



Rumania: Literature. 



Marcus Harxog, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S. 

Professor of Zoology, University College, Cork. Author of " Protozoa,' 
bridge Natural History; and papers for various scientific journals. 



. „ J Rhizopoda; 
in Cam- < n ... ' 

[ Rotifera. 



Marion H. Spielmann, F.S.A. 

Formerly Editor of the Magazine of Art. Member of Fine Art Committee of Inter- 
national Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome and the Franco-British 
Exhibition, London. Author of History of " Punch " ; British Portrait Painting 
to the Opening of the Nineteenth Century ; Works of G. F. , Watts, R.A . ; British 
Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day; Henrietta Ronner; &c. 



Relief; 
Repousse; 
Roubiliac, Louis F. 



Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A. 

Reader in Ancient History at London University. 
University, 1 905-1 908. 



r Rhodes (in part) ; 
Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham -i Romanus I.-IV. (Eastern 

I Emperors). 



Retz, Seigneurs and Dukes of; 
Rouault, Joachim. 



Sacrifice. 



Russell, Lord William. 



Leon Jacques Maxime Prinet. r 

Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary of the Institute J 
of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). Author of L 'Industrie du sel 1 
en Frenche-Comte; Francois I et le comte de Bourgogne; &c. I 

Northcote Whitridge Thomas, M.A. f 

Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the J 
Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference ; Kinship and 1 
Marriage in Australia; &c. I 

Osmund Airy, M.A., LL.D. f 

H.M. Divisional Inspector of Schools and Inspector of Training Colleges, Board of J 
Education. Author of Louis XIV. and the English Restoration; Charles II.; &c. 1 
Editor of the Lauderdale Papers ; &c. I 

Oswald Barron, F.S.A. f 

Editor of The Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the-j 
Honourable Society of the Baronetage. [ 

Octave Maus, LL.D. 

Advocate of the Court of Appeal at Brussels. Director of L'Art Moderne and of 
the Libre Esthetique. President of the Association of Belgian writers. Officer of the - 
Legion of Honour. Author of Le Thedtre de Bayreuth; Aux Ambassadeurs; Malta, 
Constantinople et la Crimee ; &c. 

Philip A. Ashworth, M.A., Doc. Juris. 

New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Translator of H. R. von Gneist's History ■ 
of the English Constitution. 

Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin. 

See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince P. A. 

Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc, LL.D. 

Secretary of the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Com- 
parative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1 888-1 89 1 . Author " 
of Outlines of Biology ; &c. 

Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D. r 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University J e 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological 1 ' 
Society. L 

'Paul George Konody. fu. m i».»jt««j,™rt. 

Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of The Artist. \ KemDranai l*» m*). 
Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez: Life and Work- &c. [ Rubens (in part). 



Russell (Family). 



Rops, Felicien. 



Rhine (in part). 

' Riga (in part) ; 
Russia: Geography and 
Statistics (in part). 

Regeneration of Lost Parts; 
Reproduction: of Animals. 



Pasquale Villari. 

See the biographical article: Villari, Pasquale. 

Reynold Alleyne Nicholson, M.A., Litt.D. 

Lecturer in Persian in the University of Cambridge. Sometime Fellow of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and Professor of Persian at University College, London. , 
Author of Selected Poems from the Dlvani Shamsi Tabriz; A Literary History of 
the Arabs; &c. 

Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, LL.D., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article: Jebb, Sir Richard Claverhouse. 

Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.A., D.D., D.Litt. 

Grinfield Lecturer, and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford. Fellow of Merton 
College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Professor of Biblical Greek, 
Trinity College, Dublin. Author of Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; 
Book of Jubilees ; &c. 



J Rimini; Rome: Roman Re- 
1 public in the Middle Ages. 



Sabians. 



{ 



Rhetoric. 



Revelation, Book of. 



Xll 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



R. J. M 

R. L.* 

R. N. B. 

R. R. M. 

R. S. C. 

R. W. F. H. 
S. A. C. 

stc. 

S. H. V.* 

S.N. 
T. As. 



T. 


A, I. 




T. 


Ba. 




T. 


B. L. 




T. 


H.* 




T. 


Wo. 




T. 


W.-D. 




W 


. A. B. 


C 



W. A. P. 



Ronald John McNeill, M.A. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. 
Gazette, London. 



Formerly Editor of the'SJ James's 



Richmond, Earls and 

Dukes of; 
Richmond and Lennox, 

Duchess of; 
Saeheverell, William. 

Reindeer; Rhinoceros(w part) ; 
Rhytina; River-hog; 
Rocky Mountain Goat; 
Rodentia; Roe-buck; 
Rorqual. 

Repnin; 

Reuterholm, Baron; 
Sadolin, Jorgen. 

Religion: Primitive Religion; 
Ritual. 



Richard Lydekker,.F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S. 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1 874-1 882. Author of 
Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum ; The Deer 
of all Lands ; &c. 

Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909). 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: the 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 15 13-1900; The First Romanovs, 
1613-172$: Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 
to 1796 ; &c. 

Robert Ranulph Marett, M.A. r 

Reader in Social Anthropology, Oxford University, and Fellow and Tutor of J 
Exeter College. Formerly Dean and Sub-Rector of Exeter College. Author of 1 
The Threshold of Religion. [ 

Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt. _ r Rome: Ancient History {in 

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. J part) ; 
Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff, and Fellow of Gonville | Rutuli" Sabellic* 
and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects. \_ e a v n - ' ' 

Robert William Frederick Harrison. J _ . _ . , _, 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Assistant Secretary of the Royal Society, London. \ KOvaI society, ine. 

Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A 

Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Author of Glossary of 
Aramaic Inscriptions; The Law of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes 
on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c. 

Viscount St Cyres. 

See the biographical article: Iddesleigh, 1st Earl of. 

Sydney Howard Vines, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Sherardian Professor of Botany, Oxford University, and Fellow of Magdalen 
College. Fellow of the University of London. Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and - 
Lecturer, of Christ's College, Cambridge. President of the Linnean Society, 1900- 
1904. Author of A Student's Text-Book of Botany; &c. 



Ruth, Book of (in part) ; 
Sabbath (in part). 

J Roman Catholic Church (in 

I part). 

Reproduction: of Plants; 
Sachs, Julius von. 



Simon Newcomb, D.Sc, L.L.D. 

See the biographical article : Newcomb, Simon. 



("Refraction: Astronomical 
\ Refraction. 



Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon.). 

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of. 
the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topography 
of the Roman Campagna 



Regillus; 

Regium; Rovigo; 

Rusellae; Ruvo; 

St Bernard Passes (in part). 



Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D. 
Trinity College, Dublin. 



\ Sacrilege: 



English Law. 



Sir Thomas Barclay. r 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Officer of the Legion of Honour. J „ • a i e 
Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Black- 1 Ke P nsals ' 
burn, 1910. [_ 

Thomas Bell Lightfoot, M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst. Mech.E. 
Author of Preservation of Foods by Cold ; &c. 

Thomas Harris, M.D., F.R.C.P. 

Formerly Hon. Physician to Manchester Royal Infirmary, and Lecturer on Diseases 
of the Respiratory Organs at Owens College, Manchester. Author of numerous " 
articles on diseases of the respiratory organs. 

Thomas Woodhouse. 

Head of the Weaving and Textile Designing Department, Technical College, Dundee. 

Walter Theodore Watts-Dunton. 

See the biographical article : Watts-Dunton, Walter Theodore. 

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1 880-1 881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphine; The Range of- 
the Todt; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and 
in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1881 ; &c. 



Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, 
Oxford. Author of Modern Europe ; &c. 



1 Refrigerating. 

Respiratory System: Pathology 
(in part). 

Rope and Rope-making; 
Sacking and Sack Manu- 
facture; Sailcloth. 

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. 

"Referendum and Initiative; 

Reschen Scheideck; 

Rhine: Swiss Portion; 

Rhone; Rorschach; 

Rosa, Monte; Rovereto; 

St Bernard Passes (in part). 
■ Rochet: Church of England,; 

Roman Catholic Church (in 
part) ; 

Russia: Government and Ad- 
ministration. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



xm 



W. E. A. A. 

W. H. F. 
W. J. H.* 

W. M.-L. 

W. M. R. 
W. P. C. 
W. P. P. L. 

W. R. D. 

W. R. K. 
W. R. M. 

W. R. S. 



William Edmund Armytage Axon, LL.D. 

Formerly Deputy Chief Librarian of the Manchester Free Libraries. On Literary 
Staff of Manchester Guardian, 1 874-1905. Member of the Gorsedd, with the 
bardic name of Manceinion. Author of Annals of Manchester; &c. 

Sir William H. Flower, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H. 

William James Hughan. 

Past S.G.D. of the Grand Lodge of England. 
of Freemasonry. 



i Roscoe, William. 
-T Rhinoceros (in part). 



Author of Origin of the English Rite -j Rosierucianism. 



WlLHELM MEYER-LUBKE, Ph.D. 

Hofrat of the Austrian Empire. Professor of Romance Philology in the University 
of Vienna. Author of Grammatik der Romanischen Sprachen ; &c. 

William Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article : Rossetti, Dante G. 

William Prideaux Courtney. 

See the biographical article: Courtney, Baron. 

William Pitt Preble Longfellow. 

Fellow of the American Institute of Architects. Editor of the American Architect. 
Author of Cyclopaedia of Architecture in Italy, Greece and the Levant; &c. 

Wyndham Rowland Dunstan, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Director of the Imperial Institute. President of the International Association of 
Tropical Agriculture. Member of the Advisory Committee for Tropical Agri- 
culture, Colonial Office. 



Romance Languages. 

f Ribera, Giuseppe; 
I Rosa, Salvator. 

fRosslyn, Earl of; 
I Russell, 1st Earl. 

•j Richardson, Henry Hobson. 



Rubber. 






Rt. Hon. Sir William Rann Kennedy, LL.D. 

Lord of Appeal. Hon. Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Fellow of the , 

British Academy. Judge of King's Bench Division of High Court of Justice, 1892- \ Russell of Killowen, Lord. 

1907. I 

William Richard Morfill, M.A. (d. 1010). 



Formerly Professor of Russian and the other Slavonic Languages in the University I „ . r ., . 

„ f rw„_.j r-..„.„. „r .,._ -r....„_.-._ Institution> Oxford. Author of Russia; 1 Russian Literature. 



of Oxford. Curator of the Taylorian 
Slavonic Literature; &c. 



William Robertson Smith, LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Smith, William Robertson. 



{Reuchlin; 
Ruth, Book of (in part); 
Sabbath (in part). 



PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES 



Reflection of Light. 

Regensburg. 

Regent. 

Reims. 

Renfrewshire. 

Rennes. 

Reporting. 

Republic. 

Resorcin. 

Retainer. 

Reunion. 

Reuss. 

Reynard the Fox. 

Rhine Province. 

Rhode Island. 

Rhodium. 



Rhubarb. 

Rice. 

Richmond (Surrey). 

Richmond (Va.). 

Rickets. 

Riding. 

Riesengebirge. 

Rinderpest. 

Rio de Janeiro. 

Rio Grande do Sul (State). 

Riot. 

Ripon. 

Roads and Streets. 

Rochester (Kent). 

Rochester (N.Y.). 

Rodney. 



Rodriguez. 

Roland, Legend of. 

Rome (N.Y.). 

Romulus. 

Root. 

Rosaceae. 

Roscommon, Co. 

Rose. 

Roses, Wars of the. 

Ross and Cromarty. 

Rostock. 

Rothschild. 

Rotterdam. 

Rouen. 

Roulette. 

Roussillon. 



Roxburghshire. 

Rubidium. 

Rubinstein. 

Rflgen. 

Running. 

Russo-Japanese War. 

Rutebeuf. 

Ruthenium. 

Rutland. 

Ryazan. 

Sacramento (Cal.). 

Saffron. 

Saint Albans. 

Saint Andrews. 

St Augustine (Fla.). 

St Denis. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XXIII 



REFECTORY (med. Lat. refectorium, from reficere, to refresh), 
the hall of a monastery, convent, &c, where the religious took 
their chief meals together. There frequently was a sort of 
ambo, approached by steps, from which to read the legenda 
sanctorum, &c, during meals. The refectory was generally 
situated by the side of the S. cloister, so as to be removed from 
the church but contiguous to the kitchen; sometimes it was 
divided down the centre into two aisles, as at Fountains Abbey 
in England, Mont St Michel in France and at Villiers in 
Belgium, and into three aisles as in St Mary's, York, and the 
Bernardines, Paris. The refectory of St Martin-des-Champs 
in Paris is in two aisles, and is now utilized as the library 
of the Ecole des Arts et Metiers. Its wall pulpit, with an 
arcaded staircase in the thickness of the wall, is still in perfect 
preservation. 

REFEREE, a person to whom anything is referred ; an 
arbitrator. The court of referees in England was a court to 
which the House of Commons committed the decision of all 
questions as to the right of petitioners to be heard in opposition 
to private bills. As originally constituted the referees consisted 
of the chairman of ways and means, and other members, the 
Speaker's counsel and several official referees not members of 
the House of Commons. In 1903 the appointment of official 
referees was discontinued. The court now consists of the 
chairman of ways and means, the deputy chairman and not 
less than seven other members of the House appointed by the 
Speaker, and its duty, as defined by a standing order, is to decide 
upon all petitions against private bills, or against provisional 
orders or provisional certificates, as to the rights of the 
petitioners to be heard upon such petitions. In the high court 
of justice, under the Judicature Act 1873, cases may be sub- 
mitted to three official referees, for trial, inquiry and report, or 
.assessment of damages. Inquiry and report may be directed 
"n any case, trial only by consent of the parties, or in any matter 
requiring any prolonged examination of documents or accounts, 
or any scientific or local investigation which cannot be tried in 
*ie ordinary way. 

REFERENDUM and INITIATIVE, two methods by which 
the wishes of the general body of electors in a constitutional 
xxm. 1 



state may be expressed with regard to proposed legislation. 
They are developed to the highest extent in Switzerland, and 
are best exemplified in the Swiss federal and cantonal constitu- 
tions. By these two methods the sovereign people in Switzerland 
(whether in the confederation or in one of its cantons) approve 
or reject the bills and resolutions agreed upon by the legislative 
authority (Referendum), or compel that authority to introduce 
bills on certain specified subjects (Initiative) — in other words, 
exercise the rights of the people as regards their elected repre- 
sentatives at times other than general elections. The Referendum 
means " that which is referred " to the sovereign people, and 
prevailed (up to 1848) in the federal diet, the members of which 
were bound by instructions, all matters outside which being 
taken " ad referendum." A similar system obtained previously 
in the formerly independent confederations of the Grisons and 
of the Valais, in the former case not merely as between the 
Three Leagues, and even the bailiwicks of each within its 
respective league, but also (so far as regards the upper Engadine) 
the communes making up a bailiwick, though in the Valais the 
plan prevailed only as between the seven Zehnten or bailiwicks. 
The Initiative, on the other hand, is the means by which the 
sovereign people can compel its elected representatives to take 
into consideration either some specified object or a draft bill 
relating thereto, the final result of the deliberations of the 
legislature being subject by a referendum vote to the approval 
or rejection of the people. These two institutions therefore 
enable the sovereign people to control the decisions of the 
legislature, without having recourse to a dissolution, or waiting 
for the expiration of its natural term of office. 

As might have been expected, both had been adopted by 
different cantons before they found their way into the federal 
constitution, which naturally has to take account of the sovereign 
rights of the cantons of which it is composed. Further, they (at 
any rate the referendum) were employed in the case of con- 
stitutional matters relating to cantonal constitutions before being 
applied to all or certain specified laws and resolutions. Finally, 
the action of both has been distinctly conservative in the case 
of the confederation, though to a less marked degree in the case of 
the cantons. 

11 



REFLECTION OF LIGHT 



Two forms of the Referendum should be carefully distin- 
guished : the facultative or optional (brought into play only on 
the demand of a fixed number of citizens), and the obligatory 
or compulsory (which obtains in all cases that lie within its 
sphere as defined in the constitution). The Initiative exists 
only in the facultative form, being exercised when a certain 
number of citizens demand it. Both came into common use 
during the Liberal reaction in Switzerland after the Paris 
revolution of July 1830. In 1831 St Gall first adopted the 
" facultative referendum " (then and for some time after called 
the " Veto "), and its example was followed by several cantons 
before 1848. The "obligatory referendum " appears first in 
1852 and 1854 respectively in the Valais and the Grisons, when 
the older system was reformed, but in its modern form it was 
first adopted in 1863 by the canton of rural Basel. The 
Initiative was first adopted in 1845 by Vaud. Of course the 
cantons with Landsgemeinden, Uri, Unterwalden, Appenzell 
and Glarus (where the citizens appear in person) possessed both 
from time immemorial. Excluding these there were at the end 
of 1907 9j cantons, which had the " obligatory referendum " 
(Aargau, rural Basel, Bern, the Grisons, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, 
Soleure, Thurgau, the Valais and Zurich), while 7 J cantons 
possess only the " facultative referendum " (Basel town, Geneva, 
Lucerne, Neuchatel, St Gall, Ticino, Vaud and Zug). Fribourg 
alone had neither, save an obligatory referendum (like all the 
rest) as to the revision of the cantonal constitution. As regards 
the Initiative, all the cantons have it as to the revision of the 
cantonal constitution; while all but Fribourg have it also as 
to bills or legislative projects. In the case both of the facultative 
referendum and of the Initiative each canton fixes the number 
of citizens who have a right to exercise this power. The con- 
stitution of the Swiss confederation lags behind those of the 
cantons. It is true that both in 1848 (art. 113) and in 1874 
(art. 120) it is provided that a vote on the question whether the 
constitution shall be revised must take place if either house of 
the federal legislature or 50,000 qualified voters demand it — 
of course a popular vote (obligatory referendum) must take 
place on the finally elaborated project of revision. But as 
regards bills the case is quite different. The " facultative 
referendum " was not introduced till 1874 (art. 89) and then 
only as regards all bills and resolutions not being of a pressing 
nature, 8 cantons or 30,000 qualified voters being entitled to 
ask for such a popular vote. But the Initiative did not appear 
in the federal constitution till it was inserted in 1891 (art. 121), 
and then merely in the case of a partial (not a total) revision of 
the constitution, if 50,000 qualified voters require it, whether as 
regards a subject in general or a draft bill, — of course the federal 
legislature had an Initiative in this matter in 1848 already. 
The results of the working of these two institutions in federal 
matters up to the end of 1908 are as follows. Excluding the 
votes by which the two federal constitutions of 1848 and 1874 
were adopted, there have been 30 (10 of them between 1848 and 
1874) votes (obligatory referendum) as to amendments of the 
federal constitution; in 15 cases only (of which only one was 
before 1874) did the people accept the amendment proposed. 
In the case of bills there have been 30 votes (very many bills 
have not been attacked at all), all of course since the facultative 
referendum was introduced in 1874; in n cases only have the 
people voted in the affirmative. Finally, with regard to the 
Initiative, there have been 7 votes, of which two only were in the 
affirmative. Thus, between 1874 and 1907, of 57 votes 27 only 
were in the affirmative, while if we include the 10 votes 
between 1848 and 1874 the figures are respectively 67 and 
28, one only having been favourable during that period. 
The result is to show that the people, voting after mature 
reflection, are far less radically disposed than has sometimes 
been imagined. 

The method of referendum by itself is also in use in some 
of the' states of the American Union (see United States) 
and in Australia, and under the name of plebiscite has been 
employed in France; but it is best studied in the Swiss con- 
stitution. 






Q \ 


T 


/? 


M 




K 


N 


S 









Fig. 1. 



Authorities.— W. A. B. Coolidge, "The Early History of the 
Referendum " (article in the English Historical Review for October 
1891); T. Curti, Die schweizeriscken Volksrechte, 1848 bis igoo 
(Bern, 1900) (Fr. trans, by J. Ronjat with additions by the author, 
Paris, 1905) — Curti's earlier work, Geschichte d. schweiz. Volks- 
gesetzgebung (Bern, 1882), is not entirely superseded by his later 
one; S. Deploige, The Referendum in Switzerland, Engl, trans, with 
additional notes (London, 1898); N. Droz, "The Referendum 
in Switzerland " (article in the Contemporary Review, March 1895); 
J. M. Vincent, Government in Switzerland, chaps, v. and xiv. (New 
York and London, 1900). See also, for the United States and 
generally, the American works on the Referendum by E. P. Ober- 
holtzer (1893 and 1900). (W. A. B. C.) 

REFLECTION OF LIGHT. When a ray of light in a homo- 
geneous medium falls upon the bounding surface of another 
medium, part of it is usually turned back or reflected and part 
is scattered, the remainder traversing or being absorbed by the 
second medium. The scattered rays (also termed the irregu- 
larly or diffusely reflected rays) play an important part in 
rendering objects visible — in fact, without diffuse reflection 
non-luminous objects would be invisible; they are occasioned 
by irregularities in the surface, but are governed by the same 
law as holds for regular reflection. This law is: the incident 
and reflected rays make equal angles with the normal to the 
reflecting surface at the point of incidence, and are coplanar 
with the normal. This is equivalent to saying that the path 
of the ray is a minimum. 1 In fig. 1 , MN represents the section 
of a plane mirror; OR is the in- 
cident ray, RP the reflected ray, 
and TR the normal at R. Then 
the law states that the angle of 
incidence ORT equals the angle 
of reflection PRT, and that 
OR, RT and RP are in the same 
plane. 

This natural law is capable of 
ready experimental proof (a simple 
one is to take the altitude of a 
star with a meridian circle, its depression in a horizontal re- 
flecting surface of mercury and the direction of the nadir), 
and the most delicate instruments have failed to detect 
any divergence from it. Its explanation by the Newtonian 
corpuscular theory is very simple, for we have only to 
assume that at the point of impact the perpendicular velocity 
of a corpuscle is reversed, whilst the horizontal velocity 
is unchanged (the mirror being assumed horizontal). The 
wave-theory explanation is more complicated, and in the 
simple form given by Huygens incomplete. The theory as 
developed by Fresnel shows that regular reflection is due 
to a small zone in the neighbourhood of the point R (above), 
there being destructive interference at all other points on 
the mirror; this theory also accounts for the polarization 
of the reflected light when incident at a certain angle (see 
Polarization or Light). The smoothness or polish of the sur- 
face largely controls the reflecting power, for, obviously, crests 
and furrows, if of sufficient magnitude, disturb the phase 
relations. The permissible deviation from smoothness depends 
on the wave-length of the light employed: it appears that 
surfaces smooth to within |th of a wave-length reflect regularly; 
hence long waves may be regularly reflected by a surface 
which diffuses short waves. Also the obliquity of the incidence 
would diminish the effect of any irregularities; this is experi- 
mentally confirmed by observing the images produced by 
matt surfaces or by smoked glass at grazing incidence. 

We now give some elementary constructions of reflected 
rays, or, what comes to the same thing, of images formed 
by mirrors. 

1. If O be a luminous point and OR a ray incident at R on the 
plane mirror MN (fig. 1) to determine the reflected ray and the 
image of O. If RP be the reflected ray and RT perpendicular 

1 This principle of the minimum path, however, only holds for 
plane and convex surfaces; with concave surfaces it may be a 
maximum in certain cases. 



REFLECTION OF LIGHT 




0„ 

— i — 



.£— 2l 



J& 



to MN, then, by the law of reflection, angle ORT=TRP 

or ORM = PRN. Hence draw OQ perpendicular to MN, and 

produce it to S, 
making QS = OQ; 
join SR and produce 
to P. It is easily 
seen that PR and 
OR are equally in- 
clined to RT (or MN). 
A point-eye at P 
would see a point 
object at S, i.e. at 
a distance below the 
mirror equal to its 
height above. If the 
object be a solid, then 
the images of its cor- 
ners are formed by 
taking points at the 
same distances below 
as the corners are 
above the mirror, and 
joining these points. 
The eye, however, 
sees the image per- 
verted, i.e., in the 
same relation as the 
left hand to the 
F IG - 2 - right. Fig. 2 shows 

how an extended object is viewed in a mirror by a natural 

eye. 

2. If A, B be two parallel plane mirrors and O a luminous point 
between them (fig. 3) to determine the images of O all the 

B images must lie 

on the line (pro- 
duced) PQ passing 
through and 
perpendicular to 
the mirrors. Let 
OP = p, OQ = g. 
F Then if O' be 

* IG - 3- the image of O 

in A, 00' = 2/>; now O' has an image O* in B, such that 
00" =OQ+QO" =q+q+2p = 2p+2q; similarly O" has an image 
O'" in A, such that 00'" = 4^+20. In the same way O forms an 
image Oi in B such that OOi = 2q ; Oi has an image Oh in A, such that 
00n = 2p-\-2q; On has an image Om in B, such that 00m = 2^+42, 
and so on. Hence there are an infinite number of images at 
definite distances from the mirrors. This explains the vistas as 
seen, for example, between two parallel mirrors at the ends of a 
room. 

3. If A, B be two plane mirrors inclined at an angle 0, and inter- 
secting at C, and O a luminous point between them, determine the 
position and number of images. 

Call arc OA = o, 0B=/3. The image of O in A, i.e. a', is such 
that Oa' is perpendicular to CA, and Oa' = 2a. Also Ca' = CO; 
and it is easily seen that all the images lie on a circle of centre C 
and radius CO. The image a' forms an image a" in B such that Oa" 
= OB-r-Ba"=|S-|-Ba'=/S-|-OB+Oa' = 2/S+2a = 20. Also a" forms an 
image a'" in A such that Oa'"=OA-|-Aa' = 2a-|-20. And gener- 
ally Oa 2n = 2ra0, Oa 2 " +1 = 2n0-|-2a. In the same way it can be 
shown that the image first formed in B gives foci of the general 
distances: Ob in = 2nB, Ofc 2n+1 = 2n0-|-2/3. The number of images is 
limited, for when any one falls on the arc ab between the mirrors 
produced, it lies behind both mirrors, and hence no further image 
is possible. Suppose a" n be the first image to fall on this arc, then 
arc Oa 2n >OBa, i.e. 2n0>x— a or 2n> (x- a)/0. Similarly if a 2 "" 1 " 1 be 
the first to fall on ab, we obtain 2w+i> (x — a)/0. Hence in both 
cases the number of images is the integer next greater than 
(x — a)/$. In the same way it can be shown that the number of 
images of the 6 series is the integer next greater than (x — /S)/0. 
If x/0 be an integer, then the number ot images of each series is 
x/9, for o/0 and 0/0 are proper fractions. But an image of each 
series coincides; for if x/0 = 2n, we have Oa 2n -|-O6 2n = 2n0-)-2n0 = 2x 
i.e. a 2 " and 6 2n coincide; and if x/0 = 2re+i, we have Oa 2n+1 -|- 
O& 2 »+ 1 = 4n0+2(a+/3) = (4tt+2) = 2x, i.e. a 2o+1 and 6 2n+1 coincide. 
Hence the number of images, including the luminous point, is 2x/0. 
This principle is utilized in the kaleidoscope (q.v.), which produces 
five images by means of its mirrors inclined at 60° (fig. 4). Fig. 5 
shows the seven images formed by mirrors inclined at 45°. 

4. To determine the reflection at a spherical surface. Let APB 
(fig. 6) be a section of a concave spherical mirror through its 
centre and luminous point U. If a ray, say UP, meet the surface, 
it will be reflected along PV, which is coplanar with UP and the 
normal PO at P, and makes the angle VPO = UPO. Hence 
VO/VP=OU/UP. This expression may be simplified if we assume 
P to be very close to A, i.e. that the ray UP is very slightly inclined 
to the axis. Writing A for P, we have VO/AV = OU/AU; and 
calling AU = m, AV = n and A0 = r, this reduces to « _1 +ir 1 = 2»^ 1 . 



This formula connects the distances of the object and image formed 
by a spherical concave mirror with the radius of the mirror. Points 
satisfying this relation are called " conjugate foci," for obviously 
they are reciprocal, i.e. u and v can be interchanged in the formula. 




PlG. 4, 



If « be infinite, as, for example, if the luminous source~.be a star, 
then ir 1 = 2r- 1 , i.e. v = §r. This value is called the focal length of 




Fig. 6. 



the mirror, and the corresponding point, usually denoted by F, 
is called the " principal focus." This formula requires modifica- 
tion for a convex mirror. If u be always considered as positive (v 
may be either positive or negative), r must be regarded as positive 
with concave mirrors and negative with convex. Similarly the 
focal length, having the same sign as r, has different signs in the 
two cases. 

In this formula all distances are measured from the mirror; 
but it is sometimes more convenient to measure from the principal 
focus. If the distances of the object and image from the principal 
focus be x and y, then u = x+f and v = y+f (remembering that j 
is positive for concave and negative for convex mirrors). Sub- 
stituting these values in_«- 1 -(-!r 1 =/- 1 and reducing we obtain xy=p-. 
Since f 2 is always positive, x and y must have the same sign, i.e. 
the object and image must lie on the same side of the principal 
focus. 

We now consider the production of the image of a small object 
placed symmetrically and perpendicular to the axis of a concave 
(fig. 7) and a convex mirror (fig. 8). Let PQ be the object and A 




the vertex of the mirror. Consider the point P. Now a ray through 
P and parallel to the axis after meeting the mirror at M is reflected 
through the focus F. The line MF must therefore contain the image 
of P. Also a ray through P and also through the centre of curva- 
ture C of the mirror is reflected along the same path ; this also con- 
tains the image of P. Hence the image is at P, the intersection 
of the lines MF and PC. Similarly the image of any other point 
can be found, and the final image deduced. We notice that in 
fig. 6 the image is inverted and real, and in fig. 7 erect and virtual. 
The " magnification " or ratio of the size of the image to the object 
can be deduced from the figures by elementary geometry; it equals 
the ratio of the distances of the image and object from the mirror 
or from the centre of curvature of the mirror. 

The positions and characters of the images for objects at varying 



REFORMATION, THE 



distances are shown in the table (F is the principal focus and C the 
centre of curvature of the mirror MA). 

Concave Mirror 



Position of Object.^ 


Position of Image. 


Character of Image. 


oo 

Between °o and C 

C 
Between C and F 
Between F and A 

A 


F 
Between F and C 

C 
Between C and oo 
Between A and - °° 

A 


Real. 

Real.inverted, diminished 
„ „ same size 
„ „ magnified 

Virtual, erect, magnified 

Erect, same size 



Convex Mirror 



Position of Object. Position of Image. Character of Image. 



CO 
Between oo and A 
A 



Between F and A 
A 



Virtual 
Virtual, erect, diminished 
Erect, same size 



The above discussion of spherical mirrors assumes that the 
mirror has such a small aperture that the reflected rays from any 
point unite in a point. This, however, no longer holds when the 
mirror has a wide aperture, and in general the reflected rays envelop 
a caustic (q.v., see also Aberration). The only mirror which can 
sharply reproduce an object-point as an image-point has for its 
section an ellipse, which is so placed that the object and image are 
at its foci. This follows from a property of the curve, viz. the sum 
of the focal distances is constant, and that the focal vectores are 
equally inclined to the normal at the point. More important than 
the elliptical mirror, however, is the parabolic, which has the pro- 
perty of converting rays parallel to .the axis into a pencil through its 
focus; or, inversely, rays from a source placed at the focus are con- 
verted into a parallel beam; hence the use of this mirror in search- 
lights and similar devices. 

REFORMATION, THE. The Reformation, as commonly 
understood, means the religious and political revolution of the 
1 6th century, of which the immediate result was the partial dis- 
ruption of the Western Catholic Church and the establishment 
of various national and territorial churches. These agreed 
in repudiating certain of the doctrines, rites and practices 
of the medieval Church, especially the sacrifice of the Mass 
and the headship of the bishop of Rome, and, whatever their 
official designations, came generally to be known as " Pro- 
testant." In some cases they introduced new systems of 
ecclesiastical organization, and in all they sought to justify 
their innovations by an appeal from the Church's tradition 
to the Scriptures. The conflicts between Catholics and Pro- 
testants speedily merged into the chronic political rivalries, 
domestic and foreign, which distracted the European states; 
and religious considerations played a very important part in 
diplomacy and war for at least a century and a half, from the, 
diet of Augsburg in 1530 to the English revolution and the 
league of Augsburg, 1688-89. The terms " Reformation " 
and "Protestantism" are inherited by the modern historian; 
they are not of his devising, and come to him laden with re- 
miniscences of all the exalted enthusiasms and bitter anti- 
pathies engendered by a period of fervid religious dissension. 
The unmeasured invective of Luther and Aleander has not 
ceased to reecho, and the old issues are by no means dead. 

The heat of controversy is, however, abating, and during 
the past thirty or forty years both Catholic and Protestant 
The lie- investigators have been vying with one another in 
formation adding to our knowledge and in rectifying old mis- 
chfslve'iya ta ^ es ; while an ever-increasing number of writers 
Religious pledged to neither party are aiding in developing an 
Revoiu- idea of the scope and nature of the Reformation which 
tion. differs radically from the traditional one. We now 

appreciate too thoroughly the intricacy of the medieval Church; 
its vast range of activity, secular as well as religious; the 
inextricable interweaving of the civil and ecclesiastical govern- 
ments; the slow and painful process of their divorce as the old 
ideas of the proper functions of the two institutions have changed 
in both Protestant and Catholic lands: we perceive all too 
clearly the limitations of the reformers, their distrust of reason 
and criticism — in short, we know too much about medieval 
institutions and the process of their disintegration longer to 
see in the Reformation an abrupt break in the general history 



of Europe. No one will, of course, question the importance 
of the schism which created the distinction between Protestants 
and Catholics, but it must always be remembered that the 
religious questions at issue comprised a relatively small part 
of the whole compass of human aspirations and conduct, even 
to those to whom religion was especially vital, while a large 
majority of the leaders in literature, art, science and public 
affairs went their way seemingly almost wholly unaffected by 
theological problems. 

That the religious elements in the Reformation have been 
greatly overestimated from a modern point of view can hardly 
be questioned, and one of the most distinguished students 
of Church history has ventured the assertion that " The motives, 
both remote and proximate, which led to the Lutheran revolt 
were largely secular rather than spiritual." " We may," 
continues Mr H. C. Lea, " dismiss the religious changes incident 
to the Reformation with the remark that they were not the 
object sought, but the means for attaining the object. The 
existing ecclesiastical system was the practical evolution of 
dogma, and the overthrow of dogma was the only way to obtain 
permanent relief from the intolerable abuses of that system " 
(Cambridge Modern History, i. 653). It would perhaps be nearer 
the truth to say that the secular and spiritual interests inter- 
mingled and so permeated one another that it is almost im- 
possible to distinguish them clearly even in thought, while in 
practice they were so bewilderingly confused that they were 
never separated, and were constantly mistaken for one another. 

The first step in clarifying the situation is to come to a full 
realization that the medieval Church was essentially an inter- 
national slate, and that the character of the Protestant 
secession from it was largely determined by this fact. * esen »- 
As Maitland suggests: " We could frame no ac- fthe 
ceptable definition of a State which would not com- medieval 
prehend the Church. What has it not that a State f b "^ b 
should have ? It has laws, law givers, law courts, state. 
lawyers. It uses physical force to compel men to obey 
the laws. It keeps prisons. In the 13th century, though with 
squeamish phrases, it pronounced sentence of death. It is 
no voluntary society; if people are not born into it 
they are baptized into it when they cannot help them- 
selves. If they attempt to leave they are guilty of crimen 
laesae majestatis, and are likely to be burned. It is supported 
by involuntary contributions, by tithe and tax " (Canon Law 
in the Church of England, p. 100). The Church was not only 
organized like a modern bureaucracy, but performed many of 
the functions of a modern State. It dominated the intellectual 
and profoundly affected the social interests of western Europe. 
Its economic influence was multiform and incalculable, owing 
to its vast property, its system of taxation and its encourage- 
ment of monasticism. When Luther made his first great 
appeal to the German people in his Address to the German 
Nobility, he scarcely adverts to religious matters at all. He 
deals, on the contrary, almost exclusively with the social, 
financial, educational, industrial and general moral problems 
of the day. If Luther, who above all others had the religious 
issue ever before him, attacks the Church as a source of worldly 
disorder, it is not surprising that his contemporary Ulrich von 
Hutten should take a purely secular view of the issues involved. 
Moreover, in the fascinating collection of popular satires and 
ephemeral pamphlets made by Schade, one is constantly im- 
pressed with the absence of religious fervour, and the highly 
secular nature of the matters discussed. The same may be said 
of the various Gravamina, or lists of grievances against the 
papacy drafted from time to time by German diets. 

But not only is the character of the Reformation differently 
conceived from what it once was; our notions of the process 
of change are being greatly altered. Formerly, mstoric 
writers accounted for the Lutheran movement by so contlnu- 
magnifying the horrors of the pre-existing regime ity of the 
that it appeared intolerable, and its abolition con- ^ etormam 
sequently inevitable. Protestant writers once con- 
tented themselves with a brief caricature 01 the Church, 

23 



REFORMATION, THE 



a superficial account of the traffic in indulgences, and a 
rough and ready assumption, which even Kostlin makes, 
that the darkness was greatest just before the dawn. 
Unfortunately this crude solution of the problem proved 
too much; for conditions were no worse immediately 
before the revolt than they had been for centuries, and 
German complaints of papal tyranny go back to Hildegard 
of Bingen and Walther von der Vogelweide, who antedated 
Luther by more than three centuries. So a new theory is 
logically demanded to explain why these conditions, which were 
chronic, failed to produce a change long before it actually 
occurred. Singularly enough it is the modern Catholic scholars, 
Johannes Janssen above all, who, in their efforts further to 
discredit the Protestant revolt by rehabilitating the institutions 
which the reformers attacked, have done most to explain the 
success of the Reformation. A humble, patient Bohemian 
priest, Hasak, set to work toward half a century ago to bring 
together the devotional works published during the seventy 
years immediately succeeding the invention of printing. Every 
one knows that one at least of these older books, The German 
Theology, was a great favourite of Luther's; but there are 
many more in Hasak's collection which breathe the same spirit 
of piety and spiritual emulation. Building upon the founda- 
tions laid by Hasak and other Catholic writers who have been 
too much neglected by Protestant historians, Janssen pro- 
duced a monumental work in defence of the German Church 
before Luther's defection. He exhibits the great achievements 
of the latter part of the 15th and the early portion of the 16th 
centuries; the art and literature, the material prosperity of 
the towns and the fostering of the spiritual fife of the people. 
It may well be that his picture is too bright, and that in his 
obvious anxiety to prove the needlessness of an ecclesiastical 
revolution he has gone to the opposite extreme from the Pro- 
testants. Yet this rehabilitation of pre-Reformation Germany 
cannot but make a strong appeal to the unbiased historical 
student who looks to a conscientious study of the antecedents 
of the revolt as furnishing the true key to the movement. 

Outwardly the Reformation would seem to have begun when, 
on the 10th of December 1520, a professor in the university 
Revolt °^ Wittenberg invited all the friends of evangelical 
of the truth among his students to assemble outside the 

various wall at the ninth hour to witness a pious spectacle — 
a, ™™* fl the burnin g of the "godless book of the papal 
meats decrees." He committed to the flames the whole 
from the body of the canon law, together with an edict of 
papal the head of the Church which had recently been 
moaarc y. j ssue( j against his teachings. In this manner Martin 
Luther, with the hearty sympathy of a considerable number 
of his countrymen, publicly proclaimed and illustrated his 
repudiation of the papal government under which western 
Europe had lived for centuries. Within a genera- 
tion after this event the states of north Germany and 
Scandinavia, England, Scotland, the Dutch Netherlands and 
portions of Switzerland, had each in its particular manner 
permanently seceded from the papal monarchy. France, after 
a long period of uncertainty and disorder, remained faithful to 
the bishop of Rome. Poland, after a defection of years, was 
ultimately recovered for the papacy by the zeal and devo- 
tion of the Jesuit missionaries. In the Habsburg hereditary 
dominions the traditional policy and Catholic fervour of the 
ruling house resulted, after a long struggle, in the restoration of 
the supremacy of Rome; while in Hungary the national spirit 
of independence kept Calvinism alive to divide the religious 
allegiance of the people. In Italy and Spain, on the other 
hand, the rulers, who continued loyal to the pope, found 
little difficulty in suppressing any tendencies of revolt on the 
part of the few converts to the new doctrines. Individuals, 
often large groups, and even whole districts, had indeed earlier 
rejected some portions of the Roman Catholic faith, or refused 
obedience to the ecclesiastical government; but previously to 
the burning of the canon law by Luther no prince had openly 
and permanently cast off his allegiance to the international 



ecclesiastical state of which the bishop of Rome was head. Now, 
a prince or legislative assembly that accepted the doctrine of 
Luther, that the temporal power had been " ordained by God 
for the chastisement of the wicked and the protection of the 
good " and must be permitted to exercise its functions " un- 
hampered throughout the whole Christian body, without respect 
to persons, whether it strikes popes, bishops, priests, monks, 
nuns, or whoever else " — such a government could proceed to 
ratify such modifications of the Christian faith as appealed to 
it in a particular religious confession; it could order its subject 
to conform to the innovations, and could expel, persecute or 
tolerate dissenters, as seemed good to it. A " reformed " 
prince could seize the property of the monasteries, and appro- 
priate such ecclesiastical foundations as he desired. He could 
make rules for the selection of the clergy, disregarding the 
ancient canons of the Church and the claims of the pope to the 
right of ratification. He could cut off entirely all forms of 
papal taxation and put an end to papal jurisdiction. The 
personnel, revenue, jurisdiction, ritual, even the faith of the 
Church, were in this way placed under the complete control 
of the territorial governments. This is the central and sig- 
nificant fact of the so-called Reformation. Wholly novel and 
distinctive it is not, for the rulers of Catholic countries, like 
Spain and France, and of England (before the publication of the 
Act of Supremacy) could and did limit the pope's claims to 
unlimited jurisdiction, patronage 'and taxation, and they 
introduced the placet forbidding the publication within their 
realms of papal edicts, decisions and orders, without the express 
sanction of the government — in short, in many ways tended 
to approach the conditions in Protestant lands. The Reforma- 
tion was thus essentially a stage in the disengaging of the 
modern state from that medieval, international ecclesiastical 
state which had its beginning in the ecclesia of the Acts of the 
Apostles. An appreciation of the issues of the Reformation— 
or Protestant revolt, as it might be more exactly called — depends 
therefore upon an understanding of the development of the papal 
monarchy, the nature of its claims, the relations it established 
with the civil powers, the abuses which developed in it and the 
attempts to rectify them, the sources of friction between the 
Church and the government, and finally the process by which 
certain of the European states threw off their allegiance to 
the Christian commonwealth, of which they had so long formed 
a part. 

It is surprising to observe how early the Christian Church 
assumed the form of a state, and how speedily upon entering 
into its momentous alliance with the Roman imperial Character 
government under Constantine it acquired the chief otthe 
privileges and prerogatives it was so long to retain. Monarchy 
In the twelfth book of the Theodosian Code we see and its 
the foundations of the medieval Church already laid; claims. 
for it was the 4th, not the 13th century that established the 
principle that defection from the Church was a crime in the 
eyes of the State, and raised the clergy to a privileged class, 
exempted from the ordinary taxes, permitted under restrictions 
to try its own members and to administer the wealth which 
flowed into its coffers from the gifts of the faithful. The 
bishop of Rome, who had from the first probably enjoyed a 
leading position in the Church as " the successor of the two 
most glorious of the apostles," elaborated his claims to be the 
divinely appointed head of the ecclesiastical organization. 
Siricius (384-380), Leo the Great (440-461), and Gelasius I. 
(492-496) left little for their successors to add to the arguments 
in favour of the papal supremacy. In short, if we recall the 
characteristics of the Church in the West from the times of Con- 
stantine to those of Theodoric — its reliance upon the civil power 
for favours and protection, combined with its assumption of a 
natural superiority over the civil power and its innate tendency 
to monarchical unity — it becomes clear that Gregory VII. 
in his effort in the latter half of the nth century to establish 
the papacy as the great central power of western Europe was 
in the main only reaffirming and developing old claims in a 
new world. His brief statement of the papal powers as he 



REFORMATION, THE 



conceived them is found in his Dictatus. The bishop of Rome, 
who enjoys a unique title, that of "pope," may annul the 
decrees of all other powers, since he judges all but is judged by 
none. He may depose emperors and absolve the subjects of 
the unjust from their allegiance. Gregory's position was almost 
inexpugnable at a time when it was conceded by practically all 
that spiritual concerns were incalculably more momentous than 
secular, that the Church was rightly one and indivisible, with 
one divinely revealed faith and a system of sacraments abso- 
lutely essential to salvation. No one called in question the 
claim of the clergy to control completely all " spiritual " matters. 
Moreover, the mightiest secular ruler was but a poor sinner 
dependent for his eternal welfare en the Church and its head, 
the pope, who in this way necessarily exercised an indirect 
control over the civil government, which even the emperor 
Henry IV. and William the Conqueror would not have been 
disposed to deny. They would also have conceded the pope 
the right to play the r61e of a secular ruler in his own lands, as 
did the German bishops, and to dispose of such fiefs as reverted 
to him. This class of prerogatives, as well as the right which 
the pope claimed to ratify the election of the emperor, need not 
detain us, although they doubtless served in the long run to 
weaken the papal power. But the pope laid claim to a direct 
power over the civil governments. Nicholas II. (1058-1061) 
declared that Jesus had conferred on Peter the control (jura) 
of an earthly as well as of a heavenly empire; and this phrase 
was embodied in the canon law. Innocent III., a century and 
a half later, taught that James the brother of the Lord left to 
Peter not only the government of the whole Church, but that 
of the whole world (totum seculum gubemandum) } So the 
power of the pope no longer rested upon his headship of the 
Church or his authority as a secular prince, but on a far more 
comprehensive claim to universal dominion. There was no 
reason why the bishop of Rome should justify such acts as 
Innocent himself performed in deposing King John of England 
and later in annulling Magna Carta; or Gregory IV. when he 
struck out fourteen articles from the Sachsenspiegel; or 
Nicholas V. when he invested Portugal with the right to sub- 
jugate all peoples on the Atlantic coast; or Julius II. when 
he threatened to transfer the kingdom of France to England ; 
or the conduct of those later pontiffs who condemned the 
treaties of Westphalia, the Austrian constitution of 1867 and 
the establishment of the kingdom of Italy. The theory and 
practice of papal absolutism was successfully promulgated 
by Gratian in his Decretum, completed at Bologna about 1142. 
This was supplemented by later collections composed mainly 
of papal decretals. (See Canon Law and Decretals, False.) 
As every fully equipped university had its faculty of canon 
law in which the Corpus juris canonici was studied, Rashdall 
is hardly guilty of exaggeration when he says: " By means 
of the happy thought of the Bolognese monk the popes were 
enabled to convert the new-born universities — the offspring 
of that intellectual new birth of Europe which might have 
been so formidable an enemy to the papal pretensions — into 
so many engines for the propagation of Ultramontane ideas." 
Thomas Aquinas was the first theologian to describe the Church 
as a divinely organized absolute monarchy, whose head con- 
centrated in his person the entire authority of the Church, and 
was the' source of all the ecclesiastical law (conditor juris), 
issuing the decrees of general councils in his own name, and 
claiming the right to revoke or modify the decrees of former 
councils — indeed, to make exceptions or to set aside altogether 
anything which did not rest upon the dictates of divine or 
natural law. In practice the whole of western Europe was 
subject to the jurisdiction of one tribunal of last resort, the 
Roman Curia. The pope claimed the right to tax church 
property throughout Christendom. He was able to exact an 
oath of fidelity from the archbishops, named many of the 
bishops, and asserted the right to transfer and dispose them. 
The organs of this vast monarchy were the papal Curia, which 
first appears distinctly in the nth century (see Cukia Romana), 
'See further, Innocent III. 



and the legates, who visited the courts of Europe as haughty 
representatives of the central government of Christendom. 

It should always be remembered that the law of the Church 
was regarded by all lawyers in the later middle ages as the law 
common to all Europe (jus commune). The laws of Relations 
the Carolingian empire provided that one excom- "tthe 
municated by the Church who did not make his peace ticai'and 
within a year and a day should be outlawed, and this civil gov 
general principle was not lost sight of. It was a capital emments. 
offence in the eyes of the State to disagree with the teachings 
of the Church, and these, it must be remembered, included 
a recognition of the papal supremacy. The civil authorities 
burnt an obstinate heretic, condemned by the Church, without a 
thought of a new trial. The emperor Frederick IL's edicts and 
the so-called etablissemenls of St Louis provide that the civil 
officers should search out suspected heretics and deliver them 
to the ecclesiastical judges. The civil government recognized 
monastic vows by regarding a professed monk as civilly dead and 
by pursuing him and returning him to his monastery if he 
violated his pledges of obedience and ran away. The State 
recognized the ecclesiastical tribunals and accorded them a 
wide jurisdiction that we should now deem essentially secular 
in its nature. The State also admitted that large classes of 
its citizens — the clergy, students, crusaders, widows and the 
miserable and helpless in general — were justiceable only by 
Church tribunals. By the middle of the 13th century many 
lawyers took the degree of doctor of both laws (J.U.D.), civil 
and canon, and practised both. As is well known, temporal 
rulers constantly selected clergymen as their most trusted 
advisers. The existence of this theocratic international state 
was of course conditioned by the weakness of the civil govern- 
ment. So long as feudal monarchy continued, the Church 
supplied to some extent the deficiencies of the turbulent and 
ignorant princes by endeavouring to maintain order, administer 
justice, protect the weak and encourage learning. So soon as 
the modern national state began to gain strength, the issue 
between secular rulers and the bishops of Rome took a new form. 
The clergy naturally stoutly defended the powers which they 
had long enjoyed and believed to be rightly theirs. On the 
other hand, the State, which could count upon the support of an • 
ever-increasing number of prosperous and loyal subjects, sought 
to protect its own interests and showed itself less and less 
inclined to tolerate the extreme claims of the pope. Moreover, 
owing to the spread of education, the king was no longer obliged 
to rely mainly upon the assistance of the clergy in conducting 
his government. 

The chief sources of friction between Church and State were 
four in number. First, the growth of the practice of " reserva- 
tion " and " provision," by which the popes assumed the right 
to appoint their own nominees to vacant sees and other benefices, 
in defiance of the claims of the crown, the chapters and private 
patrons. In the case of wealthy bishoprics or abbacies this 
involved a serious menace to the secular authority. Both pope 
and king were naturally anxious to place their own friends and 
supporters in these influential positions. The pope, moreover, 
had come to depend to a considerable extent for his revenue 
upon the payments made by his nominees, which represented 
a corresponding drain on the resources of the secular states. 
Secondly, there was the great question, how far the lands and 
other property of the clergy should be subject to taxation. Was 
this vast amount of property to increase indefinitely without 
contribution to the maintenance of the secular government? 
A decretal of Innocent III. permitted the clergy to make 
voluntary contributions to the king when there was urgent 
necessity, and the resources of the laity had proved inadequate. 
But the pope maintained that, except in the most critical cases, 
his consent must be obtained for such grants. Thirdly, there 
was the inevitable jealousy between the secular and ecclesiastical 
courts and the serious problem of the exact extent of the original 
and appellate jurisdiction of the Roman Curia. Fourthly, and 
lastly, there was the most fundamental difficulty of all, the 
extent to which the pope, as the universally acknowledged head 



REFORMATION, THE 



of the Church, was justified in interfering in the internal affairs 
of particular states. Unfortunately, most matters could be 
viewed from both a secular and religious standpoint; and even 
in purely secular affairs the claims of the pope to at least indirect 
control were practically unlimited. The specific nature of the 
abuses which flourished in the papal monarchy, the unsuccessful 
attempts to remedy them, and the measures taken by the chief 
European states to protect themselves will become apparent as 
we hastily review the principal events of the 14th and 15th 
centuries. 

As one traces the vicissitudes of the papacy during the two 
centuries from Boniface VIII. to Leo X. one cannot fail to be 
The impressed with the almost incredible strength of the 

papacy In ecclesiastical state which had been organized and 
the 14th fortified by Gregory VII., Alexander III., Innocent III. 
century. anc j Q re g 0r y jx. In spite of the perpetuation of 
all the old abuses and the continual appearance of new 
devices for increasing the papal revenue; in spite of 
the jealousy of kings and princes, the attacks of legists 
and the preaching of the heretics; in spite of seventy 
years of exile from the holy city, forty years of distract- 
ing schism and discord, and thirty years of conflict with 
stately oecumenical councils deliberating in the name of the 
Holy Spirit and intent upon permanently limiting the papal 
prerogatives; in spite of the unworthy conduct of some of those 
who ascended the papal throne, their flagrant political ambitions, 
and their greed; in spite of the spread of knowledge, old and 
new, the development of historical criticism, and philosophical 
speculation; in spite, in short, of every danger which could 
threaten the papal monarchy, it was still intact when Leo X. 
died in 1521. Nevertheless, permanent if partial dissolution 
was at hand, for no one of the perils which the popes had 
seemingly so successfully overcome had failed to weaken the 
constitution of their empire; and it is impossible to comprehend 
its comparatively sudden disintegration without reckoning with 
the varied hostile forces which were accumulating and com- 
bining strength during the 14th and 15th centuries. The first 
serious conflict that arose between the developing modern state 
and the papacy centred about the pope's claim that the property 
of the clergy was normally exempt from royal taxation. 
Boniface VIII. was forced to permit Edward I. and Philip the 
Fair to continue to demand and receive subsidies granted by the 
clergy of their realms. Shortly after the bitter humiliation of 
Boniface by the French government and his death in 1303, the 
bishop of Bordeaux was elected pope as Clement V. (1305)- He 
preferred to remain in France, and as the Italian cardinals died 
they were replaced by Frenchmen. The papal court was 
presently established at Avignon, on the confines of France, 
where it remained until 1377. While the successors of Clement V. 
were not so completely under the control of the French kings 
as has often been alleged, the very proximity of the curia to 
France served inevitably to intensify national jealousies. The 
claims of John XXII. (1316-1334) to control the election of the 
emperor called forth the first fundamental and critical attack 
on the papal monarchy, by Marsiglio of Padua, who declared in 
his Defensor pads (1324) that the assumed supremacy of the 
bishop of Rome was without basis, since it was very doubtful 
if Peter was ever in Rome, and in any case there was no evidence 
that he had transmitted any exceptional prerogatives to 
succeeding bishops. But Marsiglio's logical and elaborate 
justification for a revolt against the medieval Church produced 
no perceptible effects. The removal of the papal court from 
Rome to Avignon, however, not only reduced its prestige but 
increased the pope's chronic financial embarrassments, by 
cutting off the income from his own dominions, which he could 
no longer control, while the unsuccessful wars waged by John 
XXII., the palace building and the notorious luxury of some 
of his successors, served enormously to augment the expenses. 
Various devices were resorted to, old and new, to fill the treasury. 
The fees of the Curia were raised for the numberless favours, 
dispensations, absolutions, and exemptions of all kinds which 
were sought by clerics and laymen. The right claimed by the 



pope to fill benefices of all kinds was extended, and the amount 
contributed to the pope by his nominees amounted to from a 
third to a half of the first year's revenue (see Annates). Boni- 
face VIII. had discovered a rich source of revenue in the jubilee, 
and in the jubilee indulgences extended to those who could not 
come to Rome. Clement VI. reduced the period between these 
lucrative occasions from one hundred to fifty years, and Urban 
VI. determined in 1389 that they should recur at least once in a 
generation (every thirty-three years). Church offices, high and 
low, were regarded as investments from which the pope had his 
commission. 

England showed itself better able than other countries to 
defend itself against the papal control of church preferment. 
From 1343 onward, statutes were passed by parliament England 
forbidding any one to accept a papal provision, and and the 
cutting off all appeals to the papal curia or ecclesias- papacy In 
tical courts in cases involving benefices. Neverthe- the j^ tb 
less, as a statute of 1379 complains, benefices 
continued to be given " to divers people of another language 
and of strange lands and nations, and sometimes to actual 
enemies of the king and of his realm, which never made 
residence in this same, nor cannot, may not, nor will not 
in any wise bear and perform the charges of the same 
benefice in hearing confessions, preaching or teaching the 
people." When, in 1365, Innocent VI. demanded that the 
arrears of the tribute promised by King John to the pope should 
be paid up, parliament abrogated the whole contract on the 
ground that John had no right to enter into it. A species of 
anti-clerical movement, which found an unworthy leader in 
John of Gaunt, developed at this time. The Good Parliament of 
1376 declared that, in spite of the laws restricting papal pro- 
visions, the popes at Avignon received five times as much 
revenue from England as the English kings themselves. 
Secularization was mentioned in parliament. Wycliffe began 
his public career in 1366 by proving that England was not 
bound to pay tribute to the pope. Twelve years later he was, 
like Marsiglio, attacking the very foundations of the papacy 
itself, as lacking all scriptural sanction. He denounced the 
papal government as utterly degraded, and urged that the vast 
property of the Church, which he held to be the chief cause of 
its degradation, should be secularized and that the clergy should 
consist of " poor priests," supported only by tithes and alms. 
They should preach the gospel and encourage the people to seek 
the truth in the Scriptures themselves, of which a translation 
into English Was completed in 1382. During the later years 
of his life he attacked the doctrine of transubstantiation, and 
all the most popular institutions of the Church — indulgences, 
pilgrimages, invocation of the saints, relics, celibacy of the clergy, 
auricular confession, &c. His opinions were spread abroad by 
the hundreds of sermons and popular pamphlets written in 
English for the people (see Wycliffe). For some years after 
Wycliffe's death his followers, the Lollards, continued to carry 
on his work; but they roused the effective opposition of the 
conservative clergy, and were subjected to a persecution which 
put an end to their public agitation. They rapidly disappeared 
and, except in Bohemia, Wycliffe's teachings left no clearly 
traceable impressions. Yet the discussions he aroused, the 
attacks he made upon the institutions of the medieval Church, 
and especially the position he assigned to the Scriptures as the 
exclusive source of revealed truth, serve to make the develop- 
ment of Protestantism under Henry VIII. more explicable than 
it would otherwise be. 

Wycliffe's later attacks upon the papacy had been given 
point by the return of the popes to Rome in 1377 and the 
opening of the Great Schism which was to endure The q^^ 
for forty years. There had been many anti-popes in Schism 
the past, but never before had there been such pro- U377- 
longed and genuine doubt as to which of two fines ^' 
of popes was legitimate, since in this case each was supported 
by a college of cardinals, the one at Rome, the other at Avignon. 
Italy, except Naples, took the side of the Italian pope; France, 
of the Avignon pope; England, in its hostility to France, 



8 



REFORMATION, THE 



sided with Urban VI. in Rome, Scotland with Clement VII., 
his rival; Flanders followed England; Urban secured Germany, 
Hungary and the northern kingdoms; while Spain, after re- 
maining neutral for a time, went over to Clement. Western 
Christendom had now two papal courts^to support. The schism 
extended down to the bishoprics, and even to the monasteries 
and parishes, where partisans of the rival popes struggled to 
obtain possession of sees and benefices. The urgent necessity 
for healing the schism, the difficulty of uniting the colleges 
of cardinals, and the prolonged and futile negotiations carried 
on between the rival popes inevitably raised the whole question 
of the papal supremacy, and led to the search for a still higher 
ecclesiastical authority, which, when the normal system of 
choosing the head of the Church broke down, might re-establish 
that ecclesiastical unity to which all Europe as yet clung. 
The idea of the supreme power on earth of a general council 
of Christendom, deliberating in the name of the Holy Spirit, 
convoked, if necessary, independently of the popes, was de- 
fended by many, and advocated by the university of Paris. 
The futile council of Pisa in 1409, however, only served to 
increase to three the number of rival representatives of God 
on earth. The considerable pamphlet literature of the time 
substantiates the conclusion of an eminent modern Catholic 
historian, Ludwig Pastor, who declares that the crisis through 
which the church passed in this terrible period of the schism 
was the most serious in all its history. It was at just this 
period, when the rival popes were engaged in a life-and-death 
struggle, that heretical movements appeared in England, 
France, Italy, Germany, and especially in Bohemia, which 
threatened the whole ecclesiastical order. 

The council of Constance assembled in 1414 under auspices 
hopeful not only for the extinction of the schism but for the 

T . general reform of the Church. Its members showed 

The ° ...... . 

councils no patience with doctrinal innovations, even such 

of Con- moderate ones as John Huss represented. They 
s( *"g . turned him over to the secular arm for execution, 
although they did not thereby succeed in check- 
ing the growth of heresy in Bohemia (see Huss). The 
healing of the schism proved no very difficult matter; 
but the council hoped not only to restore unity and 
suppress heresy, but to re-establish general councils as 
a regular element in the legislation of the Church. The 
decree Sacrosancta (April 1415) proclaimed that a general 
council assembled in the Holy Spirit and representing the 
Catholic Church militant had its power immediately from 
Christ, and was supreme over every one in the Church, 
not excluding the pope, in all matters pertaining to the faith 
and reformation of the Church of God in head and members. 
The decree Frequens (October 141 7) provided for the regular 
convocation of councils in the future. As to ecclesiastical 
abuses the council could do very little, and finally satisfied 
itself with making out a list of those which the new pope was 
required to remedy in co-operation with the deputies chosen 
by the council. The list serves as an excellent summary of 
the evils of the papal monarchy as recognized by the unim- 
peachably orthodox. It included: the number, character 
and nationality of the cardinals, the abuse of the " reserva- 
tions " made by the apostolic see, the annates, the collation 
to benefices, expectative favours, cases to be brought before 
the papal Curia (including appeals), functions of the papal 
chancery and penitentiary, benefices in commendam, con- 
firmation of elections, income during vacancies, indulgences, 
tenths, for what reasons and how is a pope to be corrected or 
deposed. The pope and the representatives of the council 
made no serious effort to remedy the abuses suggested under 
these several captions; but the idea of the superiority of a 
council over the pope, and the right of those who felt aggrieved 
by papal decisions to appeal to a future council, remained a 
serious menace to the theory of papal absolutism. The decree 
Frequens was not wholly neglected; though the next council, 
at Siena, came to naught, the council at Basel, whose chief 
business was to put an end to the terrible religious war that 



had been raging between the Bohemians and Germans, was 
destined to cause Eugenius IV. much anxiety. It reaffirmed 
the decree Sacrosancta, and refused to recognize the validity 
of a bull Eugenius issued in December 143 1 dissolving it. 
Two years later political reverses forced the pope to sanction 
the existence of the council, which not only concluded a treaty 
with the Bohemian heretics but abolished the papal fees for 
appointments, confirmation and consecration— above all, the 
annates — and greatly reduced papal reservations; it issued 
indulgences, imposed tenths, and established rules for the 
government of the papal states. France, however, withdrew 
its support from the council, and in 1438, under purely national 
auspices, by the famous Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, ad- 
justed the relations of the Gallican Church to the papacy; and 
Eugenius soon found himself in a position to repudiate the 
council and summoned a new one to assemble in 1438 at Ferrara 
under his control to take up the important question of the 
pending union with the Greek Church. The higher clergy 
deserted the council of Basel, and left matters in the hands of 
the lower clergy, who chose an anti-pope; but the rump council 
gradually lost credit and its lingering members were finally 
dispersed. The various nations were left to make terms with 
a reviving papacy. England had already taken measures to 
check the papal claims. France in the Pragmatic Sanction 
reformulated the claim of the councils to be superior to the 
pope, as well as the decision of the council of Basel in regard 
to elections, annates and other dues, limitations on ecclesi- 
astical jurisdiction, and appeals to the pope. While the 
canonical elections were re-established, the prerogatives of the 
crown were greatly increased, as in England. In short, the 
national ecclesiastical independence of the French Church was 
established. The German diet of Regensburg (1439) ratified 
in the main the decrees of the council of Basel, which clearly 
gratified the electors, princes and prelates; and Germany for 
the first time joined the ranks of the countries which subjected 
the decrees of the highest ecclesiastical instance to the placet 
or approval of the civil authorities. But there was no strong 
power, as in England and France, to attend to the execution 
of the provisions. 

In 1448 Eugenius's successor, Nicholas V., concluded a con- 
cordat with the emperor Frederick III. as representative 
of the German nation. This confined itself to papal 
appointments and the annates. In practice it restored and'the 
the former range of papal reservations, and extended papacy in 
the papal right of appointment to all benefices (except thelsth 
the higher offices in cathedrals and collegiate churches) 
which fell vacant during the odd months. It also accorded him 
the right to confirm all newly elected prelates and to receive 
the annates. Nothing was said in the concordat of a great 
part of the chief subjects of complaint. This gave the princes 
an excuse for the theory that the decrees of Constance and 
Basel were still in force, limiting the papal prerogatives in all 
respects not noticed in the concordat. It was Germany which 
gave the restored papacy the greatest amount of anxiety during 
the generation following the dissolution of the council of Basel. 
In the " recesses " or formal statements issued at the con- 
clusion of the sessions of the diet one can follow the trend of 
opinion among the German princes, secular and ecclesiastical. 
The pope is constantly accused of violating the concordat, and 
constant demands are made for a general council, or at least 
a national one, which should undertake to remedy the abuses. 
The capture of Constantinople by the Turks afforded a new 
excuse for papal taxation. In 1453 a crusading bull was issued 
imposing a tenth on all benefices of the earth to equip an 
expedition against the infidel. The diet held at Frankfort in 

1456 recalled the fact that the council of Constance had for- 
bidden the pope to impose tenths without the consent of the 
clergy in the region affected, and that it was clear that he 
proposed to " pull the German sheep's fleece over its ears." 
A German correspondent of Aeneas Sylvius assures him in 

1457 that " thousands of tricks are devised by the Roman 
see which enables it to extract the money from our pockets very 



REFORMATION, THE 



neatly, as if we were mere barbarians. Our nation, once so 
famous, is a slave now, who must pay tribute, and has lain in the 
dust these many years bemoaning her fate." Aeneas Sylvius 
issued, immediately after his accession to the papacy as Pius II. 
the bull Execrabilis forbidding all appeals to a future council. 
This seemed to Germany to cut off its last hope. It found a 
spokesman in the vigorous Gregory of Heimburg, who accused 
the pope of issuing the bull so that he and his cardinals might 
conveniently pillage Germany unhampered by the threat of 
a council. " By forbidding appeals to a council the pope 
treats us like slaves, and wishes to take for his own pleasures 
all that we and our ancestors have accumulated by honest 
labour. He calls me a chatterer, although he himself is more 
talkative than a magpie." Heimburg's denunciations of the 
pope were widely circulated, and in spite of the major excom- 
munication he was taken into the service of the archbishop of 
Mainz and was his representative at the diet of Nuremberg in 
1462. It is thus clear that motives which might ultimately 
lead to the withdrawal of a certain number of German 
princes from the papal ecclesiastical state were accumulat- 
ing and intensifying during the latter half of the 15th 
century. 

It is impossible to review here the complicated political 
history of the opening years of the 16th century. The 
Con- names of Charles VIII. and Louis XII. of France, of 

ditioas la Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, of Henry VII. and 
a uh" ny Henr y VIIL of England, of Maximilian the German 
opening ot ki n g> of Popes Alexander VI., Julius II. and Leo X., 
the 16m stand for better organized civil governments, with 
century. growing powerful despotic heads; for a perfectly 
worldly papacy absorbed in the interests of an Italian prin- 
cipality, engaged in constant political negotiations with the 
European powers which are beginning to regard Italy as their 
chief field of rivalry, and are using its little states as convenient 
counters in their game of diplomacy and war. It was in Ger- 
many, however, seemingly the weakest and least aggressive of the 
European states, that the first permanent and successful revolts 
against the papal monarchy occurred. Nothing came of the lists 
of German gravamina, or of the demands for a council, so long 
as the incompetent Frederick III. continued to reign. His 
successor, Maximilian, who was elected emperor in 1493, was 
mainly preoccupied with his wars and attempts to reform the 
constitution of the empire; but the diet gave some attention 
to ecclesiastical reform. For instance, in 1501 it took measures 
to prevent money raised by the granting of a papal indulgence 
from leaving the country. After the disruption of the league of 
Cambray, Maximilian, like Louis XII., was thrown into a violent 
anti-curial reaction, and in 1510 he sent to the well-known 
humanist, Joseph Wimpheling, a copy of the French Pragmatic 
Sanction, asking his advice and stating that he had determined 
to free Germany from the yoke of the Curia and prevent the 
great sums of money from going to Rome. Wimpheling in his 
reply rehearsed the old grievances and complained that the 
contributions made to the pope by the archbishops on receiving 
the pallium was a great burden on the people. He stated that 
that of the archbishop of Mainz had been raised from ten to 
twenty-five thousand gulden, and that there had been seven 
vacancies within a generation, and consequently the subjects 
of the elector had been forced to pay that amount seven times. 
But Wimpheling had only some timid suggestions to make, and, 
since Maximilian was once more on happy terms with the pope, 
political considerations served to cool completely his momentary 
ardour for ecclesiastical reform. In 15 14 the archbishopric 
of Mainz fell vacant again, and Albert of Brandenburg, already 
archbishop of Magdeburg and administrator of Halberstadt, 
longing to add it to his possessions, was elected. After some 
scandalous negotiations with Leo X. it was arranged that 
Albert should pay 14,000 ducats for the papal confirmation and 
10,000 as a " composition " for permission to continue to hold, 
against the rules of the Church, his two former archbishoprics. 
Moreover, in order to permit him to pay the sums, he was to 
have half the proceeds in his provinces from an indulgence 



granted to forward the rebuilding of St Peter's. A Dominican 
monk, Johann Tetzel, was selected to proclaim the indulgence 
(together with certain supplementary graces) in the three 
provinces of the elector. This suggestion came from the curia, 
not the elector, whose representatives could not suppress the 
fear that the plan would arouse opposition and perhaps worse. 
Tetzel's preaching and the exaggerated claims that he was re- 
ported to be making for the indulgences attracted the attention 
of an Augustinian friar, Martin Luther, who had for some 
years been lecturing on theology at the university of Wittenberg. 
He found it impossible to reconcile Tetzel's views of indulgences 
with his own fundamental theory of salvation. He accordingly 
hastily drafted ninety-five propositions relating to indulgences, 
and posted an invitation to those who wished to attend a 
disputation in Wittenberg on the matter, under his presidency. 
He points out the equivocal character of the word poenitentia, 
which meant both "penance" and "penitence"; he declared 
that " true contrition seeks punishment, while the ampleness 
of pardons relaxes it and causes men to hate it." Christians 
ought to be taught that he who gives to a poor man or lends to 
the needy does better than if he bought pardons. He concludes 
with certain " keen questionings of the laity," as, Why does 
not the pope empty purgatory forthwith for charity's sake, 
instead of cautiously for money ? Why does he not, since he 
is rich as Croesus, build St Peter's with his own money instead 
of taking that of poor believers ? It was probably these closing 
reflections which led to the translation of the theses from Latin 
into German, and their surprising circulation. It must not be 
assumed that Luther's ninety-five theses produced any con- 
siderable direct results. They awakened the author himself 
to a consciousness that his doctrines were after all incompatible 
with some of the Church's teachings, and led him to consider 
the nature of the papal power which issued the indulgence. 
Two or three years elapsed before Luther began to be 
generally known and to exercise a perceptible influence upon 
affairs. 

In July 1518 a diet assembled in Augsburg to consider the 
new danger from the Turks, who were making rapid conquests 
under Sultan Selim I. The pope's representative, The diet ot 
Cardinal Cajetan, made it clear that the only safety Augsburg 
lay in the collection of a tenth from the clergy otisis. 
and a twentieth from laymen; but the diet appointed a 
committee to consider the matter and explain why they pro- 
posed to refuse the pope's demands. Protests urging the diet 
not to weaken came in from all sides. There was an especially 
bitter denunciation of the Curia by some unknown writer. He 
claims that " the pope bids his collectors go into the whole 
world, saying, ' He that believeth, and payeth the tenths, shall 
be saved.' But it is not necessary to stand in such fear of the 
thunder of Christ's vicar, but rather to fear Christ Himself, 
for it is the Florentine's business, not Christ's, that is at issue." 
The report of the committee of the diet was completed on the 
27th of August 1518. It reviews all the abuses, declares that 
the German people are the victims of war, devastation and 
dearth, and that the common man is beginning to comment 
on the vast amount of wealth that is collected for expeditions 
against the Turk through indulgences or otherwise, and yet no 
expedition takes place. This is the first recognition in the 
official gravamina of the importance of the people. Shortly 
after the committee submitted its report the clergy of Liege 
presented a memorial which, as the ambassador from Frankfort 
observed, set forth in the best Latin all the various forms of 
rascality of which the curtizanen (i.e. curiales, officials of the 
curia) were guilty. From this time on three new streams begin 
to reinforce the rather feeble current of official efforts for reform. 
The common man, to whom the diet of Augsburg alludes, had 
long been raising his voice against the "parsons" (Pfaffen); 
the men of letters, Brand, Erasmus, Reuchlin, and above all 
Ulrich von Hutten, contributed, each in their way, to discredit 
the Roman Curia; and lastly, a new type of theology, repre- 
sented chiefly by Martin Luther, threatened to sweep away 
the very foundations of the papal monarchy. 



IO 



REFORMATION, THE 



The growing discontent of the poor people, whether in country 
or town, is clearly traceable in Germany during the 15th century, 
. and revolutionary agitation was chronic in southern 
of the Germany at least during the first two decades of the 

masses 1 6th. The clergy were satirized and denounced in 
10 the popular pamphlets and songs. The tithe was an 
Germany, oppressive form of taxation, as were the various fees 
demanded for the performance of the sacraments. The 
so-called " Reformation of Sigismund," drawn up in 1438, had 
demanded that the celibacy of the clergy should be abandoned 
and their excessive wealth reduced. " It is a shame which 
cries to heaven, this oppression by tithes, dues, penalties, 
excommunication, and tolls of the peasant, on whose labour 
all men depend for their existence." In 1476 a poor young 
shepherd drew thousands to Nicklashausen to hear him denounce 
the emperor as a rascal and the pope as a worthless fellow, and 
urge the division of the Church's property among the members 
of the community. The "parsons" must be killed, and the 
lords reduced to earn their bread by daily labour. An apoca- 
lyptic pamphlet of 1508 shows on its cover the Church upside 
down, with the peasant performing the services, while the 
priest guides the plough outside and a monk drives the horses. 
Doubtless the free peasants of Switzerland contributed to 
stimulate disorder and discontent, especially in southern 
Germany. The conspiracies were repeatedly betrayed and the 
guilty parties terribly punished. That discovered in 1517 made 
a deep impression on the authorities by reason of its vast 
extent, and doubtless led the diet of Augsburg to allude to 
the danger which lay in the refusal of the common man to 
pay the ecclesiastical taxes. " It was into this mass of seething 
discontent that the spark of religious protest fell — the one 
thing needed to fire the train and kindle the social conflagration. 
This was the society to which Luther spoke, and its discontent 
was the sounding board which made his words reverberate." x 

On turning from the attitude of the peasants and poorer 
townspeople to that of the scholars, we find in their writings 
Attitude a good deal of harsh criticism of the scholastic theology, 
ot the satirical allusions to the friars, and, in Germany, sharp 
human- denunciations of the practices of the Curia. But there 
are many reasons for believing that the older estimate 
of the influence of the so-called Renaissance, or " new learning," 
in promoting the Protestant revolt was an exaggerated one. 
The class of humanists which had grown up in Italy during the 
15th century, and whose influence had been spreading into 
Germany, France and England during the generation immedi- 
ately preceding the opening of the Protestant revolt, repre- 
sented every phase of religious feeling from mystic piety to 
cynical indifference, but there were very few anti-clericals 
among them. The revival of Greek from the time of Chryso- 
loras onward, instead of begetting a Hellenistic spirit, trans- 
ported the more serious-minded to the nebulous shores of Neo- 
Platonism, while the less devout became absorbed in scholarly 
or literary ambitions, translations, elegantly phrased letters, 
clever epigrams or indiscriminate invective. It is true that 
Lorenzo Valla (d. 1457) showed the Donation of Constantine 
to be a forgery, denied that Dionysius the Areopagite wrote 
the works ascribed to him, and refuted the commonly accepted 
notion that each of the apostles had contributed a sentence 
to the Apostles' Creed. But such attacks were rare and isolated 
and were not intended to effect a breach in the solid ramparts 
of the medieval Church, but rather to exhibit the ingenuity of 
the critic. In the libraries collected under humanistic influences 
the patristic writers, both Latin and Greek, and the scholastic 
doctors are conspicuous. Then most of the humanists 
were clerics, and in Italy they enjoyed the patronage of the 
popes. They not unnaturally showed a tolerant spirit on the 
whole toward existing institutions, including the ecclesiastical 
abuses, and, in general, cared little how long the vulgar herd 
was left in the superstitious darkness which befitted their estate, 
so long as the superior man was permitted to hold discreetly 
any views he pleased. Of this attitude Mutian (1471-1526), 
'Lindsay. 



the German humanist who perhaps approached most nearly 
the Italian type, furnishes a good illustration. He believed 
that Christianity had existed from all eternity, and that the 
Greeks and Romans, sharing in God's truth, would share also in 
the celestial joys. Forms and ceremonies should only be 
judged as they promoted the great object of life, a clean heart 
and a right spirit, love to God and one's neighbour. He defined 
faith as commonly understood to mean " not the conformity 
of what we say with fact, but an opinion upon divine things 
founded upon credulity which seeks after profit." " With 
the cross, " he declares, " we put our foes to flight, we extort 
money, we consecrate God, we shake hell, we work miracles." 

These reflections were, however, for his intimate friends, and 
like him, his much greater contemporary, Erasmus, abhorred 
anything suggesting open revolt or revolution. The Erasmus 
extraordinary popularity of Erasmus is a sufficient (Rev- 
indication that his attitude of mind was viewed with lS36 )- 
sympathy by the learned, whether in France, England, Germany, 
Spain or Italy. He was a firm believer in the efficacy of culture. 
He maintained that old prejudices would disappear with the 
progress of knowledge, and that superstition and mechanical 
devices of salvation would be insensibly abandoned. The laity 
should read their New Testament, and would in this way come 
to feel the true significance of Christ's life and teachings, which, 
rather than the Church, formed the centre of Erasmus's religion. 
The dissidence of dissent, however, filled him with uneasiness, and 
he abhorred Luther's denial of free will and his exaggerated notion 
of man's utter depravity; in short, he did nothing whatever to 
promote the Protestant revolt, except so far as his frank denuncia- 
tion and his witty arraignment of clerical and monastic weaknesses 
and soulless ceremonial, especially in his Praise of Folly and Col- 
loquies, contributed to bring the faults of the Church into strong 
relief, and in so far as his edition of the New Testament furnished 
a simple escape from innumerable theological complications. 

A peculiar literary feud in Germany served, about 1515, to 
throw into sharp contrast the humanistic party, which had 
been gradually developing during the previous fifty years, and 
the conservative, monkish, scholastic group, who found their 
leader among the Dominicans of the university of Cologne. 
Johann Reuchlin, a well-known scholar, who had been charged 
by the Dominicans with heresy, not only received the support 
of the newer type of scholars, who wrote him encouraging 
letters which he published under the title Epistolae clarorum 
virorum, but this collection suggested to Crotus Rubianus and 
Ulrich von Hutten one of the most successful satires of the ages, 
the Epistolae obscurorum virorum. As Creighton well said, the 
chief importance of the " Letters of Obscure Men " lay in its 
success in popularizing the conception of a stupid party which 
was opposed to the party of progress. At the same time that 
the Neo-Platonists, like Ficino and Pico de la Mirandola, and 
the pantheists, whose God was little more than a reverential 
conception of the universe at large, and the purely worldly 
humanists, like Celtes and Bebel, were widely diverging each 
by his own particular path from the ecclesiastical Weltanschauung 
of the middle ages, Ulrich von Hutten was busy attacking the 
Curia in his witty Dialogues, in the name of German patriotism. 
He, at least, among the well-known scholars eagerly espoused 
Luther's cause, as he understood it. A few of the humanists 
became Protestants — Melanchthon, Bucer, Oecolampadius and 
others — but the great majority of them, even if attracted for the 
moment by Luther's denunciation of scholasticism, speedily 
repudiated the movement. In Socinianism (see below) we have 
perhaps the only instance of humanistic antecedents leading to 
the formation of a religious sect. 

A new type of theology made its appearance at the opening 
of the 1 6th century, in sharp contrast with the Aristotelian 
scholasticism of the Thomists and Scotists. This was Th new 
due to the renewed enthusiasm for, and appreciation of, theology 
St Paul with which Erasmus sympathized, and which and 
found an able exponent in England in John Colet and j" *?~ 
in France in Lefevre of Staples (Faber Stapulensis) . 
Luther was reaching somewhat similar views at the same time, 



REFORMATION, THE 



ii 



although in a strikingly different manner and with far more 
momentous results for the western world. Martin Luther was 
beyond doubt the most important single figure in the Protestant 
revolt. His influence was indeed by no means so decisive and so 
pervasive as has commonly been supposed, and his attacks on the 
evils in the Church were no bolder or more comprehensive than 
those of Marsiglio and Wycliffe, or of several among his con- 
temporaries who owed nothing to his example. Had the 
German princes not found it to their interests to enforce his 
principles, he might never have been more than the leader of an 
obscure mystic sect. He was, moreover, no statesman. He 
was recklessly impetuous in his temperament, coarse and grossly 
superstitious according to modern standards. Yet in spite of 
all these allowances he remains one of the great heroes of all 
history. Few come in contact with his writings without feeling 
his deep spiritual nature and an absolute genuineness and 
marvellous individuality which seem never to sink into mere 
routine or affectation. In his more important works almost 
every sentence is alive with that autochthonic quality which 
makes it unmistakably his. His fundamental religious con- 
ception was his own hard-found answer to his own agonized 
question as to the nature and assurance of salvation. Even if 
others before him had reached the conviction that the Vulgate's 
word justitia in Romans i. 16-17 meant " righteousness " 
rather than " justice " in a juridical sense, Luther exhibited 
supreme religious genius in his interpretation of " God's 
righteousness " (Gerechtigkeit) as over against the " good works " 
of man, and in the overwhelming importance he attached to 
the promise that the just shall live by faith. It was his anxiety 
to remove everything that obscured this central idea which led 
him to revolt against the ancient Church, and this conception 
of faith served, when he became leader of the German Protestants, 
as a touchstone to test the expediency of every innovation. 
But only gradually did he come to realize that his source of 
spiritual consolation might undermine altogether the artfully 
constructed fabric of the medieval Church. As late as 1516 he 
declared that the life of a monk was never a more enviable one 
than at that day. He had, however, already begun to look 
sourly upon Aristotle and the current scholastic theology, which 
he believed hid the simple truth of the gospel and the desperate 
state of mankind, who were taught a vain reliance upon outward 
works and ceremonies, when the only safety lay in throwing 
oneself on God's mercy. He was suddenly forced to take up the 
consideration of some of the most fundamental points in the 
orthodox theology by the appearance of Tetzel in 1517. In his 
hastily drafted Ninety-five Theses he sought to limit the potency 
of indulgences, and so indirectly raised the question as to the 
power of the pope. He was astonished to observe the wide 
circulation of the theses both in the Latin and German versions. 
They soon reached Rome, and a Dominican monk, Prierius, 
wrote a reply in defence of the papal power, in an insolent tone 
which first served to rouse Luther's suspicion of the theology of 
the papal Curia. He was summoned to Rome, but, out of 
consideration for his patron, the important elector of Saxony, 
he was permitted to appear before the papal legate during the 
diet of Augsburg in 1518. He boldly contradicted the legate's 
theological statements, refused to revoke anything and appealed 
to a future council. On returning to Wittenberg, he turned to 
the canon law, and was shocked to find it so completely at 
variance with his notions of Christianity. He reached the 
conclusion that the papacy was but four hundred years old. 
Yet, although of human origin, it was established by common 
consent and with God's sanction, so that no one might withdraw 
his obedience without offence. 

It was not, however, until 1520 that Luther became in a 
sense the leader of the German people by issuing his three 
great pamphlets, all of which were published in German as 
well as in Latin — his Address to the Christian Nobility of the 
German Nation, his Babylonish Captivity of the Church, and his 
Freedom of the Christian. In the first he urged that, since the 
Church had failed to reform itself, the secular government 
should come to the rescue. " The Romanists have with great 



dexterity built themselves about with three walls, which have 
hitherto protected them against reform; and thereby is 
Christianity fearfully fallen. In the first place, when the 
temporal power has pressed them hard, they have affirmed and 
maintained that the temporal power has no jurisdiction over 
them — that, on the contrary, the spiritual is above the temporal. 
Secondly, when it was proposed to admonish them from the 
Holy Scriptures they said, ' It beseems no one but the pope 
to interpret the Scriptures,' and, thirdly, when they were 
threatened with a council, they invented the idea that no one 
but the pope can call a council. Thus they have secretly 
stolen our three rods that they may go unpunished, and have 
entrenched themselves safely behind these three walls in order to 
carry on all the rascality and wickedness that we now see." 

He declares that the distinction between the " spiritual 
estate," composed of pope, bishops, priests and monks, as 
over against the " temporal estate " composed of princes, lords, 
artisans and peasants, is a very fine hypocritical invention of 
which no one should be afraid. " A cobbler, a smith, a peasant, 
every man has his own calling and duty, just like the conse- 
crated priests and bishops, and every one in his calling or office 
must help and serve the rest, so that all may work together for 
the common good." After overthrowing the other two walls, 
Luther invites the attention of the German rulers to the old 
theme of the pomp of the pope and cardinals, for which the 
Germans must pay. " What the Romanists really mean to do, 
the 'drunken Germans' are not to see until they have lost 
everything. ... If we rightly hang thieves and behead robbers, 
why do we leave the greed of Rome unpunished ? for Rome is 
the greatest thief and robber that has ever appeared on earth, 
or ever will; and all in the holy names of the Church and St 
Peter." After proving that the secular rulers were free and in 
duty bound to correct the evils of the Church, Luther sketches 
a plan for preventing money from going to Italy, for reducing 
the number of idle, begging monks, harmful pilgrimages and 
excessive holidays. Luxury and drinking were to be sup- 
pressed, the universities, especially the divinity schools, re- 
organized, &c. 

Apart from fundamental rejection of the papal supremacy, 
there was little novel in Luther's appeal. It had all been said 
before in the various protests of which we have spoken, and 
very recently by Ulrich von Hutten in his Dialogues, but no 
one had put the case so strongly, or so clearly, before. In 
addressing the German nobility Luther had refrained from 
taking up theological or religious doctrines; but in Sep- 
tember 1520 he attacked the whole sacramental system of 
the medieval Church in his Babylonish Captivity of the Church. 
Many reformers, like Glapion, the Franciscan confessor of 
Charles V., who had read the Address with equanimity if not 
approval, were shocked by Luther's audacity in rejecting the 
prevailing fundamental religious conceptions. Luther says: 
" I must begin by denying that there are seven sacraments, and 
must lay down for the time being that there are only three — 
baptism, penance and the bread, and that by the court of Rome 
all these have been brought into miserable bondage, and the 
Church despoiled of her liberty." It is, however, in the Freedom 
of the Christian that the essence of Luther's religion is to be 
found. Man cannot save himself, but is saved then and there 
so soon as he believes God's promises, and to doubt these is 
the supreme crime. So salvation was to him not a painful 
progress toward a goal to be reached by the sacraments and by 
right conduct, but a state in which man found himself so soon 
as he despaired absolutely of his own efforts, and threw himself 
on God's assurances. Man's utter incapacity to do anything 
to please God, and his utter personal dependence on God's grace 
seemed to render the whole system of the Church well-nigh 
gratuitous even if it were purged of all the " sophistry " which 
to Luther seemed to bury out of sight all that was essential in 
religion. Luther's gospel was one of love and confidence, not 
of fear and trembling, and came as an overwhelming revelation 
to those who understood and accepted it. 

The old question of Church reform inevitably reappeared 



12 



REFORMATION, THE 



when the young emperor Charles V. opened his first imperial 
diet at Worms early in 1521, and a committee of German 
princes drafted a list of gravamina, longer and bitterer than 
The edict any preceding one. While the resolute papal nuncio 
of Worms, Aleander was indefatigable in his efforts to induce the 
1521. fa et t0 con( j emn Luther's teachings, his curious and 

instructive despatches to the Roman Curia complain constantly 
of the ill-treatment and insults he encountered, of the readiness 
of the printers to issue innumerable copies of Luther's pamphlets 
and of their reluctance to print anything in the pope's favour. 
Charles apparently made up his mind immediately and once for 
all. He approved the gravamina, for he believed a thorough 
reform of the Church essential. This reform he thought should 
be carried out by a council, even against the pope's will; and 
he was destined to engage in many fruitless negotiations to this 
end before the council of Trent at last assembled a score of years 
later. But he had no patience with a single monk who, led 
astray by his private judgment, set himself against the faith 
held by all Christians for a thousand years. " What my fore- 
fathers established at the council of Constance and other 
councils it is my privilege to maintain," he exclaims. Although, 
to Aleander's chagrin, the emperor consented to summon 
Luther to Worms, where he received a species of ovation, 
Charles readily approved the edict drafted by the papal nuncio, 
in which Luther is accused of having " brought together all 
previous heresies in one stinking mass," rejecting all law, 
teaching a life wholly brutish, and urging the lay people to 
bathe their hands in the blood of priests. He and his adherents 
were outlawed; no one was to print, sell or read any of his 
writings, " since they are foul, harmful, suspected, and come 
from a notorious and stiff-necked heretic." The edict of 
Worms was entirely in harmony with the ljiws of Western 
Christendom, and there were few among the governing classes 
in Germany at that time who really understood or approved 
Luther's fundamental ideas; nevertheless — if we except the 
elector of Brandenburg, George of Saxony, the dukes of Bavaria, 
and Charles V.'s brother Ferdinand — the princes, including the 
ecclesiastical rulers and the towns, commonly neglected to 
publish the edict, much less to enforce it. They were glad to 
leave Luther unmolested in order to spite the " Curtizanen," 
as the adherents of the papal Curia were called. The emperor 
was forced to leave Germany immediately after the diet had 
dissolved, and was prevented by a succession of wars from 
returning for nearly ten years. The governing council, which 
had been organized to represent him in Germany, fell rapidly 
into disrepute, and exercised no restraining influence on those 
princes who might desire to act on Luther's theory that the 
civil government was supreme in matters of Church reform. 

The records of printing indicate that religious, social and 
economic betterment was the subject of an ever-increasing 
Wide number of pamphlets. The range of opinion was 

diyerg- wide. Men like Thomas Murner, for instance, heartily 
ence of denounced " the great Lutheran fool," but at the same 
opinion la t j me D ;tterly attacked monks and priests, and popular- 
ized the conception of the simple man with the hoe 
(Karsthans). Hans Sachs, on the other hand, sang the praises 
of the " Wittenberg Nightingale," and a considerable number 
of prominent men of letters accepted Luther as their guide — • 
Zell and Bucer, in Strassburg, Eberlin in Ulm, Oecolampadius 
in Augsburg, Osiander and others in Nuremberg, Pellicanus 
in Nordlingen. Moreover, there gradually developed a group 
of radicals who were convinced that Luther had not the courage 
of his convictions. They proposed to abolish the " idolatry " 
of the Mass and all other outward signs of what they deemed 
the old superstitions. Luther's colleague at Wittenberg, 
Carlstadt (q.v.), began denouncing the monastic life, the celi- 
bacy of the clergy, the veneration of images; and before the 
end of 1521 we find the first characteristic outward symptoms 
of Protestantism. Luther had meanwhile been concealed 
by his friends in the Wartburg, near Eisenach, where he busied 
himself with a new German translation of the New Testament, 
to be followed in a few years by the Old Testament. The 



Bible had long been available in the language of the people, 
and there are indications that the numerous early editions of 
the Scriptures were widely read. Luther, however, possessed 
resources of style which served to render his version far superior 
to the older one, and to give it an important place in the develop- 
ment of German literature, as well as in the history of the 
Protestant churches. During his absence two priests from 
parishes near Wittenberg married; while several monks, 
throwing aside their cowls, left their cloisters. Melanchthon, 
who was for a moment carried away by the movement, partook, 
with several of his students, of the communion under both 
kinds, and on Christmas Eve a crowd invaded the church of 
All Saints, broke the lamps, threatened the priests and made 
sport of the venerable ritual. Next day, Carlstadt, who had 
laid aside his clerical robes, dispensed the Lord's Supper in 
the " evangelical fashion." At this time three prophets arrived 
from Zwickau, eager to hasten the movement of emancipation. 
They were weavers who had been associated with Thomas 
Miinzer, and like him looked forward to a very radical reform 
of society. They rejected infant baptism, and were among the 
forerunners of the Anabaptists. 

In January 1522, Carlstadt induced the authorities of Witten- 
berg to publish the first evangelical church ordinance. The 
revenues from ecclesiastical foundations, as well as 
those from the industrial gilds, were to be placed in a ^staal" 
common chest, to be in charge of the townsmen and the Revolt 
magistrates. The priests were to receive fixed salaries; begins in 
begging, even by monks and poor students, was pro- ffJi ony ' 
hibited; the poor, including the monks, were to be 
supported from the common chest. The service of the Mass was 
modified, and the laity were to receive the elements in both 
kinds. Reminders of the old religious usages were to be done 
away with, and fast days were to be no longer observed. These 
measures, and the excitement which followed the arrival of 
the radicals from Zwickau, led Luther to return to Wittenberg 
in March 1522, where he preached a series of sermons attacking 
the impatience of the radical party, and setting forth clearly 
his own views of what the progress of the Reformation should 
be. " The Word created heaven and earth and all things; 
the same Word will also create now, and not we poor sinners. 
Faith must be unconstrained and must be accepted without 
compulsion. To marry, to do away with images, to become 
monks and nuns, or for monks and nuns to leave their convent, 
to eat meat on Friday or not to eat it, and other like things — 
all these are open questions, and should not be forbidden by 
any man .... What we want is the heart, and to win that 
we must preach the gospel. Then the Word will drop into 
one heart to-day and to-morrow into another, and so will 
work that each will forsake the Mass." Luther succeeded 
in quieting the people both in Wittenberg and the neighbour- 
ing towns, and in preventing the excesses which had threatened 
to discredit the whole movement. 

In January 1522, Leo X. had been succeeded by a new 
pope, Adrian VI., a devout Dominican theologian, bent on 
reforming the Church, in which, as he injudiciously Adrian VI. 
confessed through his legate to the diet at Nuremberg, 1S22- 
the Roman Curia had perhaps been the chief source lS23 - 
of " that corruption which had spread from the head to the 
members." The Lutheran heresy he held to be God's terrible 
judgment on the sins of the clergy. The diet refused to accede 
to the pope's demand" that the edict of Worms should be 
enforced, and recommended that a Christian council should 
be summoned in January, to include not only ecclesiastics 
but laymen, who should be permitted freely to express their 
opinions. While the diet approved the list of abuses drawn 
up at Worms, it ordered that Luther's books should no longer 
be published, and that Luther himself should hold his peace, 
while learned men were to admonish the erring preachers. 
The decisions of this diet are noteworthy, since they probably 
give a very fair idea of the prevailing opinion of the ruling 
classes in Germany. They refused to regard Luther as in 
any way their leader, or even to recognize him as a discreet 



REFORMATION, THE 



*3 



and south 
la 1524. 



person. On the other hand, they did not wish to take the 
risk of radical measures against the new doctrines, and were 
glad of an excuse for refusing the demands of the pope. 
Adrian soon died, worn out by his futile attempts to correct 
the abuses at home, and was followed by Clement VII., a 
Medici, less gifted but not less worldly in his instincts than 
LeoX. 

Clement sent one of his ablest Italian diplomatists, Cam- 
peggio, to negotiate with the diet which met at Spires in 1524. 
He induced the diet to promise to execute the edict of 
B ****" Worms as far as that should be possible; but it was 
there- generally understood that it .was impossible. The 
Ugious diet renewed the demand for a general council to meet 
cleft be- j n a German town to settle the affairs of the Church 
German m Germany, and even proposed the convocation of 
states of a national council at Spires in November, to effect 
the north a temporary adjustment. In this precarious situation 
Campeggio, realizing the hopelessness of his attempt to 
induce all the members of the diet to co-operate with 
him in re-establishing the pope's control, called together at 
Regensburg a certain number of rulers whom he believed to 
be rather more favourably disposed toward the pope than their 
fellows. These included Ferdinand, duke of Austria, the two 
dukes of Bavaria, the archbishops of Salzburg and Trent, the 
bishops of Bamberg, Spires, Strassburg and others. He induced 
these to unite in opposing the Lutheran . heresy on condition 
that the pope would issue a decree providing for some of the 
most needed reforms. There was to be no more financial oppres- 
sion on the part of the clergy, and no unseemly payments 
for performing the church services. Abuses arising from the 
granting of indulgences were to be remedied, and the excessive 
number of church holidays, which seriously interfered with the 
industrial welfare of Germany, was to be reduced. The states 
in the Catholic League were permitted to retain for their own 
uses about one-fifth of the ecclesiastical revenue; the clergy 
was to be subjected to careful discipline; and only authorized 
preachers were to be tolerated, who based their teachings on 
the works of the four Latin Church fathers. Thus the agree- 
ment of Regensburg is of great moment in the development of 
the Protestant revolt in Germany. For Austria, Bavaria and 
the great ecclesiastical states in the south definitely sided 
with the pope against Luther's heresies, and to this day they 
still remain Roman Catholic. In the north, on the other hand, 
it became more and more apparent that the princes were drift- 
ing away from the Roman Catholic Church. Moreover, it 
should be noted that Campeggio's diplomacy was really the 
beginning of an effective betterment of the old Church, such 
as had been discussed for two or three centuries. He met the 
long-standing and general demand for reform without a revolu- 
tion in doctrines or institutions. A new edition of the German 
Bible was issued with the view of meeting the needs of 
Catholics, a new religious literature grew up designed to sub- 
stantiate the beliefs sanctioned by the Roman Church and 
to carry out the movement begun long before toward spiritual- 
izing its institutions and rites. 

In 1525 the conservative party, which had from the first 
feared that Luther's teaching would result in sedition, received 
The a new and terrible proof, as it seemed to them, of the 

Peasant noxious influence of the evangelical preachers. The 
Revolt, peasant movements alluded to above, which had caused 
ls2S ' so much anxiety at the diet of Augsburg in 1518, cul- 

minated in the fearful Peasant Revolt in which the common 
man, both in country and town, rose in the name of " God's 
justice " to avenge long-standing wrongs and establish his 
rights. Luther was by no means directly responsible for the 
civil war which followed, but he had certainly contributed 
to stir up the ancient discontent. He had asserted that, 
owing to the habit of foreclosing small mortgages, " any one 
with a hundred gulden could gobble up a peasant a year." The 
German feudal lords he pronounced hangmen, who knew only 
how to swindle the poor man — " such fellows were formerly 
called scoundrels, but now we must call them ' Christians and 



revered princes.'" Yet in spite of this harsh talk about 
princes, Luther relied upon them to forward the reforms in 
which he was interested, and he justly claimed that he had 
greatly increased their powers by reducing the authority of 
the pope and subjecting the clergy in all things to the civil 
government. 

The best known statement of the peasants' grievances is 
to be found in the famous " Twelve Articles " drawn up in 
1524. They certainly showed the unmistakable influence of 
the evangelical teaching. The peasants demanded that the 
gospel should be taught them as a guide in life, and that each 
community should be permitted to choose its pastor and depose 
him if he conducted himself improperly. " The pastor thus 
chosen should teach us the gospel pure and simple, without 
any addition, doctrine or ordinance of man." The old tithe 
on grain shall continue to be paid, since that is established by 
the Old Testament. It will serve to support the pastor, and 
what is left over shall be given to the poor. Serfdom is against 
God's word, "since Christ has delivered and redeemed us all 
without exception, by the shedding of. his precious blood, the 
lowly as well as the great." Protests follow against hunting 
and fishing rights, restrictions on wood-cutting, and ex- 
cessive demands made on peasants. " In the twelfth place," 
the declaration characteristically concluded, " it is our con- 
clusion and final resolution that if one or more of the articles 
here set forth should not be in agreement with the word of God, 
as we think they are, such articles will we willingly retract if 
it be proved by a clear explanation of Scripture really to be 
against the word of God." More radical demands came from 
the working classes in the towns. The articles of Heilbronn 
demanded that the property of the Church should be con- 
fiscated and used for the community; clergy and nobility 
alike were to be deprived of all their privileges, so that they 
could no longer oppress the poor man. The more violent 
leaders, like Miinzer, renewed the old cry that the parsons must 
be slain. Hundreds of castles and monasteries were destroyed 
by the frantic peasantry, and some of the nobles were murdered 
with shocking cruelty. Luther, who believed that the peasants 
were trying to cloak their dreadful sins with excuses from 
the gospel, exhorted the government to put down the in- 
surrection. " Have no pity on the poor folk; stab, smite, 
throttle, who can!" To him the peasants' attempt to 
abolish serfdom was wholly unchristian, since it was a 
divinely sanctioned institution, and if they succeeded they 
would " make God a liar." The German rulers took Luther's 
advice with terrible literalness, and avenged themselves upon 
the peasants, whose lot was apparently worse afterwards than 
before. 

The terror inspired by the Peasant War led to a new alliance, 
the League of Dessau, formed by some of the leading rulers of 
central and northern Germany, to stamp out the . 
" accursed Lutheran sect." This included Luther's old anceot 
enemy, Duke George of Saxony, the electors of Bran- an evan- 
denburg and Mainz, and two princes of Brunswick. geHcal 
The rumour that the emperor was planning to return y ' 

to Germany in order to root out the growing heresy, led a few 
princes who had openly favoured Luther to unite also. Among 
these the chief were the new elector of Saxony, John (who, 
unlike his brother, Frederick the Wise, had openly espoused 
the new doctrines), and the energetic Philip, landgrave of 
Hesse. The emperor did not return, and since there was no 
one to settle the religious question in Germany, the diet of 
Spires (1526) determined that, pending the meeting of the 
proposed general council, each prince, and each knight and 
town owing immediate allegiance to the emperor, should decide 
individually what particular form of religion should prevail 
within the limits of their territories. Each prince was " so 
to live, reign and conduct himself as he would be willing to 
answer before God and His Imperial Majesty." While the 
evangelical party still hoped that some form of religion might 
be agreed upon which would prevent the disruption of the 
Church, the conservatives were confident that the heretics 



H 



REFORMATION, THE 



would soon be suppressed, as they had so often been in the 
past. The situation tended to become more, rather than less, 
complicated, and there was every variety of reformer and 
every degree of conservatism, for there were no standards 
for those who had rejected the papal supremacy, and even 
those who continued to accept it differed widely. For 
example, George of Saxony viewed Aleander, the pope's 
nuncio, with almost as much suspicion as he did Luther 
himself. 

The religious ideas in South Germany were affected by the de- 
velopment of a reform party in Switzerland, under the influence 
_ of Zwingli, who claimed that at Einsiedeln, near the 

and the lake of Zurich, he had begun to preach the gospel of 
Reforms- Christ in the year isr6 " before any one in my locality 
tlonia nac j so mucn as heard the name of Luther." Three 
land, years later he became preacherin the cathedral of Zurich. 

Here he began to denounce the abuses in the Church, 
as well as the traffic in mercenaries which had so long been a 
blot upon his country's honour. From the first he combined 
religious and political reform. In 1523 he prepared a complete 
statement of his beliefs, in the form of sixty-seven theses. He 
maintained that Christ was the only high priest and that the 
gospel did not gain its sanction from the authority of the 
Church. He denied the existence of purgatory, and rejected 
those practices of the Church which Luther had already set 
aside. Since no one presented himself to refute him, the town 
council ratified his conclusions, so that the city of Zurich prac- 
tically withdrew from the Roman Catholic Church. Next 
year the Mass, processions and the images of saints were 
abolished. The shrines were opened and the relics burned. 
Some other towns, including Bern, followed Zurich's example, 
but the Forest cantons refused to accept the innovations. In 
1525 a religious and political league was arranged between 
Zurich and Constance, which in the following year was joined 
by St Gallen, Biel, Miihlhausen, Basel and Strassburg. Philip 
of Hesse was attracted by Zwingli's energy, and was eager that 
the northern reformers should be brought into closer relations 
with the south. But the league arranged by Zwingli was 
directed against the house of Habsburg, and Luther did not 
_ . u deem it right to oppose a prince by force of arms. 
and Moreover, he did not believe that Zwingli, who con- 

Luther. ceived the eucharist to be merely symbolical in its 
r/ie character, " held the whole truth of God." Never- 

' Articles! theless, Philip of Hesse finally arranged a religious 
conference in the castle of Marburg (1529) where 
Zwingli and Luther met. They were able to agree on fourteen 
out of the fifteen " Marburg Articles," which stated the chief 
points in the Christian faith as they were accepted by both. 
A fundamental difference as to the doctrine of the eucharist, 
however, stood in the way of the real union. 

The diet of Spires (1529) had received a letter from the 
emperor directing it to look to the enforcement of the edict of 
The diet Worms against the heretics. No one was to preach 
of Spires, against the Mass, and no one was to be prevented from 
1529, and attending it freely. This meant that the evangelical 
t t he t "£f'„ princes would be forced to restore the most character- 
istic Catholic rite. As they formed only a minority in 
the diet, they could only draw up a protest, which was signed by 
John Frederick of Saxony, Philip of Hesse, and fourteen of the 
three towns, including Strassburg, Nuremberg and Ulm. In 
this they claimed that the majority had no right to abrogate the 
stipulations of the former diet of Spires, which permitted each 
prince to determine religious matters provisionally for him- 
self, for all had unanimously pledged themselves to observe 
that agreement. They therefore appealed to the emperor 
and to a future council against the tyranny of the majority. 
Those who signed this appeal were called Protestants, a name 
which came to be generally applied to those who rejected the 
supremacy of the pope, the Roman Catholic conceptions of 
the clergy and of the Mass, and discarded sundry practices of 
the older Church, without, however, repudiating the Catholic 
creeds. 



During the period which had elapsed since the diet of Worms, 
the emperor had resided in Spain, busy with a series of wars, 
waged mainly with the king of France. 1 In 1530 the Tnedlet 
emperor found himself in a position to visit Germany and con- 
once more, and summoned the diet to meet at Augsburg, fession ot 
with the hope of settling the religious differences and Augsburg, 
bringing about harmonious action against the Turk. 
The Protestants were requested to submit a statement of their 
opinions, and on June 25th the " Augsburg Confession " was 
read to the diet. This was signed by the elector of Saxony 
and his son and successor, John Frederick, by George, margrave 
of Brandenburg, two dukes of Liineburg, Philip of Hesse and 
Wolfgang of Anhalt, and by the representatives of Nuremberg 
and Reutlingen. The confession was drafted by Melanchthon, 
who sought consistently to minimize the breach which separated 
the Lutherans from the old Church. In the first part of the 
confession the Protestants seek to prove that there is nothing 
in their doctrines at variance with those of the universal Church 
" or even of the Roman Church so far as that appears in the 
writings of the Fathers." They made it clear that they still 
held a great part of the beliefs of the medieval Church, especially 
as represented in Augustine's writings, and repudiated the 
radical notions of the Anabaptists and of Zwingli. In the second 
part, those practices of the Church are enumerated which the 
evangelical party rejected; the celibacy of the clergy, the Mass, 
as previously understood, auricular confession, and monastic 
vows, the objections to which are stated with much vigour. 
" Christian perfection is this: to fear God sincerely, to trust 
assuredly that we have, for Christ's sake, a gracious and merciful 
God; to ask and look with confidence for help from him in all 
our affairs, accordingly to our calling, and outwardly to do good 
works diligently, and to attend to our vocation. In these 
things doth true perfection and a true worship of God consist. 
It doth not consist in going about begging, or in wearing a black 
or a grey cowl." The Protestant princes declared that they had 
no intention of depriving the bishops of their jurisdiction, but 
this one thing only is requested of them, " that they would suffer 
the gospel to be purely taught, and would relax a few observances 
in which we cannot adhere without sin." 

The confession was turned over to a committee of conserva- 
tive theologians, including Eck, Faber and Cochlaeus. Their 
refutation of the Protestant positions seemed needlessly Course ot 
sharp to the emperor, and five drafts were made of it. events in 
Charles finally reluctantly accepted it, although he Germany, 
would gladly have had it milder,, for it made reconcilia- }£j!~ 
tion hopeless. The majority of the diet approved a 
recess, allowing the Protestants a brief period of immunity until 
the 15th of April 1531, after which they were to be put down 
by force. Meanwhile, they were to make no further innovations, 
they were not to molest the conservatives, and were to aid the 
emperor in suppressing the doctrines of Zwingli and of the 
Anabaptists. The Lutheran princes protested, together with 
fourteen cities, and left the diet. The diet thereupon decided 
that the edict of Worms should at last be enforced. All Church 
property was to be restored, and, perhaps most important of all, 
the jurisdiction of the Imperial court (Reichskammergericht), 
which was naturally Catholic in its sympathies, was extended 
to appeals involving the seizure of ecclesiastical benefices, 
contempt of episcopal decisions and other matters deeply affect- 
ing the Protestants. In November the Protestants formed the 
Schmalkaldic League, which, after the death of Zwingli, in 1531, 
was joined by a number of the South German towns. The 
period of immunity assigned to the Protestants passed by; 
but they were left unmolested, for the emperor was involved 
in many difficulties, and the Turks were threatening Vienna. 
Consequently, at the diet of Nuremberg (1532) a recess was 
drafted indefinitely extending the religious truce and quashing 
such cases in the Reichskammergericht as involved Protestant 

1 In 1527 the pope's capital was sacked by Charles's army. This 
was, of course, but an incident in the purely political relations of 
the European powers with the pope, and really has no bearing upon 
the progress of the Protestant revolt. 



REFORMATION, THE 



i5 



innovations. The conservatives refused to ratify the recess, 
which was not published, but the Protestant states declared 
that they would accept the emperor's word of honour, and 
furnished him with troops for repelling the Mahommedans. The 
fact that the conservative princes, especially the dukes of 
Bavaria, were opposed to any strengthening of the emperor's 
power, and were in some cases hereditary enemies of the house 
o£ Habsburg, served to protect the Protestant princes. In 
1534 the Schmalkaldic League succeeded in restoring the 
banished duke of Wurttemberg, who declared himself in favour 
of the Lutheran reformation, and thus added another to the 
list of German Protestant states. In 1 539 George of Saxony died, 
and was succeeded by his brother Henry, who also accepted the 
new faith, and in the same year the new elector of Brandenburg 
became a Protestant. Indeed, there was reason to believe at 
this time that the archbishops of Mainz, Trier and Cologne, as 
well as some other bishops, were planning the secularization of 
their principalities. 

To the north, Lutheran influence had spread into Denmark; 
Sweden and Norway were also brought within its sphere. 
Denmark, Christian II. of Denmark, a nephew of the elector of 
Norway Saxony, came to the throne in 1513, bent on bringing 
Sweden Sweden and Norway, over which he nominally ruled in 
become accordance with the terms of the Union of Kalmar 
Protest- (1397), completely under his control. In order to do 
*"** this it was necessary to reduce the power of the nobility 

and clergy, privileged classes exempt from taxation and rivals 
of the royal power. Denmark had suffered from all the abuses 
of papal provisions, and the nuncio of Leo X. had been forced 
in 1518 to flee from the king's wrath. Christian II. set up a 
supreme court for ecclesiastical matters, and seemed about to 
adopt a policy similar to that later pursued by Henry VIII. of 
England, when his work was broken off by a revolt which 
compelled him to leave the country. Lutheranism continued 
to make rapid progress, and Christian's successor permitted 
the clergy to marry, appropriated the annates and protected 
the Lutherans. Finally Christian III., an ardent Lutheran, 
ascended the throne in 1536; with the sanction of the diet he 
severed, in 1537, all connexion with the pope, introducing the 
Lutheran system of Church government and accepting the 
Augsburg Confession. 1 Norway was included in the changes, 
but Sweden had won its independence of Denmark, under 
Gustavus Vasa, who, in 1523, was proclaimed king. He used 
the Lutheran theories as an excuse for overthrowing the ecclesi- 
astical aristocracy, which had been insolently powerful in 
Sweden. In 1527, supported by the diet, he carried his measures 
for secularizing such portions of the Church property as he 
thought fit, and for subjecting the Church to the royal power 
(Ordinances of Vesteras); but many of the old religious cere- 
monies and practices were permitted to continue, and it was not 
until 1592 that Lutheranism was officially sanctioned by the 
Swedish synod. 2 

Charles V., finding that his efforts to check the spread of the 
religious schism were unsuccessful, resorted once more to 
The conferences between Roman Catholic and Lutheran 

Council theologians, but it became apparent that no permanent 
of Trent, compromise was possible. The emperor then succeeded 
in disrupting the Schmalkaldic League by winning over, on 
purely political grounds, Philip of Hesse and young Maurice 
of Saxony, whose father, Henry, had died after a very brief 
reign. Charles V. had always exhibited the greatest confidence 
in the proposed general council, the summoning of which had 
hitherto been frustrated by the popes, and at last, in 1545, 
the council was summoned to meet at Trent, which lay con- 
veniently upon the confines of Italy and Germany (see Trent, 
Council of). The Dominicans and, later, members of the 
newly born Order of Jesus, were conspicuous, among the 

1 The episcopal office was retained, but the " succession " broken, 
the new Lutheran bishops being consecrated by Buggenhagen, 
who was only in priest's orders. 

2 The episcopal system and succession were maintained, and the 
" Mass vestments " {i.e. alb and chasuble) remain in use to this day. 



theological deputies, while the Protestants, though invited, 
refused to attend. It was clear from the first that the decisions 
of the council would be uncompromising in character, and that 
the Protestants would certainly refuse to be bound by its decrees. 
And so it fell out. The very first anathemas of the council were 
directed against those innovations which the Protestants had 
most at heart. The emperor had now tried threats, conferences 
and a general council, and all had failed to unify the Church. 

Maurice of Saxony, without surrendering his religious beliefs, 
had become the political friend of the emperor, who had 
promised him the neighbouring electorate of Saxony. Events 
John Frederick, the elector, was defeated at Miihlberg, cuiminat- 
April 1547, and taken prisoner. Philip of Hesse ^.glf'J" 
also surrendered, and Charles tried once more to peaceo f 
establish a basis of agreement. Three theologians, in- Augsburg, 
eluding a conservative Lutheran, were chosen to draft tsss. 
the so-called " Augsburg Interim." This reaffirmed the seven 
sacraments, transubstantiation and the invocation of saints, 
and declared the pope head of the Church, but adopted 
Luther's doctrine of justification by faith in a conditional 
way, as well as the marriage of priests, and considerably 
modified the theory and practice of the Mass. For four 
years Charles, backed by the Spanish troops, made efforts to 
force the Protestant towns to observe the Interim, but with 
little success. He rapidly grew extremely unpopular, and in 
1552 Maurice of Saxony turned upon him and attempted to 
capture him at Innsbruck. Charles escaped, but Maurice 
became for the moment leader of the German princes who 
gathered at Passau (August 1552) to discuss the situation. The 
settlement, however, was deferred for the meeting of the diet, 
which took place at Augsburg, 1555. There was a general 
anxiety to conclude a peace — " bestdndiger, beharrlicher, un- 
bedingter, fiir und fur ewig wahrender ." There was no other 
way but to legalize the new faith in Germany, but only those 
were to be tolerated who accepted the Augsburg Confession. 
This excluded, of course, not only the Zwinglians and Ana- 
baptists, but the ever-increasing Calvinistic or " Reformed " 
Church. The principle cujus regio ejus religio was adopted, 
according to which each secular ruler might choose between the 
old faith and the Lutheran. His decision was to bind all his sub- 
jects, but a subject professing another religion from his prince 
was to be permitted to leave the country. The ecclesiastical 
rulers, however, were to lose their possessions if they abandoned 
the old faith. 3 Freedom of conscience was thus established for 
princes alone, and their power became supreme in religious as 
well as secular matters. The Church and the civil government 
had been closely associated with one another for centuries, and 
the old system was perpetuated in the Protestant states. 
Scarcely any one dreamed that individual subjects could safely be 
left to believe what they would, and permitted, so long as they 
did not violate the law of the land, freely to select and practise 
such religious rites as afforded them help and comfort. 

During the three or four years which followed the signing of 
the Augsburg Confession in 1530 and the formation of the 
Schmalkaldic League, England, while bitterly de- Religious 
nouncing and burning Lutheran heretics in the name sit "^ t, o" 
of the Holy Catholic Church, was herself engaged in |"^T/ A/ , 
severing the bonds which had for well-nigh a thousand ope ningot 
years bound her to the Apostolic See. An in- theKtb 
dependent national Church was formed in 1534, century. 
which continued, however, for a time to adhere to all 
the characteristic beliefs of the medieval Catholic Church, 
excepting alone the headship of the pope. The circum- 
stances which led to the English schism are dealt with 
elsewhere (see England, Church of), and need be reviewed 
here only in the briefest manner. There was some heresy 
in England during the opening decades of the 16th century, 
survivals of the Lollardy which now and then brought a victim 
to the stake. There was also the old discontent among the 
orthodox in regard to the Church's exactions, bad clerics and 

3 This so-called " ecclesiastical reservation " was not included in 
the main peace. 



l6 



REFORMATION, THE 



dissolute and lazy monks. Scholars, like Colet, read the New 
Testament in Greek and lectured on justification by faith before 
they knew of Luther, and More included among the institutions 
of Utopia a rather more liberal and enlightened religion than 
that which he observed around him. Erasmus was read and 
approved, and his notion of reform by culture no doubt attracted 
many adherents among English scholars. Luther's works found 
their way into England, and were read and studied at both 
Oxford and Cambridge. In May 1521 Wolsey attended a pom- 
pous burning of Lutheran tracts in St Paul's churchyard, where 
Bishop Fisher preached ardently against the new German heresy. 
Henry VIII. himself stoutly maintained the headship of the pope, 
and, as is well known, after examining the arguments of Luther, 
published his Defence of the Seven Sacraments in 15 21, which won 
for him from the pope the glorious title of " Defender of the Faith. " 
The government and the leading men of letters and prelates 
appear therefore to have harboured no notions of revolt before 
the matter of the king's divorce became prominent in 1527. 

Henry's elder brother Arthur, a notoriously sickly youth of 
scarce fifteen, had been married to Catherine, daughter of 
„ Ferdinand and Isabella, but had died less than five 

Yin. months after the marriage (April 1502), leaving 

and the doubts as to whether the union had ever been physi- 
divorce cally consummated. Political reasons dictated an 
case ' alliance between the young widow and her brother-in- 

law Henry, prince of Wales, nearly five years her junior; Julius II. 
was induced reluctantly to grant the dispensation necessary on 
account of the relationship, which, according to the canon law 
and the current interpretation of Leviticus xviii. 16, stood in 
the way of the union. The wedding took place some years 
later (1509), and several children were born, none of whom 
survived except the princess Mary. By 1527 the king had 
become hopeless of having a male heir by Catherine. He was 
tired of her, and in love with the black-eyed Anne Boleyn, who 
refused to be his mistress. He alleged that he was beginning 
to have a horrible misgiving that his marriage with Catherine 
had been invalid, perhaps downright " incestuous. " The 
negotiations with Clement VII. with the hope of obtaining a 
divorce from Catherine, the reluctance of the pope to impeach 
the dispensation of his predecessor Julius II., and at the same 
time to alienate the English queen's nephew Charles V., the 
futile policy of Wolsey and his final ruin in 1529 are described 
elsewhere (see English History; Henry VIII. ; Catherine 
of Aragon). The king's agents secured the opinion of a number 
of prominent universities that his marriage was void, and an 
assembly of notables, which he summoned in June 1530, warned 
the pope of the dangers involved in leaving the royal succession 
in uncertainty, since the heir was not only a woman, but, as it 
seemed to many, of illegitimate birth. 

Henry's next move was to bring a monstrous charge against 
the clergy, accusing them of having violated the ancient laws 
Beginning of praemunire in submitting to the authority of papal 
of Eng- legates (although he himself had ratified the appoint- 
4"o« ment of Wolsey as legate a latere). The clergy of the 

against province of Canterbury were fined £100,000 and com- 
papacy. pelled to declare the king " their singular protector and 
only supreme lord, and, as far as that is permitted by the law 
of Christ, the supreme head of the Church and of the clergy." 
This the king claimed, perhaps with truth, was only a clearer 
statement of the provisions of earlier English laws. The 
following year, 1532, parliament presented a petition to the king 
(which had been most carefully elaborated by the monarch's 
own advisers) containing twelve charges against the bishops, 
relating to their courts, fees, injudicious appointments and 
abusive treatment of heretics, which combined to cause an 
unprecedented and " marvellous disorder of the godly quiet, 
peace and tranquillity" of the realm. For the remedy of 
these abuses parliament turned to the king, " in whom and by 
whom the only and sole redress, reformation and remedy herein 
absolutely rests and remains." The ordinaries met these 
accusations with a lengthy and dignified answer; but this did 
not satisfy the king, and convocation was compelled on the 



15th of May 1532, further to clarify the ancient laws of the 
land, as understood by the king, in the very brief, very humble 
and very pertinent document known as the " Submission of 
the Clergy." Herein the king's " most humble subjects daily 
orators, and bedesmen " of the clergy of England, in view of 
his goodness and fervent Christian zeal and his learning far 
exceeding that of all other kings that they have read of, agree 
never to assemble in convocation except at the king's summons, 
and to enact and promulgate no constitution or ordinances 
except they receive the royal assent and authority. Moreover, 
the existing canons are to be subjected to the examination 
of a commission appointed by the king, half its members from 
parliament, half from the clergy, to abrogate with the king's 
assent such provisions as the majority find do not stand with 
God's laws and the laws of the realm. This appeared to place 
the legislation of the clergy, whether old or new, entirely under 
the monarch's control. A few months later Thomas Cranmer, 
who had been one of those to discuss sympathetically Luther's 
works in the little circle at Cambridge, and who believed the 
royal supremacy would tend to the remedying of grave abuses 
and that the pope had acted ultra vires in issuing a dispensation 
for the king's marriage with Catherine, was induced by Henry 
to succeed Warham as archbishop of Canterbury. About the 
same time parliament passed an interesting and important 
statute, forbidding, unless the king should wish to suspend the 
operation of the law, the payment to the pope of the annates. 
This item alone amounted during the previous forty-six years, 
the parliament declared, " at the least to eight score thousand 
pounds, besides other great and intolerable sums which have 
yearly been conveyed to the said court of Rome by many other 
ways and means to the great impoverishment of this realm." 
The annates were thereafter to accrue to the king; and bishops 
and archbishops were thenceforth, in case the pope refused 
to confirm them, 1 to be consecrated and invested within the 
realm, " in like manner as divers other archbishops and bishops 
have been heretofore in ancient times by sundry the king's 
most noble progenitors." No censures, excommunications or 
interdicts with which the Holy Father might vex or grieve 
the sovereign lord or his subjects, should be published or in 
any way impede the usual performance of the sacraments and 
the holding of the divine services. In February parliament 
discovered that " by divers sundry old authentic histories 
and chronicles " it was manifest that the realm of England 
was an empire governed by one supreme head, the king, to 
whom all sorts and degrees of people — both clergy and laity- 
ought to bear next to God a natural and humble obedience, 
and that to him God had given the authority finally to deter- 
mine all causes and contentions in the realm, " without 
restraint, or provocation to any foreign princes or potentates 
of the world." The ancient statutes of the praemunire and 
provisors are recalled and the penalties attached to their 
violation re-enacted. All appeals were to be tried within the 
realm, and suits begun before an archbishop were to be deter- 
mined by him without further appeal. Acting on this, Cranmer 
tried the divorce case before his court, which declared the 
marriage with Catherine void and that with Anne Boleyn, 
which had been solemnized privately in January, valid. 
The pope replied by ordering Henry under pain of excommuni- 
cation to put away Anne and restore Catherine, his legal wife, 
within ten days. This sentence the emperor, all the Christian 
princes and the king's own subjects were summoned to carry 
out by force of arms if necessary. 

As might have been anticipated, this caused no break in the 
policy of the English king and his parliament, and a series of 
famous acts passed in the year 1534 completed and Secession 
confirmed the independence of the Church of England, of Eng- 
which, except during five years under Queen Mary, ^".J^/ 
was thereafter as completely severed from the papal monarchy, 
monarchy as the electorate of Saxony or the duchy 1534. 
of Hesse. The payment of annates and of Peter's pence 

1 Cranmer himself had taken the oath of canonical obedience to 
the Holy See and duly received the pallium. 



REFORMATION, THE 



17 



was absolutely forbidden, as well as the application to the 
bishop of Rome for dispensations. The bishops were 
thereafter to be elected by the deans and chapters upon 
receiving the king's congS d'eslire (q.v.). The Act of Succession 
provided that, should the king have no sons, Elizabeth, 
Anne's daughter, should succeed to the crown. The brief Act 
of Supremacy confirmed the king's claim to be reputed the 
" only supreme head in earth of the Church of England "; 
he was to enjoy all the honours, dignities, jurisdictions 
and profits thereunto appertaining, and to have full power 
and authority to reform and amend all such errors, heresies 
and abuses, as by any manner of spiritual authority might 
lawfully be reformed, or amended, most to the pleasure of 
Almighty God, and the increase of virtue in Christ's religion, 
" foreign authority, prescription, or any other thing or things 
to the contrary hereof, notwithstanding." The Treasons Act, 
terrible in its operation, included among capital offences that 
of declaring in words or writing the king to be " a heretic, 
schismatic, tyrant, infidel or usurper." The convocations were 
required to abjure the papal supremacy by declaring " that 
the bishop of Rome has not in Scripture any greater 
jurisdiction in the kingdom of England than any other 
foreign bishop." The king had now clarified the ancient 
laws of the realm to his satisfaction, and could proceed to 
abolish superstitious rites, remedy abuses, and seize such por- 
tions of the Church's possessions, especially pious and monastic 
foundations, as he deemed superfluous for the maintenance of 
religion. 

In spite of the fact that the separation from Rome had been 
carried out during the sessions of a single parliament, and 
The that there had been no opportunity for a general 

reform expression of opinion on the part of the nation, there 
of the j s no reason to suppose that the majority of the 
clwrch people, thoughtful or thoughtless, were not ready to 
under reconcile themselves to the abolition of the papal 
Henry supremacy. It seems just as clear that there was 
vm. n0 strong evangelical movement, and that Henry's 

pretty consistent adherence to the fundamental doctrines 
of the medieval Church was agreeable to the great mass of 
his subjects. The ten " Articles devised by the Kyng's Tlighnes 
Majestie to stablysh Christen quietness " (1536), together 
with the " Injunctions " of 1536 and 1538, are chiefly 
noteworthy for their affirmation of almost all the current 
doctrines of the Catholic Church, except those relating to the 
papal supremacy, purgatory, images, relics and pilgrimages, 
and the old rooted distrust of the Bible in the vernacular. 
The clergy were bidden to exhort their hearers to the 
" works of charity, mercy and faith, specially prescribed and 
commanded in Scripture, and not to repose their trust or 
affiance in any other works devised by men's phantasies beside 
Scripture; as in wandering to pilgrimages, offering of money, 
candles or tapers to images or relics, or kissing or licking the 
same, saying over a number of beads, not understood or minded 
on, or in such-like superstition." To this end a copy of the 
whole English Bible was to be set up in each parish church 
where the people could read it. During the same years the 
monasteries, lesser and greater, were dissolved, and the chief 
shrines were despoiled, notably that of St Thomas of Canter- 
bury. Thus one of the most important of all medieval ecclesi- 
astical institutions, monasticism, came to an end in England. 
Doubtless the king's sore financial needs had much to do with 
the dissolution of the abbeys and the plundering of the shrines, 
but there is no reason to suppose that he Was not fully con- 
vinced that the monks had long outlived their usefulness and 
that the shrines were centres of abject superstition and ecclesi- 
astical deceit. Henry, however, stoutly refused to go further 
in the direction of German Protestantism, even with the 
prospect of forwarding the proposed union between him and 
the princes of the Schmalkaldic League. An insurrection of 
the Yorkshire peasants, which is to be ascribed in part to the 
distress caused by the enclosure of the commons on which 
they had been wont to pasture their cattle, and in part to the 



destruction of popular shrines, may have caused the king to 
defend his orthodoxy by introducing into parliament in 1539 the 
six questions. These parliament enacted into the terrible statute 
of " The Six Articles," in which a felon's death was prescribed 
for those who obstinately denied transubstantiation, demanded 
the communion under both kinds, questioned the binding 
character of vows of chastity, or the lawfulness of private 
Masses or the expediency of auricular confession. On the 
30th of July 1540 three Lutheran clergymen were burned 
and three Roman Catholics beheaded, the latter for denying 
the king's spiritual supremacy. The king's ardent desire that 
diversities of minds and opinions should be done away with 
and unity be " charitably established " was further promoted 
by publishing in 1543 A Necessary Doctrine and Erudition 
for any Christian Man, set forth by the King's Majesty of England, 
in which the tenets of medieval theology, except for denial 
of the supremacy of the bishop of Rome and the unmistakable 
assertion of the supremacy of the king, were once more 
restated. 

Henry VIII. died in January 1547, having chosen a council 
of regency for his nine-year-old son Edward, the members 
of which were favourable to further religious innova- England 
tions. Somerset, the new Protector, strove to govern becomes 
on the basis of civil liberty and religious tolerance. Protestant 
The first parliament of the reign swept away almost SJJ^ 
all the species of treasons created during the previous vi., 
two centuries, the heresy acts, including the Six 1S47- 
Articles, all limitations on printing the Scriptures in ISS3. 
English and reading and expounding the same — indeed " all 
and every act or acts of parliament concerning doctrine 
or matters of religion." These measures gave a great impetus 
to religious discussion and local innovations. Representatives 
of all the new creeds hastened from the Continent to 
England, where they hoped to find a safe and fertile field 
for the particular seed they had to plant. It is impossible 
exactly to estimate the influence which these teachers 
exerted on the general trend of religious opinion in England; 
in any case, however, it was not unimportant, and the 
Articles of Religion and official homilies of the Church of 
England show unmistakably the influence of Calvin's doctrine. 
There was, however, no such sudden breach with the traditions 
of the past as characterized the Reformation in some con- 
tinental countries. Under Edward VI. the changes were 
continued on the lines laid down by Henry VIII. The old 
hierarchy continued, but service books in English were sub- 
stituted for those in Latin, and preaching was encouraged. 
A royal visitation, beginning in 1547, discovered, however, such 
a degree of ignorance and illiteracy among the parish clergy 
that it became clear that preaching could only be gradually 
given its due place in the services of the Church. Communion 
under both kinds and the marriage of the clergy were 
sanctioned, thus gravely modifying two of the fundamental 
institutions of the medieval Church. A conservative Book 
of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and 
other Rites and Ceremonies after the Use of the Church of England 
— commonly called the First Prayer Book of Edward VI. — 
was issued in 1549. This was based upon ancient " uses," 
and represented no revolutionary change in the traditions of 
the " old religion." It was followed, however, in 1552 by the 
second Prayer Book, which was destined to be, with some 
modifications, the permanent basis of the English service. 
This made it clear that the communion was no longer to 
be regarded as a propitiatory sacrifice, the names " Holy 
Communion " and " Lord's Supper " being definitively sub- 
stituted for " Mass " (q.v.), while the word " altar " was 
replaced by " table." In the Forty-two Articles we have 
the basis of Queen Elizabeth's Thirty-nine Articles. Thus 
during the reign of Edward we have not only the. founda- 
tions of the Anglican Church laid, but there appears 
the beginning of those evangelical and puritanical sects 
which were to become the " dissenters " of the following 
centuries. 



i8 



REFORMATION, THE 



With the death of Edward there came a period of reaction 
lasting for five years. Queen Mary, unshaken in her attach- 
Catboiic ment to the ancient faith and the papal monarchy, 
reaction was a bi e with the sanction of a subservient parlia- 
"lUan ment to turn back the wheels of ecclesiastical legis- 

1553- lation, to restore the old religion, and to reunite the 

1558. English Church with the papal monarchy; the pope's 

legate, Cardinal Pole, was primate of all England. Then, the 
ancient heresy laws having been revived, came the burnings of 
Rogers, Hooker, Latimer, Ridley, Cranmer and many a less 
noteworthy champion of the new religion. It would seem as 
if this sharp, uncompromising reaction was what was needed 
to produce a popular realization of the contrast between the 
Ecdesia anglicana of Henry VIII. and Edward VI., and the 
alternative of " perfect obedience to the See Apostolic." 

Elizabeth, who succeeded her sister Mary in 1558, was sus- 
pected to be Protestant in her leanings, and her adviser, Cecil, 
Settle- had received his training as secretary of the Protector 
meat Somerset; but the general European situation as 

under we n as t ne young queen's own temperament pre- 

a e ' eluded any abrupt or ostentatious change in religious 
matters. The new sovereign's first proclamation was directed 
against all such preaching as might lead to contention and the 
breaking of the common quiet. In 1559 ten of Henry VIII. 's 
acts were revived. On Easter Sunday the queen ventured 
to display her personal preference for the Protestant conception 
of the eucharist by forbidding the celebrant in her chapel to 
elevate the host. The royal supremacy was reasserted, the 
title being modified into " supreme governor "; and a new 
edition of Edward VI. 's second Prayer Book, with a few 
changes, was issued. The Marian bishops who refused to 
recognize these changes were deposed and imprisoned, but 
care was taken to preserve the " succession " by consecrating 
others in due form to take their places. 1 Four years later the 
Thirty-nine Articles imposed an official creed upon the English 
nation. This was Protestant in its general character: in its 
appeal to the Scriptures as the sole rule of faith (Art. VI.), its 
repudiation of the authority of Rome (Art. XXXVII.) , its 
definition of the Church (Art. XIX.), its insistence on justifica- 
tion by faith only (Art. XL) and repudiation of the sacrifice 
of the Mass (Arts. XXVIII. and XXXI.). As supreme governor 
of the Church of England the sovereign strictly controlled all 
ecclesiastical legislation and appointed royal delegates to hear 
appeals from the ecclesiastical courts, to be a " papist " or to 
" hear Mass " (which was construed as the same thing) was to 
risk incurring the terrible penalties of high treason. By the 
Act of Uniformity (1559) a uniform ritual, the Book of Common 
Prayer, was imposed upon clergy and laity alike, and no liberty 
of public worship was permitted. Every subject was bound 
under penalty of a fine to attend church on Sunday. While 
there was in a certain sense freedom of opinion, all printers 
had to seek a licence from the government for every manner of 
book or paper, and heresy was so closely affiliated with treason 
that the free expression of thought, whether reactionary or 
revolutionary, was beset with grave danger. 

Attempts to estimate the width of the gulf separating the 
Church of England in Elizabeth's time from the corresponding 
institution as it existed in the early years of her father's reign 
are likely to be gravely affected by personal bias. There is a 
theory that no sweeping revolution in dogma took place, but 
that only a few medieval beliefs were modified or rejected owing 
to the practical abuses to which they had given rise. To 
Professor A. F. Pollard, for example, " The Reformation in 
England was mainly a domestic affair, a national protest against 
national grievances rather than part of a cosmopolitan move- 
ment toward doctrinal change" (Camb. Mod. Hist. ii. 478-9). 
This estimate appeals to persons of widely different views and 
temperaments. It is as grateful to those who, like many 
" Anglo-Catholics," desire on religious grounds to establish the 
doctrinal continuity of the Anglican Church with that of the 

1 Only one of the Marian bishops, Kitchin of Llandaff, was found 
willing to conform. 



middle ages, as it is obvious to those who, like W. K. Clifford, 
perceive in the ecclesiastical organization and its influence 
nothing more than a perpetuation of demoralizing medieval 
superstition. The nonconformists have, moreover, never 
wearied of denouncing the " papistical " conservatism of the 
Anglican establishment. On the other hand, the impartial 
historical student cannot compare the Thirty-nine Articles 
with the contemporaneous canons and decrees of the council of 
Trent without being impressed by striking contrasts between the 
two sets of dogmas. Their spirit is very different. The un- 
mistakable rejection on the part of the English Church of the 
conception of the eucharist as a sacrifice had alone many wide- 
reaching implications. Even although the episcopal organiza- 
tion was retained, the conception of " tradition," of the conciliar 
powers, of the " characters " of the priest, of the celibate life, 
of purgatory, of " good works," &c. — all these serve clearly to 
differentiate the teaching of the English Church before and after 
the Reformation. From this standpoint it is obviously un- 
histbrical to deny that England had a very important part in 
the cosmopolitan movement toward doctrinal change. 

The little backward kingdom of Scotland definitely accepted 
the new faith two years after Elizabeth's accession, and after 
having for centuries sided with France against England, Tae R e f or . 
she was inevitably forced by the Reformation into an motion in 
alliance with her ancient enemy to the south when they Scotland, 
both faced a confederation of Catholic powers. The lS60 ' 
first martyr of Luther's gospel had been Patrick Hamilton, who 
had suffered in 1528; but in spite of a number of executions the 
new ideas spread, even among the nobility. John Knox, who, 
after a chequered career, had come under the influence of 
Calvin at Geneva, returned to Scotland for a few months in 
1555, and shortly after (1557) that part of the Scottish nobility 
which had been won over to the new faith formed their first 
" covenant " for mutual protection. These " Lords of the 
Congregation " were able to force some concessions from the 
queen regent. Knox appeared in Scotland again in 1559, and 
became a sort of second Calvin. He opened negotiations with 
Cecil, who induced the reluctant Elizabeth to form an alliance 
with the Lords of the Congregation, and the English sent a fleet 
to drive away the French, who were endeavouring to keep their 
hold on Scotland. In 1560 a confession of faith was prepared 
by John Knox and five companions. This was adopted by the 
Scottish parliament, with the resolution " the bishops of Rome 
have no jurisdiction nor authoritie in this Realme in tymes 
cuming." The alliance of England and the Scottish Protestants 
against the French, and the common secession from the papal 
monarchy, was in a sense the foundation and beginning of 
Great Britain. Scottish Calvinism was destined to exercise no 
little influence, not only on the history of England, but on the 
form that the Protestant faith was to take in lands beyond the 
seas, at the time scarcely known to the Europeans. 
< While France was deeply affected during the 16th century 
by the Protestant revolt, its government never undertook any 
thoroughgoing reform of the Church. During the Begin- 
latter part of the century its monarchs were en- "lags 0/ 
gaged in a bloody struggle with a powerful religious- te e staat ' 
political party, the Huguenots, who finally won a movement 
toleration which they continued to enjoy until the i" Prance. 
revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685. It was not until 1789 
that the French Church of the middle ages lost its vast possessions 
and was subjected to a fundamental reconstruction by the 
Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1791). 2 Yet no summary of 

2 In 1795 the National Convention gruffly declared that the 
Republic would no longer subsidize any form of worship or furnish 
buildings for religious services. " The law recognizes no minister 
of religion, and no one is to appear in public with costumes or orna- 
ments used in religious ceremonies." Bonaparte, in the Concordat 
which he forced upon the pope in 1801, did not provide for the return 
of any of the lands of the Church which had been sold, but agreed 
that the government should pay the salaries of bishops and priests, 
whose appointment it controlled. While the Roman Catholic re- 
ligion was declared to be that accepted by the majority of French- 
men, the state subsidized the Reformed Church, those adhering 
to the Augsburg Confession and the Jewish community. Over a 



REFORMATION, THE 



r 9 



the Protestant revolt would be complete without some allusion 
to the contrast between the course of affairs in France and in 
the neighbouring countries. The French monarchy, as we have 
seen, had usually succeeded in holding its own against the 
centralizing tendencies of the pope. By the Pragmatic Sanction 
of Bourges (1438) it had secured the advantages of the conciliar 
movement. In 1516, after Francis I. had won his victory at 
Marignano, Leo X. concluded a new concordat with France, 
in which, in view of the repudiation of the offensive Pragmatic 
Sanction, the patronage of the French Church was turned over, 
with scarce any restriction, to the French monarch, although 
in another agreement the annates were reserved to the pope. 
The encroachments — which had begun in the time of Philip the 
Fair — of the king's lawyers on the ancient ecclesiastical juris- 
diction, had reached a point where there was little cause for 
jealousy on the part of the State. The placet had long prevailed, 
so that the king had few of the reasons, so important in Germany 
and England, for quarrelling with the existing system, unless 
it were on religious grounds. France had been conspicuous in 
the conciliar movement. It had also furnished its due quota 
of heretics, although no one so conspicuous as Wy cliff e or Huss. 
Marsiglio of Padua had had Frenchmen among his sympathizers 
and helpers. The first prominent French scholar to " preach 
Christ from the sources " was Jacques Lefebvre of Etaples, who 
in 1512 published a new Latin translation of the epistles of St 
Paul. Later he revised an existing French translation of both 
the New Testament (which appeared in 1523, almost con- 
temporaneously with Luther's German version) and, two years 
later, the Old Testament. He agreed with Luther in rejecting 
transubstantiation, and in believing that works without the 
grace of God could not make for salvation. The centre of 
Lefebvre's followers was Meaux, and they found an ardent 
adherent in Margaret of Angouleme, the king's sister, but had no 
energetic leader who was willing to face the danger of disturb- 
ances. Luther's works found a good many readers in France, 
but were condemned (1521) by both the Sorbonneand the parle- 
ment of Paris. The parlement appointed a commission to discover 
and punish heretics; the preachers of Meaux fled to Strassburg, 
and Lefebvre's translation of the Bible was publicly burned. A 
council held at Sens, 1528-29, approved all those doctrines of the 
old Church which the Protestants were attacking, and satisfied 
itself with enumerating a list of necessary conservative reforms. 
After a fierce attack on Protestants caused by the mutilation 
of a statue of the Virgin, in 1528, the king, anxious to con- 
Joha ciliate both the German Protestants and anti-papal 

Calvin England, invited some of the reformers of Meaux 
and his £ preach in the Louvre. An address written by 
tut" sot a y° un S man °f twenty-four, Jean Cauvin (to 
the become immortal under his Latin name of Calvinus) 

Christian wa s read by the rector of the university. It was 
Religion." a defence of the new evangelical views, and so 
aroused the Sorbonne that Calvin was forced to flee from 
Paris. In October 1534, the posting of placards in Paris 
and other towns, containing brutal attacks on the Mass and 
denouncing the pope and the " vermin " of bishops, priests 
and monks as blasphemers and liars, produced an outburst of 
persecution, in which thirty-five Lutherans were burned, while 
many fled the country. The events called forth from Calvin, 
who was in Basel, the famous letter to Francis which forms 
the preface to his Institutes of the Christian Religion. In this 
address he sought to vindicate the high aims of the Protestants, 
and to put the king on his guard against those mad men who 
were disturbing his kingdom with their measures of persecution. 
The Institutes, the first great textbook of Protestant theology, 
was published in Latin in 1536, and soon (1541) in a French 
version. The original work is much shorter than in its later 
editions, for, as Calvin says, he wrote learning and learned 
century elapsed before the Concordat was abrogated by the Separa- 
tion Law of 1905 which suppressed all government appropriations 
for religious purposes and vested the control of Church property 
in " associations for public worship " {associations cultuelles), to be 
composed of from seven to twenty-five members according to the 
size of the commune. 



writing. His address had little effect on the king. The parle- 
ments issued a series of edicts against the heretics, culminating 
in the very harsh general edict of Fontainebleau, sanctioned 
by the parlement of Paris in 1543. The Sorbonne issued 
a concise series of twenty-five articles, refuting the Institutes of 
Calvin. This statement, when approved by the king and his 
council , was published throughout France, and formed a clear test 
of orthodoxy. The Sorbonne also drew up a list of prohibited 
books, including those of Calvin, Luther and Melanchthon; 
and the parlement issued a decree against all printing of Pro- 
testant literature. The later years of Francis's reign were 
noteworthy for the horrible massacre of the Waldenses and the 
martyrdom of fourteen from the group of Meaux, who were 
burnt alive in 1546. When Francis died little had been done, in 
spite of the government's cruelty, to check Protestantism, while 
a potent organ of evangelical propaganda had been developing 
just beyond the confines of France in the town of Geneva. 

In its long struggle with its bishops and with the dukes of 
Savoy, Geneva had turned to her neighbours for aid, especi- 
ally to Bern, with which an alliance was concluded 
in 1526. Two years later Bern formally sanctioned becomes 
the innovations advocated by the Protestant preachers, a centre 
and although predominantly German assumed the of P">P a - 
role of protector of the reform party in the Pays " 
de Vaud and Geneva. William Farel, one of the group of 
Meaux, who had fled to Switzerland and had been active in 
the conversion of Bern, went to Geneva in 1531. With the 
protection afforded him and his companions by Bern, and 
the absence of well-organized opposition on the part of the 
Roman Catholics, the new doctrines rapidly spread, and by 
1535 Farel was preaching in St Pierre itself. After a public 
disputation in which the Catholics were weakly represented, 
and a popular demonstration in favour of the new doctrines, 
the council of Geneva rather reluctantly sanctioned the 
abolition of the Mass. Meanwhile Bern had declared war 
on the duke of Savoy, and had not only conquered a great 
part of the Pays de Vaud, including the important town of 
Lausanne, but had enabled Geneva to win its complete inde- 
pendence. In the same year (September 1536), as Calvin 
was passing through the town on his way back to Strassburg 
after a short visit in Italy, he was seized by Farel and induced 
most reluctantly to remain and aid him in thoroughly carrying 
out the Reformation in a city in which the conservative senti- 
ment was still very strong. As there proved to be a large 
number in the town councils who did not sympathize with the 
plans of organization recommended by Calvin and his col- 
leagues, the town preachers were, after a year and a half of 
unsatisfactory labour, forced to leave Geneva. For three years 
Calvin sojourned in Germany; he signed the Augsburg Con- 
fession, gained the friendship of Melanchthon and other leading 
reformers, and took part in the religious conferences of the 
period. In 1541 he was induced with great difficulty to sur- 
render once more his hopes of leading the quiet life of a scholar, 
and to return again to Geneva (September 1541), where he 
spent the remaining twenty-three years of his life. His ideal 
was to restore the conditions which he supposed prevailed 
during the first three centuries of the Church's existence; but 
the celebrated Ecclesiastical Ordinances adopted by the town 
in 1 541 and revised in 1561 failed fully to realize his ideas, which 
find a more complete exemplification in the regulations govern- 
ing the French Church later. He wished for the complete 
independence and self-government of the Church, with the 
right of excommunication to be used against the ungodly. The 
Genevan town councils were quite ready to re-enact all the old 
police regulations common in that age in regard to excessive 
display, dancing, obscene songs, &c. It was arranged too that 
town government should listen to the " Consistory," made up of 
the " Elders," but the Small Council was to choose the members 
of the Consistory, two of whom should belong to the Small 
Council, four to the Council of Sixty, and six to the Council of 
Two Hundred. One of the four town syndics was to preside over 
its sessions. The Consistory was thus a sort of committee of 



20 



REFORMATION, THE 



the councils, and it had no power to inflict civil punishment on 
offenders. Thus " we ought," as Lindsay says, " to see in the 
disciplinary powers and punishments of the Consistory of 
Geneva not an exhibition of the working of the Church organ- 
ized on the principles of Calvin, but the ordinary procedure of 
the town council of a medieval city. Their petty punishments 
and their minute interferences with private life are only special 
instances of what was common to all municipal rule in the 16th 
century." This is true of the supreme crime of heresy, which 
in the notorious case of Servetus was only an expression of rules 
laid down over a thousand years earlier in the Theodosian Code. 
Geneva, however, with its most distinguished of Protestant theo- 
logians, became a school of Protestantism, which sent its trained 
men into the Netherlands, England and Scotland, and especially 
across the border into France. It served too as a place of refuge 
for thousands of the persecuted adherents of its beliefs. Calvin's 
book furnished the Protestants not only with a compact and 
admirably written handbook of theology, vigorous and clear, 
but with a system of Church government and a code of morals. 

After the death of Francis I., his successor, Henry II., set 
himself even more strenuously to extirpate heresy; a special 

. . . branch of the parlement of Paris — the so-called 
Huguenot Chambre ardente (q.v.) — for the trial of heresy cases 
party was established, and the fierce edict of Chateaubriand 

under (June 1551) explicitly adopted many of the expedients 
eary ' of the papal inquisition. While hundreds were im- 
prisoned or burned, Protestants seemed steadily to increase in 
numbers, and finally only the expostulations of the parlement of 
Paris prevented the king from introducing the Inquisition in 
France in accordance with the wishes of the pope and the 
cardinal of Lorraine. The civil tribunals, however, practically 
assumed the functions of regular inquisitorial courts, in spite 
of the objections urged by the ecclesiastical courts. Notwith- 
standing these measures for their extermination, the French 
Protestants were proceeding to organize a church in accordance 
with the conceptions of the early Christian communities as 
Calvin described them in his Institutes. Beginning with Paris, 
some fifteen communities with their consistories were established 
in French towns between 1555 and 1560. In spite of continued 
persecution a national synod was assembled in Paris in 1559, 
representing at least twelve Protestant churches in Normandy 
and central France, which drew up a confession of faith and a 
book of church discipline. It appears to have been from France 
rather than from Geneva that the Presbyterian churches of 
Holland, Scotland and the United States derived their form of 
government. A reaction against the extreme severity of the 
king's courts became apparent at this date. Du Bourg and 
others ventured warmly to defend the Protestants in the parle- 
ment of Paris in the very presence of the king and of the cardinal 
of Lorraine. The higher aristocracy began now to be attracted 
by the new doctrines, or at least repelled by the flagrant power 
enjoyed by the Guises during the brief reign of Francis II. 
(1559-1560). Protestantism was clearly becoming inextricably 
associated with politics of a very intricate sort. The leading 
members of the Bourbon branch of the royal family, and Gaspard 
de Coligny, admiral of France, were conspicuous among the 
converts to Calvinism. Persecution was revived by the Guises; 
Du Bourg, the brave defender of the Protestants, was burned 
as a heretic; yet Calvin could in the closing years of his life 
form a cheerful estimate that some three hundred thousand of 
his countrymen had been won over to his views. The death of 
Francis II. enabled Catherine de' Medici, the queen mother, to 
assert herself against the Guises, and become the regent of her 
ten-year-old son Charles IX. A meeting of the States General 
had already been summoned to consider the state of the realm. 
Michel de l'Hopital, the chancellor, who opened the assembly, 
was an advocate of toleration; he deprecated the abusive use 
of the terms " Lutherans," " Papists " and " Huguenots," and 
advocated deferring all action until a council should have been 
called. The deputies of the clergy were naturally conservative. } 
but advocated certain reforms, an abolition of the Concordat, J 
and a re-establishment of the older Pragmatic Sanction. The 1 



noblesse were divided on the matter of toleration, but the 
cahiers (lists of grievances and suggestions for reform) submitted 
by the Third Estate demanded, besides regular meetings of the 
estates every five years, complete toleration and a reform of the 
Church. This grew a little later into the recommendation that 
the revenues and possessions of the French Church should be 
appropriated by the government, which, after properly sub- 
sidizing the clergy, might hope, it was estimated, that a surplus 
of twenty-two millions of livres would accrue to the State. Two 
hundred and thirty years later this plan was realized in the 
Civil Constitution of the Clergy. The deliberations of 1561 
resulted in the various reforms, the suspension of persecution 
and the liberation of Huguenot prisoners. These were not 
accorded freedom of worship, but naturally took advantage of 
the situation to carry on their services more publicly than ever 
before. An unsuccessful effort was made at the conference of 
Poissy to bring the two religious parties together; Beza had an 
opportunity to defend the Calvinistic cause, and Lainez, the 
general of the Order of Jesus, that of the bishop of Rome. The 
government remained tolerant toward the movement, and in 
January 1562 the Huguenots were given permission to hold 
public services outside the walls of fortified towns and were not 
forbidden to meet in private houses within the walls. Catherine, 
who had promoted these measures, cared nothing for the 
Protestants, but desired the support of the Bourbon princes. 
The country was Catholic, and disturbances inevitably occurred, 
culminating in the attack of the duke of Guise and his troops 
on the Protestants at Vassy, less than two months after the 
issuing of the edict. 

It is impossible to review here the Wars of Religion which 
distracted France, from the " massacre of Vassy " to the 
publication of the edict of Nantes, thirty-six years The 
later. Religious issues became more and more domin- Preach 
ated by purely political and dynastic ambitions, and Wars or 
the whole situation was constantly affected by the KeI L g !u" 
policy of Philip II. and the struggle going on in the edict of 
Netherlands. Henry IV. was admirably fitted to Nantes, 
reunite France once more, and, after a superficial 1562- 
con version to the Catholic faith, to meet the needs of 
his former co-religionists, the Huguenots. The edict of Nantes 
recapitulated and codified the provisions of a series of earlier 
edicts of toleration, which had come with each truce during the 
previous generation. Liberty of conscience in religious matters 
was secured and the right of private worship to those of the 
" so-called Reformed religion." Public worship was permitted 
everywhere where it had existed in T596-1597, in two places 
within each baittiage and sinechaussee, and in the chateaux of the 
Protestant nobility, with slight restrictions in the case of lower 
nobility. Protestants were placed upon a political equality and 
made eligible to all public offices. To ensure these rights, they 
were left in military control of two hundred towns, including 
La Rochelle, Montauban and Montpellier. Jealous of their 
" sharing the State with the king," Richelieu twenty-five years 
later reduced the exceptional privileges of the Huguenots, and 
with the advent of Louis XIV. they began to suffer renewed 
persecution, which the king at last flattered himself had so far 
reduced their number that in 1685 he revoked the edict of Nantes 
and reduced the Protestants to the status of outlaws. It was 
not until 1786 that they were restored to their civil rights, 
and by the Declaration of the Rights of Man, in 1789, to their 
religious freedom. 

Contemporaneously with the Wars of Religion in France 

a long and terrible struggle between the king of Spain and his 

Dutch and Belgian provinces had resulted in the The 

formation of a Protestant state — the United Nether- Unltea 

lands, which was destined to play an important r61e ; an(fa aatt 

in the history of the Reformed religion. Open both their im- 

to German and French influences, the Netherlands portance 

had been the scene of the first executions of Lutherans ; P. . _ 

..' history 

they had been a centre of Anabaptist agitation ; but Cal- f tolera- 
vinism finally triumphed in the Confession of Dordrecht, tion. 
1572, since Calvin's system of church government did not, like 



REFORMATION, THE 



21 



Luther's, imply the sympathy of the civil authorities. Charles V. 
had valiantly opposed the development of heresy in the Nether- 
lands, and nowhere else had there been such numbers of martyrs, 
for some thirty thousand are supposed to have been put to death 
during his reign. Under 'Philip II. it soon became almost 
impossible to distinguish clearly between the religious issues 
and the resistance to the manifold tyranny of Philip and his 
representatives. William of Orange, who had passed through 
several phases of religious conviction, stood first and foremost 
for toleration. Indeed, Holland became the home of modern 
religious liberty, the haven of innumerable free spirits, and the 
centre of activity of printers and publishers, who asked for no 
other imprimatur than the prospect of intelligent readers. 

It is impossible to offer any exhaustive classification of 
those who, while they rejected the teachings of the old Church, 
The Ana- refused at the same time to conform to the particular 
baptists, types of Protestantism which had found favour in 
the eyes of the princes and been imposed by them on their 
subjects. This large class of " dissenters " found themselves 
as little at home under a Protestant as under a Catholic 
regime, and have until recently been treated with scant 
sympathy by historians of the Church. Long before the 
Protestant revolt, simple, obscure people, under the influence 
of leaders whose names have been forgotten, lost confidence 
in the official clergy and their sacraments and formed secret 
organizations of which vague accounts are found in the reports 
of the 13th-century inquisitors, Rainerus Sacchoni, Bernard 
Gui, and the rest. Their anti-sacerdotalism appears to have 
been their chief offence, for the inquisitors admit that they were 
puritanically careful in word and conduct, and shunned all 
levity. Similar groups are mentioned in the town chronicles 
of the early 16th century, and there is reason to assume that 
informal evangelical movements were no new things when 
Luther first began to preach. His appeal to the Scriptures 
against the traditions of the Church encouraged a more active 
propaganda on the part of Balthasar Hubmaier, Carlstadt, 
Munzer, Johann Denk (d. 1527) and others, some of whom 
were well-trained scholars capable of maintaining with vigour 
and effect their ideas of an apostolic life as the high road to 
salvation. Munzer dreamed of an approaching millennium on 
earth to be heralded by violence and suffering, but Hubmaier 
and Denk were peaceful evangelists who believed that man's 
will was free and that each had within him an inner light which 
would, if he but followed it, guide him to God. To them 
persecution was an outrage upon Jesus's teachings. Luther 
and his sympathizers were blind to the reasonableness of the 
fundamental teachings of these " brethren." The idea of 
adult baptism, which had after 1525 become generally accepted 
among them, roused a bitterness which it is rather hard to 
understand nowadays. But it is easy to see that informal 
preaching to the people at large, especially after the Peasant 
Revolt, with which Munzer had been identified, should have 
led to a general condemnation, under the name " Anabaptist " 
or " Catabaptist," of the heterogeneous dissenters who agreed 
in rejecting the State religion and associated a condemnation 
of infant baptism with schemes for social betterment. The 
terrible events in Munster, which was controlled for a short 
time (1533-34) by a group of Anabaptists under the leadership 
of John of Leiden, the introduction of polygamy (which appears 
to have been a peculiar accident rather than a general principle), 
the speedy capture of the town by an alliance of Catholic and 
Protestant princes, and the ruthless retribution inflicted by 
the victors, have been cherished by ecclesiastical writers as 
a choice and convincing instance of the natural fruits of a 
rejection of infant baptism. Much truer than the common 
estimate of the character of the Anabaptists is that given in 
Sebastian Franck's Chronicle: " They taught nothing but love, 
faith and the crucifixion of the flesh, manifesting patience 
and humility under many sufferings, breaking bread with one 
another in sign of unity and love, helping one another with 
true helpfulness, lending, borrowing, giving, learning to have 
all things in common, calling each other ' brother.' " Mejmo 



Simons (b. circ. 1500) succeeded in bringing the scattered Ana- 
baptist communities into a species of association; he dis- 
couraged the earlier apocalyptic hopes, inculcated non-resist- 
ance, denounced the evils of State control over religious matters, 
and emphasized personal conversion, and adult baptism as its 
appropriate seal. The English Independents and the modern 
Baptists, as well as the Mennonites, may be regarded as the 
historical continuation of lines of development going back 
to the Waldensians and the Bohemian Brethren, and passing 
down through the German, Dutch and Swiss Anabaptists. 

The modern scholar as he reviews the period of the Pro- 
testant Revolt looks naturally, but generally in vain, for those 
rationalistic tendencies which become so clear in the socinlans 
latter part of the 17th century. Luther found no in- orAnti- 
tellectual difficulties in his acceptance and interpreta- Trini- 
tion of the Scriptures as God's word, and in maintain- ia " ans - 
ing against the Anabaptists the legitimacy of every old custom 
that was not obviously contrary to the Scriptures. Indeed, 
he gloried in the inherent and divine unreasonableness of 
Christianity, and brutally denounced reason as a cunning fool, 
" a pretty harlot." The number of questions which Calvin 
failed to ask or eluded by absolutely irrational expedients frees 
him from any taint of modern rationalism. But in Servetus, 
whose execution he approved, we find an isolated, feeble revolt 
against assumptions which both Catholics and Protestants of 
all shades accepted without question. It is pretty clear that 
the common accounts of the Renaissance and of the revival of 
learning grossly exaggerate the influence of the writers of 
Greece and Rome, for they produced no obvious rationalistic 
movement, as would have been the case had Plato and Cicero, 
Lucretius and Lucian, been taken really seriously. Neo- 
Platonism, which is in some respects nearer the Christian 
patristic than the Hellenic spirit, was as far as the radical 
religious thinkers of the Italian Renaissance receded. The 
only religious movement that can be regarded as even rather 
vaguely the outcome of humanism is the Socinian. Faustus 
Sozzini, a native of Sienna (1539-1603), much influenced by 
his uncle Lelio Sozzini, after a wandering, questioning life, 
found his way to Poland, where he succeeded in uniting the 
various Anabaptist sects into a species of church, the doctrines 
of which are set forth in the Confession of Rakow (near Minsk), 
published in Polish in 1605 and speedily in German and Latin. 
The Latin edition declares that although this new statement of 
the elements of the Christian faith differs from the articles of 
other Christian creeds it is not to be mistaken for a challenge. 
It does not aim at binding the opinions of men or at condemn- 
ing to the tortures of hell-fire those who refuse to accept it. 
Absit a nobis ea mens, immo amentia. " We have, it is true, 
ventured to prepare a catechism, but we force it on no one; 
we express our opinions, but we coerce no one. It is free to 
every one to form his own conclusions in religious matters; 
and so we do no more than set forth the meaning of divine 
things as they appear to our minds without, however, attacking 
or insulting those who differ from us. This is the golden 
freedom of preaching which the holy words of the New Testa- 
ment so strictly enjoin upon us. . . . Who art thou, miserable 
man, who would smother and extinguish in others the fire of 
God's Spirit which it has pleased him to kindle in them ? " 
The Socinian creed sprang from intellectual rather than re- 
ligious motives. Sufficient reasons could be assigned for 
accepting the New Testament as God's word and Christ as the 
Christian's guide. He was not God, but a divine prophet born 
of a virgin and raised on the third day as the first-fruits of 
them that slept. From the standpoint of the history of enlight- 
enment, as Harnack has observed, " Socinianism with its sys- 
tematic criticism (tentative and imperfect as it may now seem) 
and its rejection of all the assumptions based upon mere 
ecclesiastical tradition, can scarcely be rated too highly. That 
modern Unitarianism is all to be traced back to Sozzini and 
the Rakow Confession need not be assumed. The anti-Trini- 
tarian path was one which opened invitingly before a consider- 
able class of critical minds, seeming as it did to lead out into 



22 REFORMATORY— REFORMED CHURCH IN AMERICA 



a sunny open, remote from the unfathomable depths of mystery 
and clouds of religious emotion which beset the way of the 
sincere Catholic and Protestant alike. 

The effects of the Protestant secession on the doctrines, 
organization and practices of the Roman Catholic Church are 
Tbe difficult to estimate, still more so to substantiate. It 

Catholic is clear that the doctrinal conclusions of the council 
Reforms- f Trent were largely determined by the necessity 
"""" of condemning Protestant tenets, and that the result 

of the council was to give the Roman Catholic faith a more 
precise form than it would otherwise have had. It is much 
less certain that the disciplinary reforms which the council, 
following the example of its predecessors, re-enacted, owed 
anything to Protestantism, unless indeed the council would have 
shown itself less intolerant in respect to such innovations as the 
use of the vernacular in the services had this not smacked of 
evangelicalism. In the matter of the pope's supremacy, the 
council followed the canon law and Thomas Aquinas, not 
the decrees of the council of Constance. It prepared the way 
for the dogmatic formulation of the plenitude of the papal 
power three centuries later by the council of the Vatican. The 
Protestants have sometimes taken credit to themselves for the 
indubitable reforms in the Roman Catholic Church, which by 
the end of the 16th century had done away with many of the 
crying abuses against which councils and diets had so long been 
protesting. But this conservative reformation had begun 
before Luther's preaching, and might conceivably have followed 
much the same course had his doctrine never found popular 
favour or been ratified by the princes. 

In conclusion, a word may be said of the place of the Re- 
formation in the history of progress and enlightenment. A 
The place "philosopher," as Gibbon long ago pointed out, 
of the . who asks from what articles of faith above and against 
Reforms- reason tne ear i y Reformers enfranchised their followers 
h^istoofat wiu be surprised at their timidity rather than scandal- 
progress, ized by their freedom. They remained severely 
orthodox in the doctrines of the Fathers— the Trinity, the 
Incarnation, the plenary inspiration of the Bible — and they 
condemned those who rejected their teachings to a hell whose 
fires they were not tempted to extenuate. Although they sur- 
rendered transubstantiation, the loss of one mystery was amply 
compensated by the stupendous doctrines of original sin, 
redemption, faith, grace and predestination upon which they 
founded their theory of salvation. They ceased to appeal to 
the Virgin and saints, and to venerate images and relics, procure 
indulgences and go on pilgrimages, they deprecated the monastic 
life, and no longer nourished faith by the daily repetition of 
miracles, but in the witch persecutions their demonology cost 
the lives of thousands of innocent women. They broke the 
chain of authority, without, however, recognizing the propriety 
of toleration. In any attempt to determine the relative im- 
portance of Protestant and Catholic countries in promoting 
modern progress it must not be forgotten that religion is natur- 
ally conservative, and that its avowed business has never been 
to forward scientific research or political reform. Luther and 
his contemporaries had not in any degree the modern idea of 
progress, which first becomes conspicuous with Bacon and 
Descartes, but believed, on the contrary, that the strangling 
of reason was the most precious of offerings to God. " Free- 
thinker " and "rationalist" have been terms of opprobrium 
whether used by Protestants or Catholics. The pursuit of 
salvation does not dominate by any means the whole life and 
ambition of even ardent believers; statesmen, philosophers, 
men of letters, scientific investigators and inventors have 
commonly gone their way regardless of the particular form of 
Christianity which prevailed in the land in which they lived. 
The Reformation was, fundamentally, then, but one phase, 
if the most conspicuous, in the gradual decline of the majestic 
medieval ecclesiastical State, for this decline has gone on 
in France, Austria, Spain and Italy, countries in which 
the Protestant revolt against the ancient Church ended in 
failure, 



Bibliography. — Reference is made here mainly to works dealing 
with the Reformation as a whole. Only recent books are men- 
tioned, since the older works have been largely superseded owing 
to modern critical investigations: Thomas M. Lindsay, A History 
of the Reformation, 2 vols. (1906-7), the best general treatment; 
The Cambridge Modern History, vol. i. (1902), chaps, xviii. and xix., 
vol. ii. (1904), " The Reformation," and vol. iii. (1905), " The Wars 
of Religion, ' with very full bibliographies; M. Creighton, History 
of the Papacy during the Reformation, 6 vols, (new ed. 1899-1901). 
From a Catholic standpoint: L. Pastor, Geschichte der Papste 
seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters (1891 sqq., especially vol. iv. in 
two parts, 1906-7, and vol. v., 1909). This is in course of publica- 
tion and is being translated into English (8 vols, have appeared, 
1891-1908, covering the period 1305-1521); J. Janssen, History 
of the German People at the Close of the Middle Ages, 12 vols., 1896- 
1907, corresponding to vols, i.-vi. of the German original, in 8 vols., 
edited by Pastor, 1897-1904. This is the standard Catholic treat- 
ment of the Reformation, and is being supplemented by a series of 
monographs, Erganzungen zu Janssens Geschichte des deutschen 
Volkes, which have been appearing since 1898 and correspond 
with the Protestant Schriften des Vereins fur Reformations- 
geschichte (1883 sqq.). F. von Bezold, Geschichte der deutschen 
Reformation (1890), an excellent illustrated account; E. Troeltsch, 
Protestantisches Christentum und Kirche der Neuzeit, in the series 
" Kultur der Gegenwart," Teil i. Abt. 4, i. Halfte, 1905; Charles 
Beard, The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century in its Relation to 
Modern Thought and Knowledge (The Hibbert Lectures for 1883), 
and by the same, Martin Luther, vol. i. (no more published; 1889); 
A. Harnack, History of Dogma (trans, from the 3rd German edition, 
vol. vii., 1900); A. E. Berger, Die Kultur aufgaben der Reformation 
(2nd ed., 1908) ; Thudichum, Papsttum und Reformation (1903) ; 
" Janus," The Pope and the Council (1869), by Dollinger and others, 
a suggestive if not wholly accurate sketch of the papal claims; 
W. Maurenbrecher, Geschichte der Katholischen Reformation, vol. i. 
(no more published) (1880); J. Haller, Papsttum und Kirchenreform, 
vol. i. (1903) relates to the 14th century; J. Kostlin, Martin Luther, 
sein Leben und seine Schriften, new edition by Kawerau, 2 vols., 
1903, the most useful life of Luther; H. Denifle, Luther und 
Luthertum, 2 vols. (1904-6), a bitter but learned arraignment of 
Luther by a distinguished Dominican scholar. H. Boehmer, 
Luther im Lichte der neueren Forschungen (1906), brief and sug- 
gestive. First Principles of the Reformation, the Three Primary 
Works of Dr Martin Luther, edited by Wace and Buchheim, — an 
English translation of the famous pamphlets of 1520. (J. H. R.*) 

REFORMATORY SCHOOL, an institution for the industrial 
training of juvenile offenders, in which they are lodged, clothed 
and fed, as well as taught. They are to be distinguished from 
" industrial schools," which are institutions for potential and 
not actual delinquents. To reformatory schools in England 
are sent juveniles up to the age of sixteen who have been con- 
victed of an offence punishable with penal servitude or im- 
prisonment. The order is made by the court before which 
they are tried; the limit of detention is the age of nineteen. 
Reformatory schools are regulated by the Children Act 1908, 
which repealed the Reformatory Schools Act 1866, as amended 
by acts of 1872, 1874, 1891, 1893, 1899 and 1901. See further 
Juvenile Offenders. 

REFORMED CHURCHES, the name assumed by those Pro- 
testant bodies who adopted the tenets of Zwingli (and later of 
Calvin), as distinguished from those of the Lutheran or Evangeli- 
cal divines. They are accordingly often spoken of as the Calvin- 
istic Churches, Protestant being sometimes used as a synonym 
for Lutheran. The great difference is in the attitude towards 
the Lord's Supper, the Reformed or Calvinistic Churches re- 
pudiating not only transubstantiation but also the Lutheran 
consubstantiation. They also reject the use of crucifixes and 
other symbols and ceremonies retained by the Lutherans. 

Full details of these divergences are given in M. Schneckenburger, 
Vergleichende Darstellung des lutherischen und reformierten Lehrbe- 
griffs (Stuttgart, 1855); G. B. Winer, Comparative Darstellung 
(Berlin, 1866; Eng. tr., Edinburgh, 1873). See also Reformation; 
Presbvterianism ; Cameronians. 

REFORMED CHURCH IN AMERICA, until 1867 called offi- 
cially " The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church in North 
America," and still popularly called the Dutch Reformed 
Church, an American Calvinist church, originating with the 
settlers from Holland in New York, New Jersey and Delaware, 
the first permanent settlers of the Reformed faith in the New 
World. Their earliest settlements were at Manhattan, Walla- 
bout and Fort Orange (now Albany), where the West India 
Company formally established the Reformed Church of Holland. 



REFORMED CHURCH IN AMERICA 



23 



Their first minister was Jonas Michaelius, pastor in New 
Amsterdam of the " church in the fort " (now the Collegiate 
Church of New York City). The second domine, Everardus 
Bogardus (d. 1647), migrated to New York in 1633 with Gover- 
nor Wouter van Twiller, with whom he quarrelled continually; 
in the same year a wooden church " in the fort " was built; and 
in 1642 it was succeeded by a stone building. A minister, 
John van Mekelenburg (Johannes Megapolensis) migrated to 
Rensselaerwyck manor in 1642, preached to the Indians— 
probably before any other Protestant minister — and after 1649 
was settled in New Amsterdam. With the access of English 
and French settlers, Samuel Drisius, who preached in Dutch, 
German, English and French, was summoned, and he laboured 
in New Amsterdam and New York from 1652 to 1673. On Long 
Island John T. Polhemus preached at Flatbush in 1654-76. 
During Peter Stuyvesant's governorship there was little toleration 
of other denominations, but the West India Company reversed 
his intolerant proclamations against Lutherans and Quakers. 
About 1659 a French and Dutch church was organized in 
Harlem. The first church in New Jersey, at Bergen, in 1661, 
was quickly followed by others at Hackensack and Passaic. 
After English rule in 1664 displaced Dutch in New York, the 
relations of the Dutch churches there were much less close with 
the state Church of Holland; and in 1679 (on the request of 
the English governor of New York, to whom the people of 
New Castle appealed) a classis was constituted for the ordination 
of a pastor for the church in New Castle, Delaware. The Dutch 
strongly opposed the establishment of the Church of England, 
and contributed largely toward the adoption (in October 1683) 
of the Charter of Liberties which confirmed in their privileges 
all churches then " in practice " in the city of New York and 
elsewhere in the province, but which was repealed by James II. 
in 1686, when he established the Church of England in New 
York but allowed religious liberty to the Dutch and others. 
The Dutch ministers stood by James's government during 
Leisler's rebellion. Under William III., Governors ' Sloughter 
and Fletcher worked for a law (passed in 1693 and approved 
in 1697) for the settling of a ministry in New York, Richmond, 
Westchester and Queen's counties; but the Assembly foiled 
Fletcher's purpose of establishing a Church of England clergy, 
although he attempted to construe the act as applying only to 
the English Church. In 1696 the first church charter in New 
York was granted to the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church 
(now the Collegiate Church) of New York City; at this time 
there were Dutch ministers at Albany and Kingston, on Long 
Island and in New Jersey; and for years the Dutch and English 
(Episcopalian) churches alone received charters in New York 
and New Jersey — the Dutch church- being treated practically 
as an establishment — and the church of the fort and Trinity 
(Episcopalian; chartered 1697) were fraternally harmonious. 
In 1 700 there were twenty-nine Reformed Dutch churches out 
of a total of fifty in New York. During the administration 
of Governor Edward Hyde, Lord Cornbury, many members 
joined the Episcopal Church and others removed to New Jersey. 
The Great Awakening crowned the efforts of Theodore J. 
Frelinghuysen, who had come over as a Dutch pastor in 1720 
and had opposed formalism and preached a revival. The 
Church in America in 1738 asked the Classis of Amsterdam (to 
whose care it had been transferred from the West India Com- 
pany) for the privilege of forming a Coetus or Association with 
power to ordain in America; the Classis, after trying to join 
the Dutch with the English Presbyterian churches, granted 
(1747) a Coetus first to the German and then to the Dutch 
churches, which therefore in September 1754 organized them- 
selves into a classis. This action was opposed by the church 
of New York City, and partly through this difference and 
partly because of quarrels over the denominational control 
of King's College (now Columbia), five members of the Coetus 
seceded, and as the president of the Coetus was one of them 
they took the records with them; they were called the Con- 
ferentie; they organized independently in 1764 and carried on 
a bitter warfare with the Coetus (now more properly called 



the American Classis) , which in 1 7 66 (and again in 1770) obtained 
a charter for Queen's (now Rutgers) College at New Brunswick. 
But in 1771-72 through the efforts of John H. Livingston 
( 1 746-1825), who had become pastor of the New York City church 
in 1770, on the basis of a plan drafted by the Classis of Amster- 
dam Coetus and Conferentie were reunited with a substantial 
independence of Amsterdam, which was made complete in 
1792 when the Synod (the nomenclature of synod and classis 
had been adopted upon the declaration of American Independ- 
ence) adopted a translation of the eighty-four Articles of Dort 
on Church Order with seventy-three "explanatory articles." 1 
In 1800 there were about forty ministers and one hundred 
churches. In 1819 the Church was incorporated as the Re- 
formed Protestant Dutch Church; and in 1867 the name was 
changed to the Reformed Church in America. Preaching in 
Dutch had nearly ceased in 1820, but about 1846 a new Dutch 
immigration began, especially in Michigan, and fifty years later 
Dutch preaching was common in nearly one-third of the churches 
of the country, only to disappear almost entirely in the next 
decade. Union with other Reformed churches was planned 
in 1743, in 1784, in 1816-20, 1873-78 and 1886, but unsuc- 
cessfully; however, ministers go from one to another charge 
in the Dutch and German Reformed, Presbyterian, and to a less 
degree Congregational churches. 

A conservative secession " on account of Hopkinsian errors " 
in 1822 of six ministers (five then under suspension) organized 
a General Synod and the classes of Hackensack and Union 
(central New York) in 1824; it united with the Christian Re- 
formed Church, established by immigrants from Holland after 
1835, to which there was added a fresh American secession 
in 1882 due to opposition (on the part of the seceders) to secret 
societies. 

The organization of the Church is: a General Synod (1794); 
the (particular) synods of New York (1800), Albany (1800), Chicago 
(1856) and New Brunswick (1869); classes, corresponding to the 
presbyteries of other Calvinistic bodies; and the churches, num- 
bering, in 1906, 659. The agencies of the Church are: the Board 
of Education, privately organized in 1828 and adopted by the 
General Synod in 1831; a Widows' Fund (1837) and a Disabled 
Ministers' Fund; a Board of Publication (1855); a Board of 
Domestic Missions (1831 ; reorganized 1849) with a Church Building 
Fund and a Woman's Executive Committee; a Board of Foreign 
Missions (1832) succeeding the United Missionary Society (1816), 
which included Presbyterian, Dutch Reformed and Associate Re- 
formed Churches, and which was merged (1826) in the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, from which the 
Dutch Church did not entirely separate itself until 1857; and a 
Woman's Board of Foreign Missions (1875). The principal missions 
are in India at Arcot (1854; transferred in 1902 to the Synod of 
S. India) and at Amoy in China (1842) ; and the work of the Church 
in Japan was very successful, especially under Guido Fridolin 
Verbeck 2 (1830-1898), and 1877 native churches built up by Presby- 
terian and Dutch Reformed missionaries were organized as the 
United Church of our Lord Jesus Christ in Japan. There is also 
an Arabian mission, begun privately in 1888 and transferred to the 
Board in 1894. 

The colleges and institutions of learning connected with the Church 
are: Rutgers, already mentioned; Union College (1795), the out- 
growth of Schenectady Academy, founded in 1785 by Dirck Romeyn, 
a Dutch minister; Hope College (1866; coeducational) at Holland, 
Michigan, originally a parochial school (1850) and then (1855) 
Holland Academy; the Theological Seminary at New Brunswick 
(q.v.); and the Western Theological Seminary (1869) at Holland, 
Michigan. 

In 1906 (according to Bulletin 103 (1909) of the Bureau of the 
U.S. Census) there were 659 organizations with 773 church edifices 
reported and the total membership was 124,938. More than one- 
half of this total membership (63,350) was in New York state, the 
principal home of the first great Dutch immigration; more than 
one-quarter (32,290) was in New Jersey; and the other states were: 
Michigan (11,260), Illinois (4962), Iowa (4835), Wisconsin (2312), 
and Pennsylvania (1979). The Church was also represented in Minne- 
sota, S. Dakota, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Indiana, Ohio, Kansas, 
N. Dakota, S. Carolina, Washington and Maryland — the order 
being that of rank in number of communicants. 

The Christian Reformed Church, an " old school " secession, had 
in 1906, 174 organizations, 181 churches and a membership of 26,669, 



1 In 1832 the articles of Church government were rearranged and 
in 1872-74 they were amended. 

2 See W. E. Griffis, Verbeck of Japan (New York, 1900). 



24 



REFORMED CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES 



of which more than one-half (14,779) was in Michigan, where many 
of the immigrants who came after 1835 belonged to the seces- 
sion church in Holland. There were 2990 in Iowa, 2392 in New 
Jersey, 2332 in Illinois, and smaller numbers in Wisconsin, Indiana, 
Minnesota, S. Dakota, Ohio, New York, Washington, Kansas, 
Massachusetts, Montana, N. Dakota, New Mexico, Nebraska and 
Colorado. 

See D. D. Demarest, The Reformed Church in America (New York, 
1889) ; E. T. Corwin, The Manual of the Reformed Church in America 
{ibid., 4th ed., 1902), his sketch of the history of the Church in vol. 
viii. {ibid., 1895) of the American Church History Series, and his 
Ecclesiastical Records of the State of New York (Albany, 1901 sqq.), 
published by the State of New York. 

REFORMED CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES, a 

German Calvinistic church in America, commonly called the 
German Reformed Church. It traces its origin to the great 
German immigration of the 17 th century, especially to 
Pennsylvania, where, although the German Lutherans afterwards 
outnumbered them, the Reformed element was estimated in 
1 730 to be more than half the whole number of Germans in the 
colony. In 1709 more than 2000 Palatines emigrated to New 
York with their pastor, Johann Friedrich Hager (d. c. 1723), who 
laboured in the Mohawk Valley. A church in Germantown, 
Virginia, was founded about 1714. Johann Philip Boehm 
(d. 1749), a school teacher from Worms, although not ordained, 
preached after 1725 to congregations at Falckner's Swamp, 
Skippack, and White Marsh, Pennsylvania, and in 1729 he was 
ordained by Dutch Reformed ministers in New York. Georg 
Michael Weiss {c. 1700-c. 1762), a graduate of Heidelberg, 
ordained and sent to America by the Upper Consistory of the 
Palatinate in 1727, organized a church in Philadelphia; preached 
at Skippack; worked in Dutchess and Schoharie counties, New 
York, in 1731-46; and then returned to his old field in 
Pennsylvania. Johann Heinrich Goetschius was pastor 
{c. 1731-38) of ten churches in Pennsylvania, and was ordained 
by the Presbyterian Synod of Philadelphia in 1737. A part of 
his work was undertaken by Johann Conrad Wirtz, who 
was ordained by the New Brunswick (New Jersey) Presbytery 
in 1750, and in 1761-63 was pastor at York, Pennsylvania. 
A church was built in 1736 at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where 
Johann Bartholomaeus Rieger (1707-1769), who came from 
Germany with Weiss on his return in 1731, had preached for 
several years. Michael Schlatter (1716-1790), a Swiss of St 
Gall, sent to America in 1746 by the Synods (Dutch Reformed) 
of Holland, immediately convened Boehm, Weiss and Rieger 
in Philadelphia, and with them planned a Coetus, which first 
met in September 1747; in 1751 he presented the cause of the 
Coetus in Germany and Holland, where he gathered funds; in 
1752 came back to America with six ministers, one of whom, 
William Stoy (1726-1801), was an active opponent of the 
Coetus and of clericalism after 1772. Thereafter Schlatter's 
work was in the charity schools of Pennsylvania, which the 
people thought were tinged with Episcopalianism. Many 
churches and pastors were independent of the Coetus, notably 
John Joachim Zubly (1724-1781), of St Gall, who migrated to 
S. Carolina in 1726, and was a delegate to the Continental 
Congress from Georgia, but opposed independence and was 
banished from Savannah in 1777. Within the Coetus there were 
two parties. Of the Pietists of the second class one of the 
leaders was Philip William Otterbein (1726-1813), born in 
Dillenburg, Nassau, whose system of class-meetings was the 
basis of a secession from which grew the United Brethren in 
Christ, commonly called the "New Reformed Church," organized 
in 1800. During the War of Independence the Pennsylvania 
members of the Church were mostly attached to the American 
cause, and Nicholas Herkimer and Baron von Steuben were 
both Reformed; but in New York and in the South there were 
many German Loyalists. 

Franklin College was founded by Lutherans and Reformed, 
with much outside help, notably that of Benjamin Franklin, 
at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1787. 

The Coetus had actually assumed the power of ordination 
in 1772 and formally assumed it in 1791; in 1792 a synodical 
constitution was prepared; and in 1793 the first independent 



synod met in Lancaster and adopted the constitution, thu9 
becoming independent of Holland. Its churches numbered 
178, and there were about 15,000 communicants. The strongest 
churches were those of Philadelphia, Lancaster and Germantown 
in Pennsylvania, and Frederick in Maryland. The German 
Reformed churches in Lunenburg county, Nova Scotia, became 
Presbyterian in 1837; a German church in Waldoboro, Maine, 
after a century, became Congregational in 1850. The New 
York churches became Dutch Reformed. The New Jersey 
churches rapidly fell away, becoming Presbyterian, Dutch 
Reformed, or Lutheran. In Virginia many churches became 
Episcopalian and others United Brethren. By 1825, 13 Re- 
formed ministers were settled W. of the Alleghanies. The 
Synod in 1819 divided itself into eight Classes. In 1824 the 
Classis of Northampton, Pennsylvania (13 ministers and 80 
congregations), became the Synod of Ohio, the parent Synod 
having refused to allow the Classis to ordain. In 1825 there 
were 87 ministers, and in the old Synod about 23,300 com- 
municants. 

A schism over the establishment of a theological seminary 
resulted in the organization of a new synod of the " Free German 
Reformed Congregations of Pennsylvania," which returned to 
the parent synod in 1837. 

John Winebrenner (q.v.), pastor in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 
left the Church in 1828, and in 1830 organized the " Church of 
God "; his main doctrinal difference with the Reformed Church 
was on infant baptism. 

In 1825 the Church opened a theological seminary at Carlisle, 
Pennsylvania, affiliated with Dickinson College. James Ross 
Reily (1788-1844) travelled in Holland and Germany, collecting 
money and books for the seminary. It was removed in 1829 
to York, where an academy was connected with it; in 1835 
the academy (which in 1836 became Marshall College) and in 
1837 the seminary removed to Mercersburg, where, in 1840, 
John W. Nevin (q.v.) became its president, and with Philip 
Schaff (q.v.) founded the Mercersburg theology, which lost to 
the Church many who objected to Nevin's (and Schaff's) 
Romanizing tendencies. The seminary was removed in 1871 
from Mercersburg to Lancaster, whither the college had gone 
in 1853 to form, with Franklin College, Franklin and Marshall 
College. 

In 1842 the Western Synod (i.e. the Synod of Ohio) adopted 
the constitution of the Eastern, and divided into classes. It 
founded in 1850 a theological school and Heidelberg University 
at Tiffin, Ohio. The Synods organized a General Synod in 
1863. New German Synods were: that of the North- West 
(1867), organized at Fort Wayne, Ind.; that of the East (1875), 
organized at Philadelphia:; and the Central Synod (1881), 
organized at Galion, Ohio. New English Synods were: that of 
Pittsburg (1870); that of the Potomac (1873); and that of the 
Interior (1887), organized at Kansas City, Missouri. In 1894 
there were eight district synods. 

After a long controversy over a liturgy (connected in part 
with the Mercersburg controversy) a Directory of Worship was 
adopted in 1887. 

The principal organizations of the Church are: the Board of 
Publication (1844) ; the Society for the Relief of Ministers and their 
Widows (founded in 1755 by the Pennsylvania Coetus; incorporated 
in 1 8 10; transferred to the Synod in 1833); a Board of Domestic 
Missions (1826); a Board of Foreign Missions (1858; reorganized 
in 1873), which planted a mission in Japan (1879), now a part of 
the Union Church of Japan, and one in China (1900). The Church 
has publishing houses in Philadelphia (replacing that of Chambers- 
burg, Pa., founded in 1840 and destroyed in July 1864 by the 
Confederate army) and in Cleveland, Ohio. 

Colleges connected with the Church, besides the seminary at 
Lancaster, Franklin and Marshall College and Heidelberg University, 
are: Catawba College (1851) at Newton, North Carolina; and Ursinus 
College (1869), founded by the Low Church wing, at Collegeville, 
Pennsylvania, which had, until 1908, a theological seminary, then 
removed to Dayton, Ohio, where it united with Heidelberg 
Theological Seminary (until 1908 at Tiffin) to form the Central 
Theological Seminary. 

In 1906, according to Bulletin 103 (1909) of the Bureau of the 
United States Census, the Church had 1736 organizations in the 



REFORMED EPISCOPAL CHURCH— REFRACTION 



25 



United States, 1740 churches and 292,654 communicants, of whom 
177,270 were in Pennsylvania, and about one-sixth (50,732) were 
in Ohio. Other states in which the Church had communicants 
were: Maryland (13,442), Wisconsin (8386), Indiana (8289), New 
York (5700), North Carolina (4718), Iowa (3692), Illinois (2652), 
Virginia (2288), Kentucky (2101), Michigan (1666), Nebraska (.1616), 
and (less than 1500 in each of the following arranged in rank) 
S. Dakota, Missouri, New Jersey, Connecticut, Kansas, W. Virginia 
N. Dakota, Minnesota, District of Columbia, Oregon, Massachusetts, 
Tennessee, California, Colorado, Arkansas and Oklahoma. 

See James I. Good, History of the Reformed Church in the United 
States, 1725-1792 (Reading, Pa., 1899), and Historical Handbook 
(Philadelphia, 1902); and the sketch by Joseph Henry Dubbs in 
vol. viii. (New York, 1895) of the American Church History 
Series. 

REFORMED EPISCOPAL CHURCH, a Protestant community 
in the United States of America, dating from December 1873. 
The influence of the Tractarian movement began to be felt at 
an early date in the Episcopal Church of the United States, and 
the ordination of Arthur Carey in New York, July 1843, a 
clergyman who denied that there was any difference in points of 
faith between the Anglican and the Roman Churches and con- 
sidered the Reformation an unjustifiable act, brought into 
relief the antagonism between Low Church and High Church, 
a struggle which went on for a generation with increasing 
bitterness. The High Church party lost no opportunity of 
arraigning any Low Churchman who conducted services in 
non-episcopal churches, and as the Triennial Conference gave 
no heed to remonstrances on the part of these ecclesiastical 
offenders they came to the conclusion that they must either crush 
their consciences or seek relief in separation. The climax was 
reached when George D. Cummins (1822-1876), assistant bishop 
of Kentucky, was angrily attacked for officiating at the united 
communion service held at the meeting of the Sixth General 
Conference of the Evangelical Alliance in New York, October 
1873. This prelate resigned his charge in the Episcopal Church 
on November nth, and a month later, with seven other clergy- 
men and a score of laymen, constituted the Reformed Episcopal 
Church. Cummins was chosen as presiding officer of the new 
body, and consecrated Charles E. Cheney (b. 1836), rector of 
Christ Church, Chicago, to be bishop. The followingDeclaration 
of Principles (here abridged) was promulgated:— 

I. An expression of belief in the Bible as the Word of God, and 
the sole rule of faith and practice, in the Apostles' Creed, in the 
divine institution of the two sacraments and in the doctrines of 
grace substantially as set out in the 39 Articles. ... 

II. The recognition of Episcopacy not as of divine right but 
as a very ancient and desirable form of church polity. 

III. An acceptance of the Prayer Book as revised by the General 
Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1785 with 
liberty to revise it as may seem most conducive to the edification 
of the people. 

IV. A condemnation of certain positions, viz. : — 

(a) That the Church of God exists only in one form of ecclesi- 

astical polity. 

(b) That Christian ministers as distinct from all believers 

have any special priesthood. 

(c) That the Lord's Table is an altar on which the body and 

blood of Christ are offered anew to the Father. 

(d) That the presence of Christ is a material one. 

(e) That Regeneration is inseparably connected with 

Baptism. 

The Church recognizes no orders of ministry, presbyters and 
deacons; the Episcopate is an office, not an order, the bishop 
being the chief presbyter, primus inter pares. There are some 
7 bishops, 85 clergy and about 9500 communicants. _ £1600 
annually is raised for foreign missionary work in India. The 
Church was introduced into England in 1877, and has in 
that country a presiding bishop and about 20 organized congrega- 
tions. The Church has a theological seminary in Philadelphia. 

REFRACTION (Lat. refringere, to break open or apart), in 
physics, the change in the direction of a wave of light, heat or 
sound which occurs when such a wave passes from one medium 
into another of different density. 

I. Refraction of Light 

When a ray of light traversing a homogeneous medium falls 
on the bounding surface of another transparent homogeneous 



medium, it is found that the direction of the transmitted ray 
in the second medium is different from that of the incident 
ray; in other words, the ray is refracted or bent at the 
point of incidence. The laws governing refraction are: 
(1) the refracted and incident rays are coplanar with the 
normal to the refracting surface at the point of incidence, 
and (2) the ratio of the sines of the angles between the 
normal and the incident and refracted rays is constant for the 
two media, but depends on the nature of the light employed, 
i.e. on its wave length. This constant is called the relative 
refractive index of the second medium, and may be denoted 
by Hah, the suffix ab signifying that the light passes from 
medium a to medium b; similarly ix.\, a denotes the relative 
refractive index of a with regard to b. The absolute refractive 
index is the index when the first medium is a vacuum. Ele- 
mentary phenomena in refraction, such as the apparent bending 
of a stick when partially immersed in water, were observed in 
very remote times, but the laws, as stated above, were first 
grasped in the I'/th century by W. Snell and published by 
Descartes, the full importance of the dependence of the refractive 
index on the nature of the light employed being first thoroughly 
realized by Newton in his famous prismatic decomposition of 
white light into a coloured spectrum. Newton gave a theor- 
etical interpretation of these laws on the basis of his corpuscular 
theory, as did also Huygens on the wave theory (see Light, II. 
Theory of). In this article we only consider refractions at 
plane surfaces, refraction at spherical surfaces being treated 
under Lens. The geometrical theory will be followed, the 
wave theory being treated in Light, Diffraction and Dis- 
persion. 

Refraction at a Plane Surface. — Let LM (fig. 1) be the surface 




dividing two homogeneous "media A and B; let 10 be a ray in 
the first medium incident on LM at O, and let OR be the refracted 
ray. Draw the normal POQ. Then by Snell 's law we have 
invariably sin IOP/sin QOR =/*„&. Hence if two of these 
quantities be given the third can be calculated. The commonest 
question is: Given the incident ray and the refractive index to 
construct the refracted ray. A simple construction is to take 
along the incident ray 01, unit distance OC, and a distance OD 
equal to the refractive index in the same units. Draw CE 
perpendicular to LM, and draw an arc with centre O and radius 
OD, cutting CE in E. Then EO produced downwards is the 
refracted ray. The proof is left to the reader. 

In the figure the given incident ray is assumed to be passing 
from a less dense to a denser medium, and it is seen by the con- 
struction or by examining the formula sin /3 = sin o/ju that for all 
values of a there is a corresponding value of P . Consider the 
case when the light passes from a denser to a less dense medium. 
In the equation sin /3 = sin a/p we have in this case ji<i. Now 
if sin a<n, we have sin o/m< i, and hence is real. If sin a = /x, then 
sin /S=i, i.e. = 90°; in other words, the refracted ray in the 
second medium passes parallel to and grazes the bounding surface. 
The angle of incidence, which is given by sin S = i/j», is termed 
the critical angle. For greater values it is obvious that sin o/m > I 
and there is no refraction into the second medium, the rays being 
totally reflected back into the first medium; this is called total 
internal reflection. 

Images produced by Refraction at Plane Surfaces. — If a luminous 
point be situated in a medium separated from one of less density 
by a plane surface, the ray normal to this surface will be unre- 
fracted, whilst the others will undergo refraction according to 
their angles of emergence. If the rays in the less dense medium 
be produced into the denser medium, they envelop a caustic, but 
by restricting ourselves to a small area about the normal ray_ it 
is seen that they intersect this ray in a point which is the geometrical 



26 



REFRACTION 



image of the luminous source. The position of this point can be 
easily determined. If I be the distance of the source below the 
surface, /' the distance of the image, and p. the refractive index, 
then I' = 1/ p. This theory provides a convenient method for 
determining the refractive index of a plate. A micrometer 
microscope, with vertical motion, is focused on a scratch on the 
surface of its stage; the plate, which has a fine scratch on its 
upper surface, is now introduced, and the microscope is successively 
focused on the scratch on the stage as viewed through the plate, 
and on the scratch on the plate. The difference between the first 
and third readings gives the thickness of the plate, corresponding 
to / above, and between the second and third readings the depth 
of the image, corresponding to /'. 

Refraction by a Prism. — In optics a prism is a piece of trans- 
parent material bounded by two plane faces which meet at a 
definite angle, called the refracting angle of the prism, in a straight 
line called the edge of the prism; a section perpendicular to the 
edge is called a principal section. Parallel rays, refracted succes- 
sively at the two faces, emerge from the prism as a system of 
parallel rays, but the direction is altered by an amount called 
the deviation. The deviation depends on the angles of incidence 
and emergence; but, since the course of a ray may always be 
reversed, there must be a stationary value, either a maximum 
or minimum, when the ray traverses the prism symmetrically, 
i.e. when the angles of incidence and emergence are equal. As a 
matter of fact, it is a minimum, and the position is called the 
angle of minimum deviation. The relation between the minimum 
deviation D, the angle of the prism i, and the refractive index 
li is found as follows. Let in fig. 2, PQRS be the course of the 




ray through the prism; the internal angles <#>', 4>' each equal 
ii, and the angles of incidence and emergence 0, \[> are each equal 
and connected with <j>' by Snell's law, i.e. sin0 = ^ sin0'. Also the 
deviation D is 2 (<£-<#>')• Hence M = sin 0/sin <£' = sin§ (D+i)/sinJ?. 

Refractometers. — Instruments for determining the refractive 
indices of media are termed refractometers. 

The simplest are really spectrometers, consisting of a glass 
prism, usually hollow and fitted with accurately parallel glass 
sides, mounted on a table which carries a fixed collimation tube 
and a movable observing tube, the motion of the latter being 
recorded on a graduated circle. The collimation tube has a 
narrow adjustable slit at its outer end and a lens at the nearer 
end, so that the light leaves the tube as a parallel beam. The 
refracting angle of the prism, i in our previous notation, is deter- 
mined by placing the prism with its refracting edge towards the 
collimator, and observing when the reflections of the slit in the 
two prism faces coincide with the cross-wires in the observing 
telescope; half the angle between these two positions gives i. 
To determine the position of minimum deviation, or D, the prism 
is removed, and the observing telescope is brought into line with 
the slit; in this position the graduation is read. The prism is 
replaced, and the telescope moved until it catches the refracted 
rays. The prism is now turned about a vertical axis until a 
position is found when the telescope has to be moved towards the 
collimator in order to catch the rays ; this operation sets the prism 
at the angle of minimum deviation. The refractive index n is 
calculated from the formula given above. 

More readily manipulated and of superior accuracy are refracto- 
meters depending on total reflection. The Abbe refractometer 
(fig. 3) essentially consists of a double Abbe prism AB to contain 
the substance to be experimented with ; and a telescope F to ob- 
serve the border line of the total reflection. The prisms, which are 
right-angled and made of the same flint glass, are mounted in a 
hinged frame such that the lower prism, which is used for purposes 
of illumination, can be locked so that the hypothenuse faces are 
distant by about 0-15 mm., or rotated away from the upper prism. 
The double prism is used in examining liquids, a few drops being 
placed between the prisms; the single prism is used when solids 
or plastic bodies are employed. The mount is capable of rotation 
about a horizontal axis by an alidade /. The telescope is provided 
with a reticule, which can be brought into exact coincidence 
with the observed border line, and is rigidly fastened to a sector 



S graduated directly in refractive indices. The reading is effected 
by a lens L. Beneath the prisms is a mirror for reflecting light 




Fig. 3. 

into the apparatus. To use the apparatus, the liquid having been 
inserted between the prisms, or the solid attached by its own 
adhesiveness or by a drop of monobromnaphthalene to the upper 
prism, the prism case is rotated until the field of view consists of a 
light and dark portion, and the border line is now brought into 
coincidence with the reticule of the telescope. In using a lamp 
or daylight this border is coloured, and hence a compensator, 
consisting of two equal Amici prisms, is placed between the 
objective and the prisms. These Amici prisms can be rotated, 
in opposite directions, until they produce a dispersion opposite 
in sign to that originally seen, and hence the border line now 
appears perfectly sharp and colourless. When at zero the alidade 
corresponds to a refractive index of 1-3, and any other reading 
gives the corresponding index correct to about 2 units in the 4th 
decimal place. Since temperature markedly affects the refractive 
index, this apparatus is provided with a device for heating the prisms. 
Figs. 4 and 5 show the course of the rays when a solid and liquid 




Fig. 4- 



Fig. 5- 



are being experimented with. Dr R. Wollny's butter refracto- 
meter, also made by Zeiss, is constructed similarly to Abbe's 
form, with the exception that the prism casing is rigidly attached 
to the telescope, and the observation made by noting the point where 
the border line intersects an appropriately graduated scale in the 
focal plane of the telescope objective, fractions being read by a 
micrometer screw attached to the objective. This apparatus is 
also provided with an arrangement for heating. 

This method of reading is also employed in Zeiss's " dipping 
refractometer" (fig. 6). This instrument consists of a telescope R 
having at its lower end a prism P with a refracting angle of 63 °, 
above which and below the objective is a movable compensator A 
for purposes of annulling the dispersion about the border line. I» 



REFRACTION 



27 



the focal plane of the objective O there is a scale Sc, exact reading 
being made by a micrometer Z. If a large quantity of liquid be 




Fig. 6. — Zeiss 's Dipping Refractometer. 



available it is sufficient to dip the refractometer perpendicularly 
into a beaker containing the liquid and to transmit light into the 
instrument by means of a mirror. If only a smaller quantity be 
available, it is enclosed in a metal beaker M, which forms an exten- 
sion of the instrument, and the liquid is retained there by a plate D. 
The instrument is now placed in a trough B, containing water and 
having one side of ground glass G; light is reflected into the 
refractometer by means of a mirror S outside this trough. An 
accuracy of 3-7 units in the 5th decimal place is obtainable. 

The Pulfrich refractometer is also largely used, especially for 
liquids. It consists essentially of a right-angled glass prism placed 
on a metal foundation with the faces at right angles horizontal 
and vertical, the hypothenuse face being on the support. The 
horizontal face is fitted with a small cylindrical vessel to hold the 
liquid. Light is led to the prism at grazing incidence by means 
of a collimator, and is refracted through the vertical face, the 
deviation being observed by a telescope rotating about a graduated 
circle. From this the refractive index is readily calculated if the 
refractive index of the prism for the light used be known: a fact 
supplied by the maker. The instrument is also available for 
determining the refractive index of isotropic solids. A little of 
the solid is placed in the vessel and a mixture of monobromnaph- 
thalene and acetone (in which the solid must be insoluble) is added, 
and adjustment made by adding either one or other liquid until 
the border line appears sharp, i.e. until the liquid has the same 
index as the solid. 

The Herbert Smith refractometer (fig. 7) is especially suitable 
for determining the refractive index of gems, a constant which is 




Fig. 7. 

most valuable in distinguishing the precious stones. It consists 
of a hemisphere of very dense glass, having its plane surface fixed 



at a certain angle to the axis of the instrument. Light is admitted 
by a window on the under side, which is inclined at the same angle, 
but in the opposite sense, to the axis. The light on emerging from 
the hemisphere is received by a convex lens, in the focal plane of 
which is a scale graduated to read directly in refractive indices. 
The light then traverses a positive eye-piece. To use the instru- 
ment for a gem, a few drops of methylene iodide (the refractive 
index of which may be raised to i-8oo by dissolving sulphur in it) 
are placed on the plane surface of the hemisphere and a facet of 
the stone then brought into contact with the surface. If mono- 
chromatic light be used (i.e. the D line of the sodium flame) the 
field is sharply divided into a light and a dark portion, and the posi- 
tion of the line of demarcation on the scale immediately gives the 
refractive index. It is necessary for the liquid to have a higher 
refractive index than the crystal, and also that there is close con- 
tact between the facet and the lens. The range of the instrument 
is between 1-400 and 1-760, the results being correct to two units 
in the third decimal place if sodium light be used. (C. E.*) 

II. Double Refraction 

That a stream of light on entry into certain media can give 
rise to two refracted pencils was discovered in the case of Iceland 
spar by Erasmus Bartholinus, who found that one pencil had 
a direction given by the ordinary law of refraction, but that the 
other was bent in accordance with a new law that he was 
unable to determine. This law was discovered about eight 
years later by Christian Huygens. According to Huygens' 
fundamental principle, the law of refraction is determined by 
the form and orientation of the wave-surface in the crystal — 
the locus of points to which a disturbance emanating from a 
luminous point travels in unit time. In the case of a doubly 
refracting medium the wave-surface must have two sheets, 
one of which is spherical, if one of the pencils obey in all cases 
the ordinary law of refraction. Now Huygens observed that a 
natural crystal of spar behaves in precisely the same way which- 
ever pair of faces the light passes through, and inferred from 
this fact that the second sheet of the wave-surface must be a 
surface of revolution round a line equally inclined to the faces 
of the rhomb, i.e. round the axis of the crystal. He accordingly 
assumed it to be a spheroid, and finding that refraction in the 
direction of the axis was the same for both streams, he concluded 
that the sphere and the spheroid touched one another in the axis. 

So far as his experimental means permitted, Huygens veri- 
fied the law of refraction deduced from this hypothesis, but its 
correctness remained unrecognized until the measures of W. H. 
Wollaston in 1802 and of E. T. Malus in 1810. More recently 
its truth has been established with far more perfect optical 
appliances by R. T. Glazebrook, Ch. S. Hastings and others. 

In the case of Iceland spar and several other crystals the 
extraordinarily refracted stream is refracted away from the 
axis, but Jean Baptiste Biot in 1814 discovered that in many 
cases the reverse occurs, and attributing the extraordinary 
refractions to forces that act as if they emanated from the axis, 
he called crystals of the latter kind " attractive," those of the 
former "repulsive." They are now termed " positive " and 
" negative " respectively; and Huygens' law applies to both 
classes, the spheroid being prolate in the case of positive, and 
oblate in the case of negative crystals. It was at first supposed 
that Huygens' law applied to all doubly refracting media. Sir 
David Brewster, however, in 181 5, while examining the rings 
that are seen round the optic axis in polarized light, discovered 
a number of crystals that possess two optic axes. He showed, 
moreover, that such crystals belong to the rhombic, monoclinic 
and anorthic (triclinic) systems, those of the tetragonal and 
hexagonal systems being uniaxal, and those of the cubic system 
being optically isotropic. 

Huygens found in the course of his researches that the streams 
that had traversed a rhomb of Iceland spar had acquired new 
properties with respect to transmission through a second 
crystal. This phenomenon is called polarization (q.v.), and the 
waves are said to be polarized — the ordinary in its principal 
plane and the extraordinary in a plane perpendicular to its 
principal plane, the principal plane of a wave being the plane 
containing its normal and the axis of the crystal. From the 
facts of polarization Augustin Jean Fresnel deduced that the 



28 



REFRACTION 



vibrations in plane polarized light are rectilinear and in the 
plane of the wave, and arguing from the symmetry of uniaxal 
crystals that vibrations perpendicular to the axis are propa- 
gated with the same speed in all directions, he pointed out that 
this would explain the existence of an ordinary wave, and the 
relation between its speed and that of the extraordinary wave. 
From these ideas Fresnel was forced to the conclusion, that he 
at once verified experimentally, that in biaxal crystals there is 
no spherical wave, since there is no single direction round which 
such crystals are symmetrical; and, recognizing the difficulty of 
a direct determination of the wave-surface, he attempted to 
represent the laws of double refraction by the aid of a simpler 
surface. 

The essential problem is the determination of the propaga- 
tional speeds of plane waves as dependent upon the directions 
of their normals. These being known, the deduction of the 
wave-surface follows at once, since it is to be regarded as the 
envelope at any subsequent time of all the plane waves that at 
a given instant may be supposed to pass through a given point, 
the ray corresponding to any tangent plane or the direction of 
transport of energy being by Huygens' principle the radius- 
vector from the centre to the point of contact. Now Fresnel 
perceived that in uniaxal crystals the speeds of plane waves in 
any direction are by Huygens' law the reciprocals of the semi- 
axes of the central section, parallel to the wave-fronts, of a 
spheroid, whose polar and equatorial axes are the reciprocals 
of the equatorial and polar axes of the spheroidal sheet of 
Huygens' wave-surface, and that the plane of polarization of a 
wave is perpendicular to the axis that determines its speed. 
Hence it occurred to him that similar relations with respect to 
an ellipsoid with three unequal axes would give the speeds and 
polarizations of the waves in a biaxal crystal, and the results 
thus deduced he found to be in accordance with all known facts. 
This ellipsoid is called the ellipsoid of polarization, the index 
ellipsoid and the indicatrix. 

We may go a step further; for by considering the intersection 
of a wave-front with two waves, whose normals are indefinitely 
near that of the first and lie in planes perpendicular and parallel 
respectively to its plane of polarization, it is easy to show that 
the ray corresponding to the wave is parallel to the line in which 
the former of the two planes intersects the tangent plane to the 
ellipsoid at the end of the semi-diameter that determines the 
wave-velocity; and it follows by similar triangles that the 
ray-velocity is the reciprocal of the length of the perpendicular 
from the centre on this tangent plane. The laws of double 
refraction are thus contained in the following proposition. The 
propagational speed of a plane wave in any direction is given 
by the reciprocal of one of the semi-axes of the central section 
of the ellipsoid of polarization parallel to the wave; the plane 
of polarization of the wave is perpendicular to this axis; the 
corresponding ray is parallel to the line of intersection of the 
tangent plane at the end of the axis and the plane containing 
the axis and the wave-normal; the ray- velocity is the reciprocal 
of the length of the perpendicular from the centre on the tangent 
plane. By reciprocating with respect to a sphere of unit radius 
concentric with the ellipsoid, we obtain a similar proposition in 
which the ray takes the place of the wave-normal, the ray- 
velocity that of the wave-slowness (the reciprocal of the velocity) 
and vice versa. The wave-surface is thus the apsidal surface of 
the reciprocal ellipsoid; this gives the simplest means of obtain- 
ing its equation, and it is readily seen that its section by each 
plane of optical symmetry consists of an ellipse and a circle, 
and that in the plane of greatest and least wave-velocity these 
curves intersect in four points. The radii-vectors to these 
points are called the ray-axes. 

When the wave-front is parallel to either system of circular 
sections of the ellipsoid of polarization, the problem of finding 
the axes of the parallel central section becomes indeterminate, 
and all waves in this direction are propagated with the same 
speed, whatever may be their polarization. The normals to 
the circular sections are thus the optic axes. To determine the 
rays corresponding to an optic axis, we may note that the ray 



and the perpendiculars to it through the centre, in planes 
perpendicular and parallel to that of the ray and the optic axis, 
are three lines intersecting at right angles of which the two 
latter are confined to given planes, viz. the central circular 
section of the ellipsoid and the normal section of the cylinder 
touching the ellipsoid along this section: whence by a known 
proposition the ray describes a cone whose sections parallel to 
the given planes are circles. Thus a plane perpendicular to the 
optic axis touches the wave-surface along a circle. Similarly 
the normals to the circular sections of the reciprocal ellipsoid, or 
the axes of the tangent cylinders to the polarization-ellipsoid 
that have circular normal sections, are directions of single-ray 
velocity or ray-axes, and it may be shown as above that corre- 
sponding to a ray-axis there is a cone of wave-normals with 
circular sections parallel to the normal section of the corre- 
sponding tangent cylinder, and its plane of contact with the 
ellipsoid. Hence the extremities of the ray-axes are conical 
points on the wave-surface. These peculiarities of the wave- 
surface are the cause of the celebrated conical refractions 
discovered by Sir William Rowan Hamilton and H. Lloyd, 
which afford a decisive proof of the general correctness of 
Fresnel's wave-surface, though they cannot, as Sir G. Gabriel 
Stokes (Math, and Phys. Papers, iv. 184) has pointed out, be 
employed to decide between theories that lead to this surface 
as a near approximation. 

In general, both the direction and the magnitude of the axes 
of the polarization-ellipsoid depend upon the frequency of the 
light and upon the temperature, but in many cases the possible 
variations are limited by considerations of symmetry. Thus 
the optic axis of a uniaxal crystal is invariable, being deter- 
mined by the principal axis of the system to which it belongs: 
most crystals are of the same sign for all colours, the refractive 
indices and their difference both increasing with the frequency, 
but a few crystals are of opposite sign for the extreme spectral 
colours, becoming isotropic for some intermediate wave-length. 
In crystals of the rhombic system the axes of the ellipsoid 
coincide in all cases with the crystallographic axes, but in a few 
cases their order of magnitude changes so that the plane of the 
optic axes for red light is at right angles to that for blue light, 
the crystal being uniaxal for an intermediate colour. In the 
case of the monoclinic system one axis is in the direction of the 
axis of the system, and this is generally, though there are notable 
exceptions, either the greatest, the least, or the intermediate 
axis of the ellipsoid for all colours and temperatures. In the 
latter case the optic axes are in the plane of symmetry, and a 
variation of their acute bisectrix occasions the phenomenon 
known as "inclined dispersion ": in the two former cases the 
plane of the optic axes is perpendicular to the plane of symmetry, 
and if it vary with the colour of the light, the crystals exhibit 
" crossed " or " horizontal dispersion " according as it is the 
acute or the obtuse bisectrix that is in the fixed direction. 

The optical constants of a crystal may be determined either 
with a prism or by observations of total reflection. In the 
latter case the phenomenon is characterized by two angles — the 
critical angle and the angle between the plane of incidence and 
the line limiting the region of total reflection in the field of view. 
With any crystalline surface there are four cases in which this 
latter angle is oo°, and the principal refractive indices of the 
crystal are obtained from those calculated from the correspond- 
ing critical angles, by excluding that one of the mean values 
for which the plane of polarization of the limiting rays is 
perpendicular to the plane of incidence. A difficulty, however, 
may arise when the crystalline surface is very nearly the plane 
of the optic axes, as the plane of polarization in the second mean 
case is then also very nearly perpendicular to the plane of 
incidence; but since the two mean refractive indices will be very 
different, the ambiguity can be removed by making, as may 
easily be done, an approximate measure of the angle between the 
optic axes and comparing it with the values calculated by using 
in turn each of these indices (C. M. Viola, Zeit. filr Kryst., 1902, 
36, p. 245). 

A substance originally isotropic can acquire the optical 



REFRESHER 



29 



properties of a crystal undef the influence of homogeneous 
strain, the principal axes of the wave-surface being parallel to 
those of the strain, and the medium being uniaxal, if the strain 
be symmetrical. John Kerr also found that a dielectric under 
electric stress behaves as an uniaxal crystal with its optic axis 
parallel to the electric force, glass acting as a negative and 
bisulphide of carbon as a positive crystal {Phil. Mag., 1875 (4), 

L -337)- , p . 

Not content with determining the iaws of double refraction, 
Fresnel also attempted to give their mechanical explanation. 
He supposed that the aether consists of a system of distinct 
material points symmetrically arranged and acting on one 
another by forces that depend for a given pair only on their 
distance. If in such a system a single molecule be displaced, the 
projection of the force of restitution on the direction of dis- 
placement is proportional to the inverse square of the parallel 
radius- vector of an ellipsoid; and of all displacements that can 
occur in a given plane, only those in the direction of the axes of 
the parallel central section of the quadric develop forces whose 
projection on the plane is along the displacement. In undula- 
tions, however, we are concerned with the elastic forces due to 
relative displacements, and, accordingly, Fresnel assumed that 
the forces called into play during the propagation of a system of 
plane waves (of rectilinear transverse vibrations) differ from 
those developed by the parallel displacement of a single molecule 
only by a constant factor, independent of the plane of the wave. 
Next, regarding the aether as incompressible, he assumed that the 
components of the elastic forces parallel to the wave-front are 
alone operative, and finally, on the analogy of a stretched string, 
that the propagational speed of a plane wave of permanent 
type is proportional to the square root of the effective force 
developed by the vibrations. With these hypotheses we 
immediately obtain the laws of double refraction, as given by 
the ellipsoid of polarization, with the result that the vibrations 
are perpendicular to the plane of polarization. 

In its dynamical foundations Fresnel's theory, though of 
considerable historical interest, is clearly defective in rigour, 
and a strict treatment of the aether as a crystalline elastic solid 
does not lead naturally to Fresnel's laws of double refraction. 
On the other hand, Lord Kelvin's rotational aether (Math, and 
Phys. Papers, iii. 442) — a medium that has no true rigidity 
but possesses a quasi-rigidity due to elastic resistance to absolute 
rotation — gives these laws at once, if we abolish the resistance 
to compression and, regarding it as gyrostatically isotropic, 
attribute to it aeolotropic inertia. The equations then obtained 
are the same as those deduced in the electro-magnetic theory from 
the circuital laws of A. M. Ampere and Michael Faraday, when 
the specific inductive capacity is supposed aeolotropic. In 
order to account for dispersion, it is necessary to take into 
account the interaction with the radiation of the intra-molecular 
vibrations of the crystalline substance: thus the total current 
on the electro-magnetic theory must be regarded as made up of 
the current of displacement and that due to the oscillations 
of the electrons within the molecules of the crystal. 

Bibliography. — An interesting and instructive account of 
Fresnel's work on double refraction has been given by Emile 
Verdet in his introduction to Fresnel's works: CEuvres d'Augustin 
Fresnel, i. 75 (Paris, 1866); CEuvres de E. Verdet, i. 360 (Paris, 
1872). For an account of theories of double refraction see the 
reports of H. Lloyd, Sir G. G. Stokes and R. T. Glazebrook in 
the Brit. Ass. Reports for 1834, 1862 and 1885, and Lord Kelvin's 
Baltimore Lectures (1904). An exposition of the rotational theory 
of the aether has been given by H. Chipart, Theorie gyrostatique 
de la lumiere (Paris, 1904); and P. Drude's Lehrbuch der Optik, 
2 te Auf. (1906), the first German edition of which was translated 
by C. Riborg Mann and R. A. Milliken in 1902, treats the subject 
from the standpoint of the electro-magnetic theory. The methods 
of determining the optical constants of crystals will be found in 
Th. Liebisch's Physikalische Krystallographie (1891); F. Pockel's 
Lehrbuch der Kristalloptik (1906); and J. Walker's Analytical 
Theory of Light (1904). A detailed list of papers on the geometry 
of the wave-surface has been published by E. Wollfing, Bibl. 
Math., 1902 (3), iii. 361 ; and a general account of the subject 
will be found in the following treatises: L. Fletcher, The Optical 
Indicatrix (1892); Th. Preston, The Theory of Light, 3rd ed. by 
C. J. Joly (1901); A. Schuster, An Introduction to the Theory of 



Optics (1904); R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (1905); E. Maseart, 
Traite d'optique (1889) ; A. Winkelmann, Handbuch der Physik. 

(J. Wal.*) 

III. Astronomical Refraction 

The refraction of a ray of light by the atmosphere as it passes 
from a heavenly body to an observer on the earth's surface, is 
called " astronomical." A knowledge of its amount is a necessary 
datum in the exact determination of the direction of the body. 
In its investigation the fundamental hypothesis is that the strata 
of the air are in equilibrium, which implies that the surfaces of 
equal density are horizontal. But this condition is being 
continually disturbed by aerial currents, which produce con- 
tinual slight fluctuations in the actual refraction, and commonly 
give to the image of a star a tremulous motion. Except for this 
slight motion the refraction is always in the vertical direction; 
that is, the actual zenith distance of the star is always greater 
than its apparent distance. The refracting power of the air is 
nearly proportional to its density. Consequently the amount 
of the refraction varies with the temperature and barometric 
pressure, being greater the higher the barometer and the lower 
the temperature. 

At moderate zenith distances, the amount of the refraction 
varies nearly as the tangent of the zenith distance. Under 
ordinary conditions of pressure and temperature it is, near the 
zenith, about 1 " for each degree of zenith distance. As the tangent 
increases at a greater rate than the angle, the increase of the 
refraction soon exceeds 1" for each degree. At 45° from the 
zenith the tangent is 1 and the mean refraction is about 58". 
As the horizon is approached the tangent increases more and 
more rapidly, becoming infinite at the horizon; but the re- 
fraction now increases at a less rate, and, when the observed 
ray is horizontal, or when the object appears on the horizon, the 
refraction is about 34', or a little greater than the diameter of 
the sun or moon. It follows that when either of these objects is 
seen on the horizon their actual direction is entirely below it. 
One result is that the length of the day is increased by refraction 
to the extent of about five minutes in low latitudes, and still 
more in higher latitudes. At 60° the increase is about nine 
minutes. 

The atmosphere, like every other transparent substance, 
refracts the blue rays of the spectrum more than the red; conse- 
quently, when the image of a star near the horizon is observed 
with a telescope, it presents somewhat the appearance of a 
spectrum. The edge which is really highest, but seems lowest 
in the telescope, is blue, and the opposite one red. When the 
atmosphere is steady this atmospheric spectrum is very marked 
and renders an exact observation of the star difficult. 

Bibliography. — Refraction has been a favourite subject of 
research. See Dr. C. Bruhns, Die astronomische Strahlenbrechung 
(Leipzig, 1861), gives a rSsume of the various formulae of refraction 
which had been developed by the leading investigators up to the 
date 1861. Since then developments of the theory are found in: 
W. Chauvenet, Spherical and Practical Astronomy, i. ; F. Briinnow, 
Sphdrischen Astronomie; S. Newcomb, Spherical Astronomy; R. 
Radau, "Recherches sur la theorie des refractions astronomiques" 
{Annates de V observatoire de Paris, xvi., 1882), " Essai sur les refrac- 
tions astronomiques " (ibid., xix., 1889). 

Among the tables of refraction which have been most used are 
Bessel's, derived from the observations of Bradley in Bessel's 
Fundamenta Astronomiae; and Bessel's revised tables in his Tabulae 
Regiomontanae, in which, however, the constant is too large, but 
which in an expanded form were mostly used at the observatories 
until 1870. The constant use of the Poulkova tables, Tabulae re~ 
fractionum, which is reduced to nearly its true value, has gradually 
replaced that of Bessel. Later tables are those of L. de Ball, 
published at Leipzig in 1906. (S. N.) 

REFRESHER, in English legal phraseology, a further or 
additional fee paid to counsel where a case is adjourned from 
one term or sittings to another, or where it extends over more 
than one day and occupies, either on the first day or partly on 
the first and partly on a subsequent day or days, more than 
five hours without being concluded. The refresher allowed 
for every clear day subsequent to that on which the five hours 
have expired is five to ten guineas for a leading counsel and 
from three to seven guineas for other counsel, but the taxing 



3o 



REFRIGERATING 



master is at liberty to allow larger fees in special circumstances. 
See Rules of the Supreme Court, O. 65, r. 48. 

REFRIGERATING and ICE-MAKING. " Refrigeration " 
(from Lat. frigus, frost) is the cooling of a body by the transfer 
of a portion of its heat to another and therefore a cooler body. 
For ordinary temperatures it is performed directly with water 
as the cooling agent, especially when well water, which usually 
has a temperature of from 52 to 55° F., can be obtained. There 
are, however, an increasingly large number of cases in which 
temperatures below that of any available natural cooling agent 
are required, and in these it is necessary to resort to machines 
which are capable of producing the required cooling effect by 
taking in heat at low temperatures and rejecting it at tempera- 
tures somewhat above that of the natural cooling agent, which 
for obvious reasons is generally water. The function of a 
refrigerating machine, therefore, is to take in heat at a low 
temperature and reject it at a higher one. 

This involves the expenditure of a quantity of work W, the 
amount in any particular case being found by the equation 
W = Q2 — Qi, where W is the work, expressed by its equivalent in British 
thermal units; Qa the quantity of heat, also in B.Ther.U., given 
out at the higher temperature T 2 ; and Qi the heat taken in at 
the lower temperature Ti. It is evident that the discharged heat 
Q 2 is equal to the abstracted heat Qi, plus the work expended, 
seeing that the work W, which causes the rise in temperature from 
Ti to T 2 , is the thermal equivalent of the energy actually expended 
in raising the temperature to the level at which it is rejected. The 
relation then between the work expended and the actual cooling 
work performed denotes the efficiency of the process, and this is 
expressed by Qi/(Qs — Qi) ; but as in a perfect refrigerating machine 
it is understood that the whole of the heat Qi is taken in at the 
absolute temperature Ti, and the whole of the heat Q 2 , is rejected 
at the absolute temperature T 2 , the heat quantities are proportional 
to the temperatures, and the expression Ti/(T S — T) gives the 
ideal coefficient of performance for any stated temperature range, 
whatever working substance is used. These coefficients for a number 
of cases met with in practice are given in the following table. They 

Table I. 



Ti. 

Temperature at 

which Heat is extracted 

in Degrees Fahr. 


T 2 . . 
Temperature at which Heat is rejected in 
Degrees Fahr. 


-10° 

0° 

10° 

20° 

3°: 

40° 


5°° 


60° 


70° 


80° 


90° 


loo° 


7-5 
9-2 

n-7 
16-0 

24-5 
50-0 


6-4 
7-7 
9-4 

12-0 

16-3 
25-0 


5-6 
6-6 
7-8 
9-6 

12-2 

16-7 


5-0 
5-8 
6-7 
8-0 
9-8 
12-5 


4'5 
5-i 
5-9 
6-8 

8-2 
IO-O 


4-1 
4-6 
5-2 
6-o 
7-0 
8-3 



show that in all cases the heat abstracted exceeds by many times 
the heat expended. As an instance, when heat is taken in at 0° 
and rejected at 70 , a perfect refrigerating machine would abstract 
6-6 times as much heat as the equivalent of the energy to be applied. 
If, however, the heat is to be rejected at 100°, then the coefficient 
is reduced to 4-6. 

By examining Table I. it will be seen how important it is to 
reduce the temperature range as much as possible, in order to obtain 
the most economical results. No actual refrigerating machine 
does, in fact, take in heat at the exact temperature of the body 
to be cooled, and reject it at the exact temperature of the cooling 
water, but, for economy in working, it is of great importance that 
the differences should be as small as possible. 

There are two distinct classes of machines used for refrigerat- 
ing and ice-making. In the first refrigeration is produced by 
the expansion of atmospheric air, and in the second by the 
evaporation of a more or less volatile liquid. 

Compressed-air Machines. — A compressed-air refrigerating 
machine consists in its simplest form of three essential parts 
— a compressor, a compressed-air cooler, and an expansion 
cylinder. It is shown diagrammatically in fig. 1 in connexion 
with a chamber which it is keeping cool. The compressor 
draws in air from the room and compresses it, the work expended 
in compression being almost entirely converted into heat. The 
compressed air, leaving the compressor at the temperature T 2 , 
passes through the cooler, where it is cooled by means of water, 
and is then admitted to the expansion cylinder, where it is 



expanded to atmospheric pressure, performing work on the 
piston. The heat equivalent of the mechanical work per- 
formed on the piston is abstracted from the air, which is dis- 
charged at the temperature Ti. This temperature Tj is neces- 

Compression Cylinder Expansion Cylinder 




Fig. i. —Compressed -Air Refrigerating Machine. 

sarily very much below the temperature to be maintained in 
the room, because the cooling effect is produced by transferring 
heat from the room or its contents to the air, which is thereby 
heated. The rise in temperature of the air is, in fact, the measure 
of the cooling effect produced. If such a machine could be 
constructed with reasonable mechanical efficiency to compress 
the air to a temperature but slightly above that of the cooling 
water, and to expand the air to a temperature but slightly 
below that required to be maintained in the room, we should of 
course get a result approximating in efficiency somewhat nearly 
to the figures given in Table I. Unfortunately, however, such 
results cannot be obtained in practice, because the extreme 
lightness of the air and its very small heat capacity (which at 
constant pressure is -2379) would necessitate the employment 
of a great volume, with extremely large and mechanically in- 
efficient cylinders and apparatus. A pound of air, represent- 
ing about 12 cub. ft., if raised io° F. will only take up about 
2-4 B.T.U. Consequently, to make such a machine mechani- 
cally successful a comparatively small weight of air must be 
used, and the temperature difference increased; in other 
words, the air must be discharged at a temperature very much 
below that to be maintained in the room. 

This theory of working is founded on the Carnot cycle for a 
perfect heat motor, a perfect refrigerating machine being simply 
a reversed heat motor. Another theory involves the use of the 
Stirling regenerator, which was proposed in connexion with the 
Stirling heat engine (see Air Engines). The air machine invented 
by Dr. A. Kirk in 1862, and described by him in a paper on the 
" Mechanical Production of Cold " (Proc. Inst. C.E., xxxvii., 
1874, 244), is simply a reversed Stirling air engine, the air working 
in a closed cycle instead of being actually discharged into the room 
to be cooled, as is the usual practice with ordinary compressed- 
air machines. Kirk's machine was used commercially with success 
on a fairly large scale, chiefly for ice-making, and it is recorded that 
it produced about 4 lb of ice for 1 lb of coal. In 1868 J. Davy 
Postle read a paper before the Royal Society of Victoria, suggesting 
the conveyance of meat on board ship in a frozen state by means 
of refrigerated air, and in 1869 he showed by experiment how it 
could be done; but his apparatus was not commercially developed. 
In 1877 a compressed-air machine was designed by J. J. Coleman 
of Glasgow, and in the early part of 1879 one of his machines was 
fitted on board the Anchor liner " Circassia," which successfully 
brought a cargo of chilled beef from America — the first imported 
by the aid of refrigerating machinery, ice having been previously 
used. The first successful cargo of frozen mutton from Australia 
was also brought by a Bell-Coleman machine in 1879. In the 
Bell-Coleman machine the air was cooled during compression by 
means of an injection of water, and further by being brought into 
contact with a shower of water. Another, perhaps the principal, 
feature was the interchanger, an apparatus whereby the compressed 
air was further cooled before expansion by means of the com- 
paratively cold air from the room in its passage to the compressor, 
the same air being used over and over again. The object of this 
interchanger was not only to cool the compressed air before 
expansion, but to condense part of the moisture in it, so reducing 
the quantity of ice or snow produced during expansion. A full 
description of the machine may be found in a paper on " Air- 
Refrigerating Machinery " by J. J. Coleman (Proc. Inst. C.E. 
lxviii., 1882). At the present time the Bell-Coleman machine 
has practically ceased to exist. In such compressed-air machines 



REFRIGERATING 



3i 



as are now made there is no injection of water during compression, 
and the compressed air is cooled in a surface cooler, not by actual 
mixture with a shower of cold water. Further, though the inter- 
changer is still used by some makers, it has been found by experience 
that, with properly constructed valves and passages in the expansion 
cylinder, there is no trouble from the formation of snow, when, as 
is the general practice, the same air is used over and over again, 
the compressor taking its supply from the insulated room. So 
far as the air discharged from the expansion cylinder is concerned, 
its humidity is precisely the same so long as its temperature and 
pressure are the same, inasmuch as when discharged from the 
expansion cylinder it is always in a saturated condition for that 
temperature and pressure. 

The ideal coefficient of performance is about 1, but the actual 
coefficient will be about f , after allowing for the losses incidental 
to working. In practice the air is compressed to about 50 lb per 
square inch above the atmosphere, its temperature rising to 
about 300 F. The compressed air then passes through coolers 
in which it is cooled to within about 5° of the initial temperature 
of the cooling water, and is deprived of a portion of its moisture, 
after which it is admitted into the expansion cylinder and 
expanded nearly to atmospheric pressure. The thermal equi- 
valent of the power exerted on the piston is taken from the 
air, which, with cooling water at 6o° F. and after allowing for 
friction and other losses, is discharged at a temperature of 
6o° to 80° below zero F. according to the size of the machine. 
The pistons of the compression and expansion cylinders are 
connected to the same crankshaft, and the difference between the 
power expended in compression and that restored in expansion, 
plus the friction of the machine, is supplied by means of a steam 
engine coupled to the crankshaft, or by any other source of 
power. For marine purposes two complete machines are 
frequently mounted on one bed-plate and worked either together 
or separately. 

In some machines used in the United States the cold air is 
not discharged into the rooms but is worked in a closed cycle, 
the rooms being cooled by means of overhead pipes through 
which the cold expanded air passes on its way back to the 
compressor. 

Liquid Machines. — Machines of the second class may con- 
veniently be divided into three types: (a) Those in which there 
is no recovery of the refrigerating agent, water being the agent 
employed; they will be dealt with as " Vacuum machines." 

(b) Those in which the agent is recovered by means of mechan- 
ical compression; they are termed " Compression machines." 

(c) Those in which the agent is recovered by means of absorption 
by a liquid; they are known as " Absorption machines." 

In the first class, since the refrigerating liquid is itself rejected, 
the only agent cheap enough to be employed is water. The 
Vacuum boiling point of water varies with pressure; thus at 
machines, one atmosphere or 14-7 lb per square inch it is 212° F., 
whereas at a pressure of -085 lb per square inch it is 32°, 
and at lower pressures there is a still further fall in temperature. 
This property is made use of in vacuum machines. Water at 
ordinary temperature, say 6o°, is placed in an air-tight glass or 
insulated vessel, and when the pressure is reduced by means of 
a vacuum pump it begins to boil, the heat necessary for evapor- 
ation being taken from the water itself. The pressure being 
still further reduced, the temperature is gradually lowered until 
the freezing-point is reached and ice formed, when about one-sixth 
of the original volume has been evaporated. 

The earliest machine of this kind appears to have been made in 
1755 by Dr. William Cullen, who produced the vacuum by means 
of a pump alone. In 1810 Sir John Leslie combined with the air 
pump a vessel containing strong sulphuric acid for absorbing the 
vapour from the air, and is said to have succeeded in producing 
I to 1 J lb of ice in a single operation. E. C. Carre later adopted the 
same principle. In 1878 F. Windhausen patented a vacuum 
machine for producing ice in large quantities, and in 1881 one of 
these machines, said to be capable of making about 12 tons of ice 
per day, was put to work in London. The installation was fully 
described by Carl Pieper (Trans. Soc. of Engineers, 1882, p. 145) 
and by Dr. John Hopkinson (Journal of Soc. of Arts, 1882, vol. 
xxxi. p. 20). The process, however, not being successful from a 
commercial point of view, Was abandoned. At the present time 
vacuum machines are only employed for domestic purposes. The 
hand apparatus invented by H. A. Fleuss consists of a vacuum | 



pump capable of reducing the air pressure to a fraction of a milli- 
metre, the suction pipe of which is connected first with a vessel 
containing sulphuric acid, and second with the vessel containing 
the water to be frozen. Both these vessels are mounted on a rocking 
base, so that the acid can be thoroughly agitated while the machine 
is being worked. As soon as the pump has sufficiently exhausted 
the air from the vessel containing the water, vapour is rapidly 
given off and is absorbed by the acid until sufficient heat has been 
abstracted to bring about the desired reduction in temperature, 
the acid becoming heated by the absorption of water vapour, 
while the water freezes. The small Fleuss machine will produce 
about 1 J lb of ice in one operation of 20 minutes. Iced water 
in a carafe for drinking purposes can be produced in about three 
minutes. The acid vessel holds 9 lb of acid, and nearly 3 lb of ice 
can be made for each 1 lb of acid before the acid has become too weak 
to do further duty. Another machine, which can be easily worked 
by a boy, will produce 20 to 30 lb of ice in one hour, and is perhaps 
the largest size practicable with this method of freezing. The 
temperature attainable depends on the strength and condition of 
the sulphuric acid; ordinarily it can be reduced to zero F., and 
temperatures 20 lower have frequently been obtained. 

Though prior to 1834 several suggestions had been made with 
regard to the production of ice and the cooling of liquids by the 
evaporation of a more volatile liquid than water, the Compres- 
first machine actually constructed and put to work s'°" 
was made by John Hague in that year from the designs macAfae s- 
of Jacob Perkins (Journal of Soc. of Arts, 1882, vol. xxxi. p. 77). 
This machine, though never used commercially, is the parent 
of all modern compression machines. Perkins in his patent 
specification states that the volatile fluid is by preference ether. 
In 1856 and 1857 James Harrison of Geelong, Victoria, patented 
a machine ernbodying the same principle as that of Perkins, but 
worked out in a much more complete and practical manner. It 
is stated that these machines were first made in New South 
Wales in 1859, but the first Harrison machine adopted success- 
fully for industrial purposes in. England was applied in the year 
1861 for cooling oil in order to extract the paraffin. In Harrison's 
machine the agent used was ether (C 2 H 5 ) 2 0. Improvements 
were made by Siebe & Company of London, and a considerable 
number of ether machines both for ice-making and refrigerating 
purposes were supplied by that firm and others up to the year 
1880. In 1870 the subject of refrigeration was investigated by 
Professor Carl Linde of Munich, who was the first to consider 
the question from a thermodynamic point of view. He dealt 
with the coefficient of performance as a common basis of com- 
parison for all machines, and showed that the compression 
vapour machine more nearly reached the theoretic maximum 
than any other (Bayerisches Industrie und Gewerbeblatt, 1870 and 
1871). Linde also examined the physical properties of various 
liquids, and, after making trials with methylic ether in 1872, 
built his first ammonia compression machine in 1873. Since 
then the ammonia compression machine has been most widely 
adopted, though the carbonic acid machine, also compression, 
which was first made in 1880 from Linde's designs, is now used 
to a considerable extent, especially on board ship. 



Compressor 



Condenser 






Refrigerator 



Regulating Valve 
Fig. 2. — Vapour Compression Machine. 

A diagram of a vapour compression machine is shown in fig. 2. 
There are three principal parts, a refrigerator or evaporator, a 
compression pump, and a condenser. The refrigerator, which 



32 



REFRIGERATING 



consists of a coil or series of coils, is connected to the suction side 
of the pump, and the delivery from the pump is connected to the 
condenser, which is generally of somewhat similar construction to 
the refrigerator. The condenser and refrigerator are connected by 
a pipe in which is a valve named the regulator. Outside the re- 
frigerator coils is the air, brine or other substance to be cooled, and 
outside the condenser is the cooling medium, which, as previously 
stated, is generally water. The refrigerating liquid (ether, sulphur 
dioxide, anhydrous ammonia, or carbonic acid) passes from the 
bottom of the condenser through the regulating valve into the 
refrigerator in a continuous stream. The pressure in the refrigerator 
being reduced by the pump and maintained at such a degree as to 
give the required boiling-point, which is of course always lower than 
the temperature outside the coils, heat passes from the substance 
outside, through the coil surfaces, and is taken up by the entering 
liquid, which is converted into vapour at the temperature Ti. The 
vapours thus generated are drawn into the pump, compressed, and 
discharged into the condenser at the temperature T 2 , which is some- 
what above that of the cooling water. Heat is transferred from the 
compressed vapour to the cooling water and the vapour is converted 
into a liquid, which collects at the bottom and returns by the re- 
gulating valve into the refrigerator. As heat is both taken in and 
discharged at constant temperature during the change in physical 
state of the agent, a vapour compression machine must approach 
the ideal much more nearly than a compressed-air machine, in 
which there is no such change. 

This will be seen by taking as an example a case in which the cold 
room is to be kept at io° F., the cooling water being at 60°. Under 
these conditions, the actual evaporating temperature Ti, in a well- 
constructed ammonia compression machine, after allowing for the 
differences necessary for the exchange of heat, would be about 5° 
below zero, and the discharge temperature T would be about 75°. 
An ideal machine, working between 5 below zero and 75 above, 
has a coefficient of about 5-7, or nearly six times that of an ideal 
compressed-air machine of usual construction performing the same 
useful cooling work. 

A vapour compression machine does not, however, work precisely 
in the reversed Carnot cycle, inasmuch as the fall in temperature 
between the condenser and the refrigerator is not produced, nor is 
it attempted to be produced, by the adiabatic expansion of the 
agent, but results from the evaporation of a portion of the liquid 
itself. In other words, the liquid-refrigerating agent enters the 
refrigerator at the condenser temperature and introduces heat 
which has to be taken up by the evaporating liquid before any 
useful refrigerating effect can be performed. The extent of this loss 
is determined by the relation between the liquid heat and the latent 
heat of vaporization at the refrigerator temperature. If r represents 
the latent heat of the vapour, and g 2 and ?i the amounts of heat 
contained in the liquid at the respective temperatures of T2 and Ti, 
then the loss from the heat carried from the condenser into the 
refrigerator is shown by (qi-qO/r and the useful refrigerating effect 
produced in the refrigerator is r — (qz — qi). Assuming, as in the 
previous example, that T 2 is 75 F., and that Ti is 5 below zero, the 
results for various refrigerating agents are as follows : — 

Table II. 





Latent 
Heat. 

r 


Liquid 
Heat. 
52-31 


Net ' 
Refrigeration. 

r-(}2-?i) 


Proportion 
of Loss. 


Anhydrous ammonia 
Sulphurous acid 
Carbonic acid . 


590-33 
173-13 
119-85 


72-556 
29-062 

47-35 


517-774 

144-068 

72-50 


0-1225 

0-168 
o-395 



The results show that the loss is least in the case of anhydrous 
ammonia and greatest in the case of carbonic acid. At higher con- 
denser temperatures the results are even much more favourable to 
ammonia. As the critical temperature (88-4° F.) of carbonic acid 
is approached, the value of r becomes less and less and the refrigerat- 
ing effect is much reduced. When the critical point is reached 
the value of r disappears altogether, and a carbonic-acid machine is 
then dependent for its refrigerating effect on the reduction in tem- 
perature produced by the internal work performed in expanding 
the gaseous carbonic acid from the condenser pressure to that in 
the refrigerator. The abstraction of heat does not then take place 
at constant temperature. The expanded vapour enters the re- 
frigerator at a temperature below that of the substance to be 
cooled, and whatever cooling effect is produced is brought about 
by the superheating of the vapour, the result being that above 
the critical point of carbonic acid the difference T 2 — T 2 is in- 
creased and the efficiency of the machine is reduced. The critical 
temperature of anhydrous ammonia is about 266 F., which is 
never approached in the ordinary working of refrigerating machines. 
Some of the principal physical properties of sulphurous acid, 
anhydrous ammonia, and carbonic acid are given in Tables III., 
IV. and V. 



Table III. — Ledoux's 


Table for Saturated Sulphur 


Dioxide 






Vapour (S0 2 ). 






t 


Vapour- tension 


1 


r 


u 

Volume of 


Temp, of 


in Pounds per 


Heat of Liquid 


Latent Heat of 


one Pound 


Ebullition. 


sq. in. 


from 3 2 Fahr. 


Evaporation. 


of Saturated 


Degs. Fahr. 


Absolute. 


B.T.U. 


B.T.U. 


Vapour. 
Cub. ft. 


— 22 


5-546 


-19-55 


176-98 


I3-I68 


-13 


7-252 


-16-31 


174-94 


10-268 


- 4 


9-303 


-13-05 


172-91 


8-122 


5 


11-803 


- 9-79 


170-82 


6-504 


14 


14-789 


- 6-85 


168-75 


5-254 


23 


18-544 


- 3-26 


166-63 


4-293 


32 


22-468 


0-00 


164-47 


3-540 


41 


27-445 


3-27 


162-39 


2-931 


50 


33-275 


6-55 


160-24 


2-451 


59 


39-958 


9-83 


158-08 


2- 066 


68 


47-637 


13-10 


I55-89 


1-746 


77 


56-3" 


16-38 


I53-67 


1-490 


86 


66-407 


19-69 


151-49 


1-266 


95 


77-641 


22-99 


149-27 


1-089 


104 


90-297 


26-28 


147-02 


0-913 



Table IV ' .—Mollier' 's Table for Saturated Anhydrous Ammonia 
Vapour (NH 3 ). 



* 


Vapour-tension 


5 


r 


u 
Volume of 


Temp, of 


in Pounds per 


Heat of Liquid 


Latent Heat of 


one Pound 


s-q. in. 


from 32 Fahr. 


Evaporation. 


of Saturated 


Degs. Fahr. 


Absolute. 


B.T.U. 


B.T.U. 


Vapour. 
Cub. ft. 


-40 


I0-238 


— 60-048 


600-00 


25-630 


-31 


I3-324 


-53-064 


597-24 


20-120 


— 22 


16-920 


-45-918 


595-08 


15-971 


-13 


21-472 


-38-646 


593-0O 


I2-783 


- 4 


27-000 


— 3I-2I2 


590-00 


I0-3I6 


5 


33-701 


-23-634 


586-82 


8-394 


14 


41-522 


-15-894 


581-00 


6-888 


23 


50-908 


- 8-028 


576-00 


5-703 


32 


61-857 


o-ooo 


571-00 


4-742 


4i 


74-513 


8-172 


562-50 


3-973 


50 


89-159 


16-506 


555-48 


3-364 


59 


105-939 


24-966 


55O-0O 


2-851 


68 


124-994 


33-588 


541-00 


2-435 


77 


146-908 


42-354 


53i-oo 


2-098 


86 


170-782 


51-282 


523-00 


1-810 


95 


197-800 


60-336 


512-50 


1 -57o 


104 


227-662 


69-552 


501-50 


1-361 



Table V. — Mollier 's 


Table for Saturated Carbon Dioxide 






Vapour (C0 2 ) 






t 


Vapour- tension 


Q 


' Vo 


u 
lume of 


Temp, of 


in Pounds per 


Heat of Liquid 


Latent Heat of on< 


j Pound 


Ebullition. 


sq. m. 


from 3 2 Fahr. 


Evaporation. of £ 


aturated 


Degs. Fahr. 


Absolute. 


B.T.U. 


B.T.U. V 
C 


apour. 
ub ft. 


— 22 


213-345 


— 24-80 


126-72 


4330 


-13 


248-903 


— 21-06 


123-25 


3670 


- 4 


288-727 


-17-19 


H9-43 


3130 


5 


334-240 


-13-17 


115-25 


2680 


14 


385-443 


— 9-00 


110-65 


2295 


23 


440-913 


- 4-63 


105-53 


1955 


32 


503-497 


O-00 


99-81 


1670 


41 


573-187 


4-93 


93-35 


1430 


50 


649-991 


10-28 


85-93 


1202 


59 


733-906 


16-22 


77-40 


1010 


68 


826-356 


23-08 


66-47 


0833 


77 


930-184 


3I-63 


51-80 


0673 


86 


1039-701 


45-45 


27-00 


O481 


87-8 


10621458 


51-61 


15-12 


O416 


88-43 


1070-991 


59-24 


0-00 


0352 



The action of a vapour compression machine is shown in fig. 3. 
Liquid at the condenser temperature being introduced into the re- 
frigerator through the regulating valve, a small portion evaporates 
and reduces the remaining liquid to the temperature Ti. This is 
shown by the curve AB, and is the useless work represented by the 
expression (q2~qi)/r. Evaporation then continues at the constant 
temperature T, abstracting heat from the substance outside the 
refrigerator as shown by the line BC. The vapour is then compressed 
along the line CD, to the temperature T 2 , when, by the action of the 
cooling water in the condenser, heat is abstracted at constant 
temperature and the vapour condensed along the line DA. 

In a compression machine the refrigerator is usually a series of 
iron o>- steel coils surrounded by the air, brine or other substance it 

23 



REFRIGERATING 



33 




6 c 

Fig. 3. — Action of Vapour 
Compression Machine. 



is desired to cool. One end (generally the bottom) of the coils is 
connecced to the liquid pipe from the condenser and the other end 

to the suction of the compressor. 
Liquid from the condenser is ad- 
mitted to the coils through an ad- 
justable regulating valve, and by 
taking heat from the substance out- 
side is evaporated, the vapour being 
continually drawn off by the com- 
pressorand discharged under increased 
pressure into the condenser. The 
condenser is constructed of coils like 
the refrigerator, the cooling water being contained in a tank; fre- 
quently, however, a series of open coils is employed, the cooling 
water falling over the coils into a collecting tray below, and this 
form is perhaps the most convenient for ordinary use as it affords 
great facilities for inspection and painting. The compressor may 
be driven by a steam engine or in any other convenient manner. 
The pressure in the condenser varies according to the temperature 
of the cooling water, and that in the refrigerator is dependent 
upon the temperature to which the outside substance is cooled. 
In an ammonia machine copper and copper alloys must be avoided, 
but for carbonic acid they are not objectionable. 

The compression of ammonia is sometimes carried out on what 
is known as the Linde or " wet " system, and sometimes on the 
" dry " system. When wet compression is used the regulating 
valve is opened to such an extent that a little more liquid is passed 
than can be evaporated in the refrigerator. This liquid enters the 
compressor with the vapour, and is evaporated there, the heat 
taken up preventing the rise in temperature during compression 
which would otherwise take place. The compressed vapour is dis- 
charged at a temperature but little above that of the cooling water. 
With dry compression, vapour alone is drawn into the compressor, 
and the temperature rises to as much as 180 or 200 degrees. Wet 
compression theoretically is not quite so efficient as dry compression, 
but it possesses practical advantages in keeping the working parts 
of the compressor cool, and it also greatly facilitates the regulation 
of the liquid, and ensures the full duty of the machine being. continu- 
ously performed. Very exact comparative trials have been made 
by Professor M. Schroeter and others with compression machines 
using sulphur dioxide and ammonia. The results are published in 
Vergleichende Versuche an K dllemaschinen, by Schroeter, Munich, 
1 890, and in Nos. 32 and 5 1 of Bayerisches Industrie und Gewerbeblatt, 
1892. Some of the results obtained by Schroeter in 1893 with an 
ordinary brine cooling machine on the Linde ammonia system are 
given in Table VI. : — 



Table VI. 








Temperature reduction in refriger- 




' 






ator. Degs. Fahr 


42-8 to 37-41 


28-4 to 23 


14 to 8-6 


-0-4 to -5-8 


I. H. P. in steam cylinder .... 


IS'79 


16-48 


15-29 


I4'2S 
11-98 




14-33 


I4'3 


13-54 


Pressure in refrigerator in pounds 










per sq. in. above atmosphere . . 


45'2 


3»'6 


19-8 


0"9 


Pressure in condenser in pounds 










per sq. in. above atmosphere . 


116-0 


IIS'O 


Iio-O 


108-0 


Heat abstracted in refrigerator. 










B.T.U. per hour 


342102 


263400 


171515 


X21218 


Heat rejected in condenser. 












3775^7 


301200 


214347 


158594 



The principle of the absorption process is chemical or physical 
rather than mechanical; it depends on the fact that many 
Absorp- vapours of low boiling-point are readily absorbed in 
tloa water, and can be separated again by the application 

machines. f heat. In its simplest form an absorption machine 
consists of two iron vessels connected together by a bent pipe. 
One of these contains a mixture of ammonia and water, which 
on the application of heat gives off a mixed vapour containing 
a large proportion of ammonia, a liquid containing but little 
ammonia being left behind. In the second vessel, which is 
placed in cold water, the vapour rich in ammonia is condensed 
under pressure. To produce refrigeration the operation is 
reversed. On allowing the weak liquor to cool to normal 
temperature, it becomes greedy of ammonia (at 6o° F. at 
atmospheric pressure water will absorb about 760 times its own 
volume of ammonia vapour), and this produces an evaporation 
from the liquid in the vessel previously used as a condenser. 
This liquid, containing a large proportion of ammonia, gives off 
vapour at a low temperature, and therefore becomes a refrigerator 
abstracting heat from water or any surrounding body. When 
the ammonia is evaporated the operation as described must 
be again commenced. Such an apparatus is not much used now. 
Larger and more elaborate machines were made by F. P. E. 
Carr6 in France; but no very high degree of perfection was 
xxiii. 2 



ftetnfl r*Lor 




arrived at, owing to the impossibility of getting an anhydrous 
product of distillation. In 1867 Rees Reece, taking advantage 
of the fact that two vapours of different boiling-points, when 
mixed, ran be separated by means of fractional condensation, 
brought out an absorption machine in which the distillate was 
very nearly anhydrous. By means of vessels termed the 
analyser and the rectifier, the bulk of the water was condensed 
at a comparatively high temperature and run back to the 
generator, while the ammonia passed into a condenser, and there 
assumed the liquid form under the pressure produced by the 
heat in the generator and the cooling action of water circulating 
outside the condenser tubes. 

Fig. 4 is a diagram of an absorption apparatus. The ammonia 
vapour given off in the refrigerator is absorbed by a cold weak 
solution of ammonia and 
water in the absorber, and 
the strong liquor is pumped 
back into the generator condenser 
through an interchanger 
through which also the weak 
hot liquor from the generator 
passes on its way to the 
absorber. In this way the 
strong liquor is heated before 
it enters the generator, and 
the weak liquor is cooled iterator- 1 
before it enters the absorber.^,^^ 
The generator being heated 
by means of a steam coil, 
ammonia vapour is driven 
off at such a pressure as to 

cause its condensation in the Fig. 4. 

condenser. From the con- 
denser it passes into the refrigerator through a regulating valve in the 
usual manner. The process is continuous, and is identical with that 
of the compression machine, with the exception of the return from 
the temperature Ti to the temperature T 2 , which is brought about 
by the direct application of heat instead of by means of mechan- 
ical compression. With the same temperature range, however, the 
same amount of heat has to be acquired in both cases, though from 
the nature of the process the actual amount of heat demanded frbm 
the steam is much greater in the absorption system than in the 
compression. This is chiefly due to the fact that in the former 
the heat of vaporization acquired in the refrigerator is rejected in 
the absorber, so that the whole heat of vaporization has to be 
supplied again by the steam in the generator. In the latter the 
vapour passes direct from the refrigerator to the pump, and power 
has to be expended merely in raising the temperature to a sufficient 
degree to enable condensation to occur at the temperature of the 
cooling water. On the other hand, a great advantage is gained in 
the absorption machine by using the direct heat of the steam, 
without first converting it into mechanical work, for in this way its 
latent heat of vaporization can be utilized by condensing the 
steam in the coils and letting it escape in the form of water. Each 
pound of steam can thus be made to give up some 950 units of 
heat; while in a good steam engine only about 200 units are utilized 
in the steam cylinder per pound of steam, and in addition allowance 
has to be made for mechanical inefficiency. In the absorption 
machine the cooling water has to take up about twice as much 
heat as in the compression system, owing to the ammonia being 
twice liquefied— namely, once in the absorber and once in the 
condenser. It is usual to pass the cooling water first through the 
condenser and then through the absorber. 

The absorption machine is not so economical as the compres- 
sion ; but an actual comparison between the two systems is difficult 
to make. Information on this head is given in papers read by Dr. 
Linde and by Professor J. A. Ewing before the Society of Arts 
(Journal of the Society of Arts, vol. xlii., 1894, p. 322, and Howard 
Lectures, January, February and March 1897). 

An absorption apparatus as applied to the cooling of liquids 
consists of a generator containing coils to which steam is supplied 
at suitable pressure, an analyser, a rectifier, a condenser either of 
the submerged or open type, a refrigerator in which the nearly 
anhydrous ammonia obtained in the condenser is allowed to eva- 
porate, an absorber through which the weak liquor from the gener- 
ator continually flows and absorbs the anhydrous vapour produced 
in the refrigerator, and a pump for forcing the strong liquor produced 
in the absorber back through an economizer into the analyser 
where, meeting with steam from the generator, the ammonia gas 
is again driven off ,_ the process being thus carried on continuously. 
Sometimes an additional vessel is employed for heating liquor by 
means of the exhaust steam from the engine driving the ammonia 
pump. Absorption machines are also made without a pump for 
returning the strong liquor to the generator. In these cases they 
work intermittently. In some machines the same vessel is used 
alternately as a generator and absorber, while in others; in order 

11 



34 



REFRIGERATING 



to minimize the loss of time, two vessels are provided which can 
be used alternately as generators and absorbers. 

Applications. — Apart from the economical working of the 
machine itself, whatever system may be adopted, it is of 
importance that cold once produced should not be wasted, 
and it is therefore necessary to use some form of insulation to 
protect the vessels in which liquids are being cooled, or the 
rooms of ships' holds in which the freezing or storage processes 
are being carried on. This insulation generally consists of 
materials such as charcoal, silicate cotton, granulated cork, 
small pumice, hair-felt, sawdust, &c, held between layers of 
wood or brick, and forming a more or less heat-tight box. There 
is no recognized standard of insulation. For a cold store to be 
erected inside a brick or stone building, and to be maintained 
at an internal temperature of from i8° to 20 F., a usual plan is 
shown in fig. 5. The same insulation is used for the floors and 



Mfetl 



^TAt*- Some* 
?'&UiCftte CrttOA 




-Insulation of a Cold Store. 



ceilings, except that the wearing surface of the floor is generally 
made thicker than the inside lining of the sides. Should the 
walls or floor be damp, waterproof paper is added. Granulated 
cork has practically the same insulating properties as silicate 
cotton, and the same thicknesses may be used. About 10 in. 
of flake charcoal and vegetable silica, or n of small pumice, 
are required to give the same protection as 7 in. of good 
silicate cotton. Cork bricks made of compressed granulated 
cork are frequently used, a thickness of about 5 in. giving the 
same protection as 7 in. of silicate cotton. The walls and 
ceilings are finished off with a smooth coating of hard cement and 
the floors are protected by cement or asphalt, according to the 
nature of the traffic on them. For lager-beer cellars and 
fermenting rooms, for bacon-curing cellars, and for similar 
purposes, brick walls with single or double air spaces are used, 
and sometimes a space filled with silicate cotton or other in- 
sulating material. In Australia and New Zealand pumice, 
which is found in enormous quantities in the latter country, 
takes the place of charcoal and silicate cotton. In Canada air 
spaces are largely used either alone or in combination with 
silicate cotton or planer shavings. The air spaces, two or three 
in number, are formed between two layers of tongued and 
grooved wood, and the total thickness of the insulation is about 
the same as when silicate cotton alone is used. On board ship 
charcoal has been almost entirely employed, but silicate cotton 
and granulated cork are sometimes used. The material is either 
placed directly up to the skin of the vessel, and kept in place by 
a double lining of wood inside, in which case a thickness of 
about 10 in. is used depending upon the depth of the frames, 
or it is placed between two layers of wood, with an air space next 
the skin, in which case about 6 in. of flake charcoal is generally 
sufficient for the insulation of the holds, though for deck-houses 
and other parts exposed to the sun the thickness must be greater. 
A layer of sheet zinc or tin has frequently to be used as pro- 
tection from rats. Given a certain allowable heat transmission, 
the principal points to be considered in connexion with insulation 
are, first cost, durability, weight and space occupied, the two 
last named being specially important factors on board ship. 
No exact rules can be laid down, as the conditions vary so 
greatly; and though experiments have been made to determine 
the actual heat conduction of various materials per unit of 
surface, thickness and temperature difference, the experience 
of actual practice is at present the only accepted guide. 

With compressed-air machines which discharge the cold air 
direct into the insulated room or hold, a snow box is provided close 
to the outlet of the expansion cylinder to catch the snow and 
congealed oil. The air is distributed by means of wood air trunks 
with openings controlled by slides, and similar trunks are pro- 



vided in connexion with the suction of the compresser to conduct 
the air back to the machine. With liquid machines of the compres- 
sion and absorption system, the rooms are either cooled by means 
of cold pipes or surfaces placed in them, or by a circulation of air 
cooled in an apparatus separated from the rooms. The cold pipes 
may be direct-expansion pipes in which the liquid evaporates, 
or they may be pipes or walls through which circulates an un- 
congealable brine previously cooled to the desired temperature. 
The pipes are placed on the ceilings or sides according to circum- 
stances, but they must be arranged so as to induce a circulation 
of air throughout the compartment and ensure every part being 
cooled. With what is termed the air circulation system the air is 
generally circulated by means of a fan, being drawn from the 
rooms through ducts, passed over a cooler, and returned again to 
the rooms by other ducts. In some coolers the cooling surfaces 
consist of direct-expansion pipes placed in clusters of convenient 
form ; in others brine pipes are used ; in others there is a shower of 
cold brine, and in some cases combinations of cold pipes and brine 
showers. Whether pipes in the rooms or air circulation give the 
best results is to some extent a matter of opinion, but at the 
present time the tendency is decidedly in favour of air circulation, 
at any rate for general cold storage purposes. Whichever system 
be adopted, it is important for economical reasons that ample 
cooling surface be allowed, and that all surfaces be kept clean and 
active, to make the difference between the temperature of the 
evaporating liquid and the rooms as small as possible. Small 
surfaces reduce first cost, but involve higher working expenses by 
decreasing the value of Ti/(Ts — Ti), and thus demanding more 
energy, and consequently more fuel, to effect the given result than 
if larger surfaces were employed. 

The general arrangement of an ice factory for producing can ice 
is shown in fig. 6. The water to be frozen is contained in galvanized 
W 




Fig. 6. — General Arrangement of an Ice Factory. 



or terned steel moulds suspended in a tank filled to the proper 
level with brine maintained at the desired temperature. The 
moulds are frequently arranged in frames, so that by means of 
an overhead crane one complete row is lifted at a time. When 
the water is frozen the moulds are dipped in a tank containing 
warm water, and on being tipped the blocks of ice fall out. Ordinary 
water contains air, and ice made from it is generally opaque, due 
to the inclusion of numerous small air-bubbles. To produce clear 
ice the water must be agitated during the freezing process, or 
previously boiled to get rid of the air. Distilled water is frequently 
used, as well as the water produced by the condensation of the 
steam from the engine, which of course must be thoroughly purified 
and filtered. It should be noted, however, that with an ice- 
making plant of moderate size and a steam-engine of good con- 
struction the weight of steam used will not nearly equal the weight 
of ice produced, so that 'the difference must be made up either by 
distillation, which is a costly process, or by ordinary water. Can 
ice is usually made in blocks weighing 56, 112 or 224 lb, and from 
4 to 8 in. thick. For cell ice ordinary water is used, agitated 



REGAL 



35 



during freezing. The cells are flat and constructed of galvanized 
iron, so as to form a hollow space of about 2 in. in width, 
through which cold brine is circulated by a pump. They are 
placed vertically in a tank, the distance between them being from 
8 to 14 in., according to the thickness of the ice to be produced. 
The tank is filled with water, which is kept in agitation by means 
of a reciprocating paddle or piston; in this way the air escapes, 
and with proper care a block of great transparency is produced. 
To thaw it off, warm brine is circulated through the cells. A usual 
size for cell ice is 4 ft. by 3 ft. by I ft. mean thickness, the 
weight being about 6 cwt. If perfectly transparent ice is required, 
the two sides of the block are not allowed to join up, and it is then 
called plate ice, which is often made in very large blocks, afterwards 
divided by saws or steam cutters. In such cases the evaporation 
of the ammonia or other refrigerating liquid frequently takes place 
in the cells themselves, brine being dispensed with. With a well- 
constructed can ice-plant of say 25 tons capacity per day, from 15 
to 16 tons of ice should be made in Great Britain to a ton of best 
steam coal. For cell and plate ice the production is considerably 
below this, and the first cost of the plant is much greater than that 
for can ice. 

Fig. 7 shows an arrangement of cold storage on land, refrigerated 
on the air circulation system. The insulated rooms, on two floors, 





Fig. 7. — Cold Stores. 

are approached by corridors, so as to exclude external air, which if 
allowed to enter would deposit moisture upon the cold goods. 
The air cooler is placed at the end, and the air is distributed by 
means of wood ducts furnished with slides for regulating the 
temperature of the rooms, which are insulated according to the 
method shown in fig. 5. In some cases, instead of the entrance 
being at the sides or ends, it is at the top, all goods being raised 
to the top floor in lifts and lowered by lifts into the rooms. With 
good machinery the cost of raising is not great, and is probably 
equalled by the saving in refrigeration, since the rooms hold the 
heavy cold air as a glass holds water. 

Large passenger vessels and yachts are now generally fitted with 
refrigerating machinery for preserving provisions, cooling water 
and wine, and making ice. Usually two insulated compartments 
are provided, one for frozen meats at about 20° F., and one for 
vegetables, &c, at about 40 . They have a capacity of from 
1500 to 3000 cub. ft. or more, according to the number of passen- 
gers carried, and they are generally cooled by means of brine pipes, 
though direct expansion and air circulation are sometimes adopted. 
A passenger vessel requires from 2 to 4 cwt. of ice per day. On 
battleships and cruisers the British Admiralty use small compressed- 
air machines for ice-making, and larger machines, generally on the 
carbonic-acid system, for cooling the magazines. A modern frozen- 
meat-carrying vessel will accommodate as much as 120,000 
carcases, partly sheep and partly lambs, requiring a hold capacity 
of about 300,000 cub. ft. In some vessels both fore and aft 
holds and 'tween decks are insulated. Lloyd's Committee, now 
issue certificates for refrigerating installations, if constructed 
according to their rules, and most modern cargo-carrying vessels 
have their refrigerating machinery classed at Lloyd's. In the 
meat trade between the River Plate, the United States, Canada 
and Great Britain, ammonia or carbonic acid machines are now 
exclusively used, but for the Australian and New Zealand frozen- 
meat trade compressed-air machines are still employed to a small 
extent. The holds of meat-carrying vessels are refrigerated 
either by cold air circulation or by brine pipes. 



Though the adoption of refrigerating and ice-making machinery 
for industrial purposes practically dates from the year 1880, the 
manufacture of these machines has already assumed very great 
proportions; indeed, in no branch of mechanical engineering, 
with the exception of electrical machinery, has there been so re- 
markable a development in recent years. The sphere of application 
is extending year by year. The cooling of residential and public 
buildings in hot countries, though attempted in a few cases in the 
United States and elsewhere, is yet practically untouched, the 
manufacture of ice and the preservation of perishable foods (apart 
from the frozen and chilled meat trades) have in many countries 
hardly received serious consideration, but in breweries, dairies, 
margarine works and many other industries there is a large and 
increasing field for refrigerating and ice-making machinery. A 
recent application is in the cooling and drying of the air blast for 
blast furnaces. Though this matter had been discussed for some 
years, it was only in 1904 that the first plant was put to work at 
Pittsburg. 

For further information reference may be made to the following: 
Siebel, Compend. of Mechanical Refrigeration (Chicago) ; Red- 
wood, Theoretical and Practical Ammonia Refrigeration (New 
York) ; Stephansky, Practical Running of an Ice and Refriger- 
ating Plant (Boston) ; Ledoux, Ice-Making Machines (New 
York) ; Wallis-Taylor, Refrigerating and Ice-Making Machines 
(London); Ritchie Leask, Refrigerating Machinery (London); De 
Volson Wood, Thermodynamics, Heat Motors and Refrigerating 
Machinery (New York) ; Linde, Kalteerzeugungsmaschine Lexikon 
der gesamten Technik; Behrend, Eis und Kalteerzeugungs- 
Maschinen (Halle) ; De Marchena, Kompressions Kdltemaschinen 
(Halle) ; Theodore Roller, Die Kdlteindustrie (Vienna) ; Voorhees, 
Indicating the Refrigerating Machine (Chicago) ; Norman Selfe, 
Machinery for Refrigeration (Chicago) ; Hans Lorenz, Modern Re- 
frigerating Machinery (London) ; Lehnert, Moderne Kaltetechnik 
(Leipzig) ; L. Marchis, Production et utilisation du froid 
(Paris) ; C. Heinel, Bau und Betrieb von Kdltemaschinen Anlagen 
(Oldenburg) ; R. Stetefeld, Eis und Kdlteerzeugungs-Maschinen 
(Stuttgart). (T. B. L.) 

REGAL, a small late-medieval portable organ, furnished with 
beating-reeds and having two bellows like a positive organ; 
also in Germany the name given to the reed-stops (beating-reeds) 
of a large organ, and more especially the " vox humana " stop. 
The name was not at first applied to the small table instrument, 
but to certain small brass pipes in the organ, sounded by means 
of beating-reeds, the longest of the 8-ft. tone being but 5^ in. 
long. Praetorius (1618) mentions a larger regal used in the 
court orchestras of some of the German princes, more like a 
positive, containing 4-ft., 8-ft. and even sometimes 16-ft. tone 
reeds, and having behind the case two bellows. These regals 
were used not only at banquets but often to replace positiyes 
in small and large churches. The very small regal, sometimes 
called Bible-regal, because it can be taken to pieces and folded 
up like a book, is also mentioned by the same writer, who states 
that these little instruments, first made in Nuremberg and 
Augsburg, have an unpleasantly harsh tone, due to their tiny 
pipes, not quite an inch long. The pipes in this case were not 
intended to reinforce the vibrations of the beating-reed or of its 
overtones as in the reed pipes of the organ, but merely to form 
an attachment for keeping the reed in its place without inter- 
fering with its functions. The beating-reed itself in the older 
organs of the early middle ages, many of which undoubtedly 
were reed organs, was made of wood; those of the regal were 
mostly of brass (hence their " brazen voices "). The length of 
the vibrating portion of the beating-reed governed the pitch of 
the pipe and was regulated by means of a wire passing through 
the socket, the other end pressing on the reed at the proper 
distance. Drawings of the reeds of regals and other reed-pipes, 
as well as of the instrument itself, are given by Praetorius 
(pi. iv., xxxviii.). H 

There is evidence to show that in England, and France also, 
the word " regal " was applied to reed-stops on the organ; 
Mersenne (1636) states that " now the word is applied to the 
vox humana stop on the organ." In England, as late as the 
reign of George III., there was the appointment of " tuner of 
the regals " to the Chapel Royal. 

The reed-stops required constant tuning, according to Prae- 
torius, who lays special emphasis on the fact'fthat the pitch 
of the reed-pipes alone falls in summer and rises in winter. 

During the 1 6th and 17th centuries the regal was a- very great 
favourite, and. although, owing to the civil wars and the ravages 



36 



REGALIA— REGENERATION OF LOST PARTS 



of time, very few specimens now remain, the regals are often men- 
tioned in old wills and inventories, such as the list of Henry VIII. 's 
musical instruments made after his death by Sir Philip Wilder 
(Brit. Mus. Harleian MS. 1415, fol. 200 seq.), in which no fewer than 
thirteen pairs of single and five pairs of double regals are mentioned. 
Monteverde scored for the regals in his operas, and the instrument is 
described and figured by S. Virdung in 151 1, Martin Agricola in 
1528, and Ottmar Luscinius in 1536, as well as by Michael Praetorius 
in 1618. (K. S.) 

REGALIA (Lat. regalis, royal, from rex, king), the ensigns 
of royalty. The crown (see Crown and Coronet) and sceptre 
(see Sceptre) are dealt with separately. Other ancient symbols 
of royal authority are bracelets, the sword, a robe or mantle, 
and, in Christian times, a ring. Bracelets, as royal emblems, 
are mentioned in the Bible in connexion with Saul (2 Sam. i. 10), 
and they have been commonly used by Eastern monarchs. 
In Europe their later use seems to have been fitfully confined 
to England, although they were a very ancient ornament for 
kings among the Teutonic races. Two coronation bracelets 
are mentioned among the articles of the regalia ordered to be 
destroyed at the time of the Commonwealth, and two new 
ones Were made at the Restoration. These are of gold, i| in. 
in width, and ornamented with the rose, thistle, harp and 
fleur-de-lis in enamel round them. They have not been used 
for modern coronations. 

The sword is one of the usual regalia of most countries, and 
is girded on to the sovereign during the coronation. In England 
the one sword has been developed into five. The Sword of 
State is borne before the sovereign on certain state occasions, 
and at the coronation is exchanged for a smaller sword, with 
which the king is ceremonially girded. The three other swords- 
of the regalia are the " Curtana," the Sword of Justice to the 
Spirituality, and the Sword of Justice to the Temporality. 
The Curtana has a blade cut off short and square, indicating 
thereby the quality of mercy. 

The mantle, as a symbol of royalty, is almost universal, but 
in the middle ages other quasi-priestly robes were added to 
it (see Coronation). The English mantle was formerly made 
of silk; latterly cloth of gold has been used. The ring, by 
which the sovereign is wedded to his kingdom, is not of so wide 
a range of usage. That of the English kings held a large ruby 
with a cross engraved on it. Recently a sapphire has been 
substituted for the ruby. Golden spurs, though included 
among the regalia, are merely used to touch the king's feet, 
and are not worn. 

The orb and cross was not anciently placed in the king's 
hands during the coronation ceremony, but was carried by 
him in the left hand on leaving the church. It is emblematical 
of monarchical rule, and is only used by a reigning sovereign. 
The idea is undoubtedly derived from the globe with the figure 
of Victory with which the Roman emperors are depicted. The 
larger orb of the English regalia is a magnificent ball of gold, 
6 in. in diameter, with a band round the centre edged with 
gems and pearls. A similar band arches the globe, on the 
top of which is a remarkably fine amethyst i| in. in height, 
upon which rests the cross of gold outlined with diamonds. 
There is a smaller orb made for Mary II., who reigned jointly 
with King William III. 

The English regalia, with one or two exceptions, were made 
for the coronation of Charles II. by Sir Robert Vyner. The 
Scottish regalia preserved at Edinburgh comprise the crown, 
dating, in part, from Robert the Bruce, the sword of state 
given to James IV. by Pope Julius II., and two sceptres. 

Besides regalia proper, certain other articles are sometimes 
included under the name, such as the ampulla for the holy oil, and 
the coronation spoon. The ampulla is of solid gold in the form of 
an eagle with outspread wings. It weighs 10 oz., and holds 6 oz. 
of oil. The spoon was not originally used for its present purpose. 
It is of the 12th or 13th century, with a long handle and egg- 
shaped bowl. Its history is quite unknown. 

See Cyril Davenport, The English Regalia, with illustrations in 
colour of all the regalia; Leopold Wickham Legg, English Corona- 
tion Records; The Ancestor, Nos. I and 2 (1902); Menin, The Form, 
&c, of Coronations (translated from French, 1727). 



REGENERATION OF LOST PARTS. A loss and renewal 
of living material, either continual or periodical, is a familiar 
occurrence in the tissues of higher animals. The surface of 
the human skin, the inner lining of the mouth and respiratory 
organs, the blood co/puscles, the ends of the nails, and many 
other portions of tissues are continuously being destroyed and 
replaced. The hair of many mammals, the feathers of birds, 
the epidermis of reptiles, and the antlers of stags are shed and 
replaced periodically. In these normal cases the regeneration 
depends on the existence of special formative layers or groups 
of cells, and must be regarded in each case as a special adapta- 
tion, with individual limitations and peculiarities, rather than 
as a mere exhibition of the fundamental power of growth and 
reproduction displayed by living substance. Many tissues, 
even in the highest animals, are capable of replacing an ab- 
normal loss of substance. Thus in mammals, portions of 
muscular tissue, of epithelium, of bone, and of nerve, after 
accidental destruction or removal, may be renewed. The 
characteristic feature of such cases appears to be, in the higher 
animals at any rate, that lost cells are replaced only from cells 
of the same morphological order — epiblastic cells from the 
epiblast, mesoblastic from the mesoblast, and so forth. It is 
also becoming clear that, at least in the higher animals, regenera- 
tion is in intimate relation with the central nervous system. 
The process is in direct relation to the general power of growth 
and reproduction possessed by protoplasm, and is regarded by 
pathologists as the consequence of " removal of resistances to 
growth." It is much less common in the tissues of higher 
plants, in which the adult cells have usually lost the power of 
reproduction, and in which the regeneration of lost parts is 
replaced by a very extended capacity for budding. Still, 
more complicated reproductions of lost parts occur in many 
cases, and are more difficult to understand. 

In Amphibia the entire epidermis, together with the slime-glands 
and the integumentary sense-organs, is regenerated by the epidermic 
cells in the vicinity of the defect. The whole limb of a Salamander 
or a Triton will grow again and again after amputation. Similar 
renewal is either rarer or more difficult in the case of Siren and Pro- 
teus. In frogs regeneration of amputated limbs does not usually 
take place, but instances have been recorded. Chelonians, croco- 
diles and snakes are unable to regenerate lost parts! to any extent, 
while lizards and geckoes possess the capacity in a high degrte. 
The capacity is absent almost completely in birds and mammals. 
In coelenterates, worms, and tunicates the power is exhibited in a 
very varying extent. In Hydra, Nais, and Lumbriculus, after 
transverse section, each part may complete the whole animal. 
In most worms the greater, and in particular the anterior part, 
will grow a new posterior part, but the separated posterior portion 
dies. In Hydra, sagittal and horizontal amputations result in the 
completion of the separated parts. In worms such operations 
result in death, which no doubt may be a mere consequence of the 
more severe wound. Extremely interesting instances of regenera- 
tion are what are called " Heteromorphoses," where the removed 
part is replaced by a dissimilar structure. The tail of a lizard, 
grown after amputation, differs in structure from the normal tail: 
the spinal cord is replaced by an epithelial tube which gives off no 
nerves; the vertebrae are replaced by an unsegmented carti- 
laginous tube; very frequently " super-regeneration " occurs, the 
amputated limb or tail being replaced by double or multiple 
new structures. 

J. Loeb produced many heteromorphoses on lower animals. 
He lopped off the polyp head and the pedal disc of a Tubularia, 
and supported the lopped stem in an inverted position in the sand; 
the original pedal end, now superior, gave rise to a new polyp head, 
while the neck-end, on regeneration, formed a pedal disc. In 
Cerianthus, a sea-anemone, and in done, an ascidian, regeneration 
after his operations resulted in the formation of new mouth-openings 
in abnormal places, surrounded by elaborate structures character- 
istic of normal mouths. Other observers have recorded hetero- 
morphoses in Crustacea, where antennulae have been regenerated 
in place of eyes. It appears that, in the same fashion as more 
simply organized animals display a capacity for reproduction of 
lost parts greater than that of higher animals, so embryos and 
embryonic structures generally have a higher power of renewal 
than that displayed by the corresponding adult organs or organisms. 
Moreover, experimental work on the young stages of organisms has 
revealed a very striking series of phenomena, similar to the hetero- 
morphoses in adult tissues, but more extended in range. H. Driesch, 
O. Hertwig and others, by separating the segmentation spheres, 
by destroying some of them, by compressing young embryos by 
glass plates, and by many other means, have caused cells to develop 



REGALIA 



Plate I 








-' ■ ■*"•'» MB»I^ 


v.lfi 


'j^WBBBIIiM^la^BBBHlBBB&J 


JH 


^Sjfy^^^k ^BPB^lHHI^Al^^" 1 


sac " ■ - al 
ll> ''••11 


.*> f?j - 


jgplfflpllj 


1 ^1 S^^^m^i 


| v " ■■- i *-*^* 





-St EDWARD'S CROWN, The ancient crown was destroyed at the 
Commonwealth, and a model made for Charles IPs coronation. 



2.— THE IMPERIAL STATE CROWN, as worn by Queen Victoria. The Black 

Prince's ruby is in the centre. Modifications in the cap were made for the coronation 

of King Edward VII. and the smaller ''Cullman" diamond substituted for the sapphire 

below the ruby. 




3-— QUEEN ALEXANDRA'S CO RON ATIO 

Koh-i-Noor in centre. 







'•jttfljsi 




fr- 




% s 2siffl 


W&; '• 4 


Bi9%% 


jJ*jSj 


jljJB 


■Uli "'1 












it ^ok. ■' i 



4-— THE COROXET OF THE PRINCE OF WALES. 



The illustrations on these 
plates are, except where 
otherwise stated, repro- 
duced by permission from 
■ the unique collection of 
photographs in the pos- 
session of Sir Benjamin 
Stone, formerly M. P. 
for East Birmingham. 




i 



XXIII. j6. 



5.— THE LARGER OR KING'S ORB. 



6.— THE LESSER OR QUEEN'S ORB. 



Plate II. 



REGALIA 




i.— THE SCEPTRES: (a) The Scepter with the Dove; (b) The 
Royal Sceptre with the Cross {cf. Fig. 3); (c) The Queen's Sceptre 
with the Cross; \d) The Queen's Ivory Rod; ie) The Queen's 
Sceptre with the Dove. 




.j._ THE HEAD OF THE ROYAL > 

1 SCEPTRE with (he largest of J 
the "Star of Africa" (Cullman) Li 
Diamonds. Photo, W. E. Gray. 



5.- THE BRACELETS. 




6.— THE AMPULLA. 



7.— THE St GEORGE'S SPURS. 



23 



REGALIA 



Plate 111. 




is^ja^n^ 



..—THE SILVER-GILT CHRISTENING FONT, made { 
Charles II. 





2 — QUEEN ELIZABETH'S SALT-CELLAR. 



3.--SILVER-GILT ALTAR DISH, used at Christmas and Easter in the 
Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula, Tower of London. 




4.— THE GOLD SALT-CELLAR presented to the Crown by the City of Exeter. 



Plate IV. 



REGALIA 



i™« 





REGENSBURG— REGENT 



37 



so as to give rise to structures which in normal development they 
would not have formed. 

It is clear that there are at least three kinds of factors in- 
volved in regeneration. There are: (i) Regenerations due to 
the presence of undifferentiated, or little differentiated, cells, 
which have retained the normal capacity of multiplication when 
conditions are favourable. (2) Regenerations due to the 
presence of special complicated rudiments, the stimulus to the 
development of which is the removal of the fully formed 
structure. (3) Regeneration involving the general capacity 
of protoplasm to respond to changes in the surroundings by 
changes of growth. The most general view is to regard re- 
generations as special adaptations; and A. Weismann, following 
in this matter Arnold Lang, has developed the idea at con- 
siderable length, and has found a place for regenerations in his 
system of the germ-plasm (see Heredity) by the conception 
of the existence of " accessory determinants." Hertwig, on 
the other hand, attaches great importance to the facts of 
regeneration as evidence for his view that every cell of a body 
contains a similar essential plasm. 

In E. Schwalbe's Morphologic der Minbildungen (1904), part i. 
chap, v., an attempt is made to associate the facts of regeneration 
with those of embryology and pathology. Our knowledge of the 
facts, however, is not yet systematic enough to allow of important 
general conclusions. The power of regeneration appears to be in 
some cases a special adaptation, but more often simply an expression 
of the general power of protoplasm to grow and to reproduce its 
kind. It has been suggested that regenerated parts always repre- 
sent ancestral stages, but there is no conclusive evidence for this 
view. (P- C. M.) 

REGENSBURG (Ratisbon), a city and episcopal see of 
Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, and the capital of the 
government district of the Upper Palatinate. Pop. (1905) 48,412. 
It is situated on the right bank of the Danube, opposite the 
influx of the Regen, 86 m. by rail N.E. from Munich, and 60 m. 
S.E. of Nuremberg. On the other side of the river is the suburb 
Stadt-am-Hof, connected with Regensburg by a long stone 
bridge of the 12th century, above and below which are the 
islands of Oberer and Unterer Worth. In appearance the 
town is quaint and romantic, presenting almost as faithful a 
picture of a town of the early middle ages as Nuremberg does 
of the later. One of the most characteristic features in its 
architecture is the number of strong loopholed towers attached 
to the more ancient dwellings. The interesting " street of the 
envoys " (Gesandtenstrasse) is so called, because it contained the 
residences of most of the envoys to the German diet, whose 
coats-of-arms may still be seen on many of'the houses. 

The cathedral, though small, is a very interesting example 
of pure German Gothic. It was founded in 1275, and completed 
in 1634, with the exception of the towers, which were finished 
in 1869. The interior contains numerous interesting monuments, 
including one of Peter Vischer's masterpieces. Adjoining the 
cloisters are two chapels of earlier date than the cathedral itself, 
one of which, known as the " old cathedral," goes back 
perhaps to the 8th century. The church of St James — also 
called Schottenkirche — a plain Romanesque basilica of the 
1 2th century, derives its name from the monastery of Irish 
Benedictines (" Scoti ") to which it was attached; the principal 
doorway is covered with very singular grotesque carvings. 
The old parish church of St Ulrich is a good example of the 
Transition style of the 13th century, and contains a valu- 
able antiquarian collection. Examples of the Romanesque 
basilica style are the church of Obermunster, dating from 
1010, and the abbey church of St Emmeran, built in the 13th 
century, and remarkable as one of the few German churches with 
a detached belfry. The beautiful cloisters of the ancient abbey, 
one of the oldest in Germany, are still in fair preservation. In 
1809 the conventual buildings were converted into a palace for 
the prince of Thurn and Taxis, hereditary postmaster-general 
of the Holy Roman Empire. The town hall, dating in part 
from the 14th century, contains the rooms occupied by the 
imperial diet from 1663 to 1806. An historical interest also 
•attaches to the Gasthof zum Goldenen Kreuz (Golden Cross Inn), 



where Charles V. made the acquaintance of Barbara Blomberg, 
the mother of Don John of Austria (b. 1547). The house is also 
shown where Kepler died in 1630. Perhaps the most pleasing 
modern building in the city is the Gothic villa of the king of 
Bavaria on the bank of the Danube. At Kumpfmuhl, in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the city, was discovered, in 1885, the 
remains of a Roman camp with an arched gateway; the latter, 
known as the Porta Praetoria, was cleared in 1887. Among the 
public institutions of the city should be mentioned the public 
library, picture gallery, botanical garden, and the institute for 
the making of stained glass. The educational establishments 
include two gymnasia, an episcopal clerical seminary, a 
seminary for boys and a school of church music. Among the 
chief manufactures are iron and steel wares, pottery, parquet 
flooring, tobacco, and lead pencils. Boat-building is also 
prosecuted, and a brisk transit trade is carried on in salt, 
grain and timber. 

Near Regensburg are two very handsome classical buildings, 
erected by Louis I. of Bavaria as national monuments of German 
patriotism and greatness. The more imposing of the two is the 
Walhalla, a costly reproduction of the Parthenon, erected as a 
Teutonic temple of fame on a hill rising from the Danube at Donau- 
stauf, 6 m. to the east. The interior, which is as rich as coloured 
marbles, gilding, and sculptures can make it, contains the busts 
of more than a hundred German worthies. The second of King 
Louis's buildings is the Befreiungshalle at Kelheim, 14 m. above 
Regensburg, a large circular building which has for its aim the 
glorification of the heroes of the war of liberation in 1813. 

The early Celtic settlement of Radespona (L. Lat. Ratisbona) 
was chosen by the Romans, who named it Castra Regina, as the 
centre of their power on the upper Danube. It is mentioned as a 
trade centre as early as the 2nd century. It afterwards became 
the seat of the dukes of Bavaria, and one of the main bulwarks of 
the East Frankish monarchy; and it was also the focus from which 
Christianity spread over southern Germany. St Emmeran founded 
an abbey here in the middle of the 7th century, and St Boniface 
established the bishopric about a hundred years later. Regensburg 
acquired the freedom of the empire in the 13th century, and was for 
a time the most flourishing city in southern Germany. It became 
the chief seat of the trade with India and the Levant, and the boat- 
men of Regensburg are frequently heard of as expediting the journeys 
of the Crusaders. The city was loyally Ghibelline in its sympathies, 
and was a favourite residence of the emperors. Numerous diets 
were held here from time to time, and after 1663 it became the 
regular place of meeting of the German diet. The Reformation 
found only temporary acceptance at Regensburg, and was met 
by a counter-reformation inspired by the Jesuits. Before this 
period the^city had almost wholly lost its commercial importance 
owing to the changes in the great highways of trade. Regensburg 
had its due share in the Thirty Years' and other wars, and is said 
to have suffered in all no fewer than seventeen sieges. In 1807 
the town and bishopric were assigned to the prince primate Dalberg, 
and in 1810 they were' ceded to Bavaria. After the battle of 
Eggmiihl in 1809 the Austrians retired upon Regensburg, and the 
pursuing French defeated them again beneath its walls and reduced 
a great part of the city to ashes. 

See Gemeiner, Chronik der Stadt und des Hochstifts Regensburg 
(4 vols., Regensburg, 1800-24) ; Chroniken der deutschen Stddte, vol. xv. 
(Leipzig, 1878) ; Count v.Waldersdorf, Regensburg in seiner Vergangen- 
heit und Gegenwart (4th ed., Regensburg, 1896) ; Fink, Regensburg in 
seiner Vorzeit und Gegenwart (6th ed., Regensburg, 1903) ; and Schratz, 
Fuhrer durch Regensburg (5th ed., G. Dengler, Regensburg, 1904). 

REGENT (from Lat. regere, to rule), one who rules or governs, 
especially one who acts temporarily as an administrator of the 
realm during the minority or incapacity of the king. This 
latter function, however, is one unknown to the English common 
law. " In judgment of law the king, as king, cannot be said 
to be a minor, for when the royal body politic of the king doth 
meet with the natural capacity in one person the whole body 
shall have the quality of the royal politic, which is the greater 
and more worthy and wherein is no minority. For omne majus 
continet in se minus " (Coke upon Littleton, 43a) . But for reasons 
of necessity a regency, however anomalous it may be in strict 
law, has frequently been constituted both in England and 
Scotland. The earliest instance in English history is the 
appointment of the earl of Pembroke with the assent of the 
loyal barons on the accession of Henry III. 

Whether or not the sanction of parliament is necessary for the 
appointment is a question which has been much discussed. Lord 
Coke recommends that the office should depend on the will of 



38 



REGGIO CALABRIA— REGICIDE 



parliament (Inst., vol. iv. p. 58), and in modern times provision for a 
regency has always been made by act of parliament. In Scotland 
the appointment of regents was always either by the assent of a 
council or of parliament. Thus in 1315 the earl of Moray was ap- 
pointed regent by Robert I. in a council. At a later period appoint- 
ment by statute was the universal form. Thus by an act of 1542 
the earl of Arran was declared regent during the minority of Mary. 
By an act of 1567 the appointment by Mary of the earl of Moray as 
regent was confirmed. As late as 1704 provision was made for a 
regency after the death of Arine. The earliest regency in England 
resting upon an express statute was that created by 28 Hen. VIII. 
c. 7, under which the king appointed his executors to exercise the 
authority of the crown till the successor to the crown should attain 
the age of eighteen if a male or sixteen if a female. They delegated 
their rights to the protector Somerset, with the assent of the lords 
spiritual and temporal. No other example of a statutory provision 
for a regency occurs till 1751. In that year the act of 24 Geo. II. 
c. 24 constituted the princess-dowager of Wales regent of the kingdom 
in case the crown should descend to any of her children before such 
child attained the age of eighteen. A council, called the council of 
regency, was appointed to assist the princess. A prescribed oath 
was to be taken by the regent and members of the council. Their 
consent was necessary for the marriage of a successor to the crown 
during minority. It was declared to be unlawful for the regent to 
make war or peace, or ratify any treaty with any foreign power, or 
prorogue, adjourn or dissolve any parliament without the consent of 
the majority of the council of regency, or give her assent to any bill 
for repealing or varying the Act of Settlement, the Act of Uniformity, 
or the Act of the Scottish parliament for securing the Protestant 
religion and Presbyterian church government in Scotland (1707, c. 6). 
The last is an invariable provision, and occurs in all subsequent 
Regency Acts. The reign of George III. affords examples of pro- 
vision for a regency during both the infancy and incapacity of a 
king. 

The act of 5 Geo. III. c. 27 vested in the king power to ap-' 
point a regent under the sign manual, such regent to be one of 
certain named members of the royal family. The remaining pro- 
visions closely followed those of the act of George II. In 1788 the 
insanity of the king led to the introduction of a Regency bill. In 
the course of the debate in the House of Lords the duke of York 
disclaimed on behalf of the prince of Wales any right to assume the 
regency without the consent of parliament. Owing to the king's 
recovery the bill ultimately dropped. On a return of the malady in 
1810 the act of 51 Geo. III. c. I was passed, appointing the prince 
of Wales regent during the king's incapacity. The royal assent was 
given by commission authorized by resolution of both Houses. By 
this act no council of regency was appointed. There was no 
restriction on the regent's authority over treaties, peace and war, 
or parliament, as in the previous acts, but his power of granting 
peerages, offices and pensions was limited. At the accession of 
William IV. the duchess of Kent was, by I Will. IV. c. 2, appointed 
regent, if necessary, until the Princess Victoria should attain the 
age of eighteen. No council of regency was appointed. By I Vict. 
c. 72 lords justices were nominated as a kind of regency council 
without a regent in case the successor to the crown should be out 
of the realm at the queen's death. They were restricted from 
granting peerages, and from dissolving parliament without direc- 
tions from the successor. By 3 & 4 Vict. c. 52 Prince Albert was 
appointed regent in case any of Queen Victoria's children should 
succeed to the crown under the age of eighteen. The only restraint 
on his authority was the usual prohibition to assent to any bill 
repealing the Act of Settlement, &c. When George V. came to the 
throne a Regency Bill was again required, as his eldest son was under 
age, and Queen Mary was appointed. By 10 Geo. IV. c. 7 the 
office of regent of the United Kingdom cannot be held by a Roman 
Catholic. A similar disability is imposed in most, if not all, Regency 
Acts. 

REGGIO CALABRIA (anc. Regium, q.v.), a town and archi- 
episcopal see of Calabria, Italy, capital of the province of 
Reggio, on the Strait of Messina, 248 m. S.S.E. from Naples 
by rail. Pop. (1906) 39,941 (town); 48,362 (commune). It is 
the terminus of the railways from Naples along the west coast, 
and from Metaponto along the east coast of Calabria. The 
straits are here about 7 m. wide, and the distance to Messina 
nearly 10 m. The ferryboats to Messina therefore cross by 
preference from Villa S. Giovanni, 8 m. N. of Reggio, whence 
the distance is only 5 m. In 1894 the town suffered from an 
earthquake, though less severely than in 1783. It was totally 
destroyed, however, by the great earthquake of December 1908; 
in the centre of the town about 35,000 out of 40,000 persons 
perished. The cathedral, which dated from the 17th century, 
and the ancient castle which rose above it, were wrecked. 
Great damage was done by a seismic wave following the shock. 
The sea front was swept away, and the level of the land here- 
abouts was lowered. (See further Messina.) 



REGGIO NELL' EMILIA, a city and episcopal see of Emilia, 
Italy, the capital of the province of Reggio nell' Emilia (till 
1859 part of the duchy of Modena), 38 m. by rail N.W. of Bologna. 
Pop. (1906) 19,681 (town); 64,548 (commune). The cathe- 
dral, originally erected in the 12th century, was reconstructed 
in the 15th and 16th; the facade shows traces of both periods, 
the Renaissance work being complete only in the lower portion. 
S. Prospero, close by, has a facade of 1504, in which are incor- 
porated six marble lions belonging to the original Romanesque 
edifice. The Madonna della Ghiara, built in 1597 in the form 
of a Greek cross, and restored in 1900, is beautifully proportioned 
and finely decorated in stucco and with frescoes of the Bolognese 
school of the early 17th century. There are several good palaces 
of the early Renaissance, a fine theatre (1857) and a museum 
containing important palaeo-ethnological collections, ancient 
and medieval sculptures, and the natural history collection 
of Spallanzani. Lodovico Ariosto, the poet (1474-1533), was 
born in Reggio, and his father's house is still preserved. The 
industries embrace the making of cheese, objects in cement, 
matches, and brushes, the production of silkworms, and printing; 
and the town is the centre of a rich agricultural district. It 
lies on the main line between Bologna and Milan, and is con- 
nected by branch lines with Guastalla and Sassuolo (hence a 
line to Modena). 

Regium Lepidi or Regium Lepidum was probably founded by 
M. Aemilius Lepidus at the time of the construction of the Via 
Aemilia (187 B.C.). It lay upon this road, half-way between Mutina 
and Parma. It was during the Roman period a flourishing munici- 
pium, but perhaps never became a colony; and it is associated with 
no event more interesting than the assassination of M. Brutus, the 
father of Caesar's friend and foe. The bishopric dates perhaps from 
the 4th century A.D. Under the Lombards the town was the seat 
of dukes and counts; in the 12th and 13th centuries it formed a 
flourishing republic, busied in surrounding itself with walls (1229), 
controlling the Crostolo and constructing navigable canals to the Po, 
coining money of its own, and establishing prosperous schools. 
About 1290 it first passed into the hands of Obizzo d'Este, and the 
authority of the Este family was after many vicissitudes more 
formally recognized in 1409. In the contest for liberty which began 
in 1796 and closed with annexation to Piedmont in 1859, Reggio 
took vigorous part. 

REGICIDE (Lat. rex, a king, and caedere, to kill), the name 
given to any one who kills a sovereign. Regicides is the name 
given in English history at the Restoration of 1660 to those 
persons who were responsible for the execution of Charles I. 
On the 4th of April 1660 Charles II. in the Declaration of Breda 
promised a free pardon to all his subjects " excepting only such 
persons as shall hereafter be excepted by parliament," and on 
the 14th of May the House of Commons ordered the immediate 
arrest of " all those persons who sat in judgment upon the late 
king's majesty when sentence was pronounced." The number 
of regicides was estimated at 84, this number being composed 
of the 67 present at the last sitting of the court of justice, 
11 others who had attended earlier sittings, 4 officers of the 
court and the 2 executioners. Many of them were arrested or 
surrendered themselves, and the House of Commons in con- 
sidering the proposed bill of indemnity suggested that only 
twelve of the regicides, who were named, should forfeit their 
lives; but the House of Lords urged that all the king's judges, 
with three exceptions, and some others, should be treated in 
this way. 

Eventually a compromise was agreed upon, and the bill as passed 
on the 29th of August 1660 divided the regicides into six classes for 
punishment: (1) Four of them, although dead — Cromwell, Ireton, 
Bradshaw and Pride — were to be attainted for high treason. 
(2) The estates of twenty others, also dead, were to be subjected to 
fine or forfeiture. (3) Thirty living regicides were excepted from all 
indemnity. (4) Nineteen living regicides were also excepted, but 
with a saving clause that their execution was to be suspended, until 
a special act of parliament was passed for this purpose. (5) Six 
others were to be punished, but not capitally. (6) Two, Colonels 
Hutchinson and Thomas Lister, were simply declared incapable 
of holding any office. Two regicides — Ingoldsby, who declared he 
had only signed the warrant under compulsion, and Colonel Matthew 
Thomlinson — escaped without punishment. A court of thirty-four 
commissioners was then appointed to try the regicides, and the 
trial took place in October 1660. Twenty-nine were condemned to 
death, but only ten were actually executed, the remaining nineteen 



REGILLUS— REGIOMONTANUS 



39 



with six others being imprisoned for life. The ten who were exe- 
cuted at Charing Cross or Tyburn, London, in October 1660, were 
Thomas Harrison, John Jones, Adrian Scrope, John Carew, Thomas 
Scot, and Gregory Clement, who had signed the death-warrant; 
the preacher Hugh Peters; Francis Hacker and Daniel Axtel, who 
commanded the soldiers at the trial and the execution of the king; 
and John Cook, the solicitor who directed the prosecution. In 
January 1661 the bodies of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw were 
exhumed and hanged at Tyburn, but Pride's does not appear to 
have been treated in this way. Of the nineteen or twenty regicides 
who had escaped and were living abroad, three, Sir John Barkstead, 
John Okey and Miles Corbet, were arrested in Holland and executed 
in London in April 1662; and one, John Lisle, was murdered at 
Lausanne. The last survivor of the regicides was probably Edmund 
Ludlow, who died at Vevey in 1692. 

Ludlow's Memoirs, edited by C. H. Firth (Oxford, 1894), give 
interesting details about the regicides in exile. See also D. Masson, 
Life of Milton, vol. vi. (1880), and M. Noble, Lives of the English 
Regicides (1798). (A. W. H.*) 

REGILLUS, an ancient lake of Latium, Italy, famous in the 
legendary history of Rome as the lake in the neighbourhood 
of which occurred (496 B.C.) the battle which finally decided the 
hegemony of Rome in Latium. During the battle, so runs the 
story, the dictator Postumius vowed a temple to Castor and 
Pollux, who were specially venerated in Tusculum, the chief 
city of the Latins (it being a Roman usage to invoke the aid of 
the gods of the enemy), who appeared during the battle, and 
brought the news of the victory to Rome, watering their horses 
at the spring of Juturna, close to which their temple in the 
Forum was erected. There can be little doubt that the lake 
actually existed. Of the various identifications proposed, the 
best is that of Nibby, who finds it in a now dry crater lake 
(Pantano Secco), drained by an emissarium, the date of which 
is uncertain, some 2 m. N. of Frascati. Along the south bank 
ll the lake, at some 30 or 40 ft. above the present bottom, ran 
the aqueducts of the Aqua Claudia and Anio Novus. Most of 
the other sites proposed are not, as Regillus should be, within 
the limits of the territory of Tusculum. 

See T. Ashby in Rendiconti del Lincei (1898), 103 sqq., andClassical 
Review, 1898. (T. As.) 

REGIMENT (from Late Latin regimentum, rule, regere, to rule, 
govern, direct), originally government, command or authority 
exercised over others, or the office of a ruler or sovereign; in this 
sense the word was common in the 16th century. The most 
familiar instance is the title of the tract of John Knox, the First 
Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women. 
The term as applied to a large body of troops dates from the 
French army of the 16th century. In the first instance it 
implied " command," as nowadays we speak of " General A's 
command," meaning the whole number of troops under his 
command. The early regiments had no similarity in strength 
or organization, except that each was under one commander. 
With the regularization of armies the commands of all such 
superior officers were gradually reduced to uniformity, and a 
regiment came to be definitely a colonel's command. In the 
British infantry the term has no tactical significance, as the 
number of battalions in a regiment is variable, and one at least 
is theoretically abroad at all times, while the reserve or terri- 
torial battalions serve under a different code to that governing 
the regular battalions. The whole corps of Royal Artillery 
is called " the Royal Regiment of Artillery." In the cavalry 
a regiment is tactically as well as administratively a unit of four 
squadrons. On the continent of Europe the regiment of infantry 
is always together under the command of its colonel, and consists 
of three or four battalions under majors or lieutenant-colonels. 

REGINA, the capital city of the province of Saskatchewan, 
Canada, situated at 104 36' W. and 50° 27' N., and 357 m. W. 
of Winnipeg. Pop. (1907) 9804. After the Canadian Pacific 
railway was completed in 1885, the necessity for a place of 
government on the railway line pressed itself upon the Dominion 
government. The North-West Territories were but little 
settled then, but a central position on the prairies was necessary, 
where the mounted police might be stationed and where the 
numerous Indian bands might be easily reached. The minister 
of the interior at Ottawa, afterwards Governor Dewdney, chose 



this spot, and for a number of years Regina was the seat of the 
Territorial government. The governor took up his abode on the 
adjoining plain, and the North-West Council met each year, 
with a show of constitutional government about it. On the 
formation of the province of Saskatchewan in 1905 the choice 
of capital was left to the first legislature of the province. Prince 
Albert, Moose Jaw and Saskatoon all advanced claims, but 
Regina was decided on as the capital. It probably doubled 
in population between 1905 and 1907. Its public buildings, 
churches and residences are worthy of a place of greater pre- 
tensions. It is the centre for a rich agricultural district, and 
for legislation, education, law and other public benefits. It 
remains the headquarters of the mounted police for the western 
provinces, and near it is an Indian industrial school of some 
note. 

REGINON, or Regino of PrtJm, medieval chronicler, was 
born at Altripp near Spires, and was educated in the monastery 
of Priim. Here he became a monk, and in 892, just after the 
monastery had been sacked by the Danes, he was chosen abbot. 
In 899, however, he was deprived of this position and he went 
to Trier, where he was appointed abbot of St Martin's, a house 
which he reformed. He died in 915, and was buried in the abbey 
of St Maximin at Trier, his tomb being discovered there in 1581. 

Reginon wrote a Chronicon, dedicated to Adalberon, bishop of 
Augsburg (d. 909), which deals with the history of the world from 
the commencement of the Christian era to 906, especially the 
history of affairs in Lorraine and the neighbourhood. The first book 
(to 741) consists mainly of extracts from Bede, Paulus Diaconus and 
other writers; of the second book (741-906) the latter part is 
original and valuable, although the chronology is at fault and the 
author relied chiefly upon tradition and hearsay for his informa- 
tion. The work was continued to 967 by a monk of Trier, possibly 
Adalbert, archbishop of Magdeburg (d. 981). The chronicle was 
first published at Mainz in 1 521; another edition is in Band I. 
of the Monumenta Germaniae historica. Scriptofes (1826); the 
best is the one edited by F. Kurze (Hanover, 1890). It has been 
translated into German by W. Wattenbach (Leipzig, 1890). 
Reginon also drew up at the request of his friend and patron Radbod, 
archbishop of Trier (d. 915), a collection of canons, Libri duo de 
synodalibus causis et disciplines ecclesiasticis, dedicated to Hatto I., 
archbishop of Mainz; this is published in Tome 132 of J. P. Migne's 
Patrologia Lalina. To Radbod he wrote a letter on music, Epistola 
de harmonica institutione, with a Tonarius, the object of this being 
to improve the singing in the churches of the diocese. The letter 
is published in Tome I. of Gerbert's Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica 
sacra (1784), and the Tonarius in Tome II. of Coussemaker's 
Scriptores de musica medii aevi. See also H. Ermisch, Die Chronih 
des Regino bis 813 (Gottingen, 1872); P. Schulz, Die Glaubwiirdig- 
keit des Abtes Regino] von Priim (Hamburg, 1894); C. Wawra, 
De Reginone Prumensis (Breslau, 1901); A. Molinier, Les Sources 
de I'histoire de France, Tome I. (1901); and W. Wattenbach, 
Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen, Band I. (1904). 

REGIOMONTANUS (1436-1476), German astronomer, was 
born at Kbnigsberg in Franconia on the 6th of June 1436. The 
son of a miller, his name originally was Johann Miiller, but he 
called himself, from his birthplace, Joh. de Monteregio, an 
appellation which became gradually modified into Regiomontanus. 
At Vienna, from 1452, he was the pupil and associate of George 
Purbach (1423-1461), and they jointly undertook a reform of 
astronomy rendered necessary by the errors they detected in 
the Alphonsine Tables. In this they were much hindered by 
the lack of correct translations of Ptolemy's works; and in 
1462 Regiomontanus accompanied Cardinal Bessarion to Italy 
in search of authentic manuscripts. He rapidly mastered Greek 
at Rome and Ferrara, lectured on Alfraganus at Padua, and 
completed at Venice in 1463 Purbach's Epitome in CI. Ptolemaei 
magnam compositionem (printed at Venice in 1496), and his own 
De Triangulis (Nuremberg, 1533), the earliest work treating 
of trigonometry as a substantive science. A quarrel with 
George of Trebizond, the blunders in whose translation of the 
Almagest he had pointed out, obliged him to quit Rome pre- 
cipitately in 1468. He repaired to Vienna, and was thence 
summoned to Buda by Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, for 
the purpose of collating Greek manuscripts at a handsome 
salary. He also finished his Tabulae Directionum (Nuremberg, 
1475), essentially a n astrological woijc, but containing a valuable 
table of tangents. An outbreak of war, meanwhile, diverted 



40 



REGISTER 



the king's attention from learning, and in 1471 Regiomontanus 
settled at Nuremberg. Bernhard Walther, a rich patrician, 
became his pupil and patron; and they together equipped the 
first European observatory, for which Regiomontanus himself 
constructed instruments of an improved type (described in his 
posthumous Scripta, Nuremberg, 1544). His observations of 
the great comet of January 1672 supplied the basis of modern 
cometary astronomy. At a printing-press established in 
Walther's house by Regiomontanus, Purbach's Theoricae 
planetarunt novae was published in 1472 or 1473; a series of 
popular calendars issued from it, and in 1474 a volume of 
Ephemerides calculated by Regiomontanus for thirty-two 
years (1474-1506), in which the method of "lunar distances," 
for determining the longitude at sea, was recommended and 
explained. In 1472 Regiomontanus was summoned to Rome 
by Pope Sixtus IV. to aid in the reform of the calendar;. and 
there he died, most likely of the plague, on the 6th of July 1476. 

Authorities. — P. Gassendi, Vita Jo. Regiomontani (Parisiis, 
1654) ; J. G. Doppeimayr, Historische Nachricht von den Niirn- 
bergischen Mathematicis, pp. 1-23 (1730); G. A. Will, Niirnber- 
gisches Gelehrten-Lexikon, iii. 273 (1757); P. Niceron, Memoires 
pour servir A I'histoire des homines illustres, xxxviii. 337 (1737); 
J. F. Weidler, Hist. Astronomiae, p. 313; A. G. Kastner, Geschichte 
der Mathematik, i. 556, 572; J. F. Montucla, Hist, des mathe- 
matiques, 1. 541 ; E. F. Apelt, Die Reformation der Sternkunde, 
p. 34; M. Cantor, Vorlesungen titer Geschichte der Math., ii. 254- 
264; M. Curtze, Urkunden zur Gesch. der Math., i. 187 (1902); Corr. 
Astr. vii. 21 (1822); G. H. Schubert, Peurbach und Regio- 
montan (Erlangen, 1828); A. Ziegler, Regiomontanus ein . geistiger 
Vorldufer des Columbus (1874) ; J. B. J. Delambre, Hist, de I'astrono- 
mie au moyen Age, p. 284; J. S. Bailly, Hist., de I'astr. moderne, 
i. 311; R. Wolf, Geschichte der Astronomie, p. 87; S. Giinther, 
Allg. Deutsche Biog., Bd. xxii. p. 564; C. G. Jocher's Gelehrten- 
Lexikon, iii. 1959, and Fortsetzung, vi. 1551 (H. W. Rotermund, 
Bremen, 1819); Ersch-Gruber' s Encyklopaedie, ii. th. xx. p. 205; 
C. T. von Murr, Memorabilia Bibliothecarum Norimbergensium, 
i. 74 (1786). - •;'■-•; (A. M.C.) 

REGISTER, a record of facts, proceedings, acts, events, 
names, &c, entered regularly for reference in a volume kept for 
that purpose, also the volume in which the entries are made. 
The Fr. registre is taken from the Med. Lat. registrum for registum, 
Late Lat. regesta, things recorded, hence list, catalogue, from 
regerere, to carry or bear back, to transcribe, enter on a roll. 
For the keeping of public registers dealing with various subjects 
see Registration and the articles there referred to, and for the 
records of baptisms, marriages and burials made by a parish 
clergyman, see section Parish Registers below. The keeper of 
a register was, until the beginning of the 19th century, usually 
known as a " register," but that title has in Great Britain now 
been superseded by "registrar"; it still survives in the Lord 
Clerk Register, an officer of state in Scotland, nominally the 
official keeper of the national records, whose duties are per- 
formed by the Deputy Clerk Register. In the United States 
the title is still " register." The term " register " has also been 
applied to mechanical contrivances for the automatic registration 
or recording of figures, &c. (see Cash Register), to a stop in an 
organ, to the compass of a voice or musical instrument, and also 
to an apparatus for regulating the in- and outflow of air, heat, 
steam, smoke or the like. Some of these instances of the 
application of the term are apparently due to a confusion in 
etymology, with Lat. regere, to rule, regulate. 

Parish Registers were instituted in England by an order 
of Thomas Cromwell, as vicegerent to Henry VIII., " supreme 
hedd undre Christ of the Church of Englande," in September 
1538. The idea appears to have been of Spanish origin, 
Cardinal Ximenes having instituted, as archbishop of Toledo, 
registers of baptisms in 1497. They included, under the 
above order, baptisms, marriages and burials, which were to 
be recorded weekly. In 1597 it was ordered by the Convocation 
of Canterbury that parchment books should be provided for 
the registers and that transcripts should be made on parch- 
ment of existing registers on paper, and this order was repeated 
in the 70th canon of 1603. The transcripts then made now 
usually represent the earliest registers. It was further pro- 
vided at both these dates that an annual transcript of the 



register should be sent to the bishop for preservation in the 
diocesan registry, which was the origin of the " bishop's tran- 
scripts." The " Directory for the publique worship of God," 
passed by parliament in 1645, provided for the date of birth 
being also registered, and in August 1653, an Act of " Bare- 
bones' Parliament " made a greater change, substituting 
civil " parish registers " (sic) for the clergy, and ordering 
them to record births, banns, marriages and burials. The 
" register " was also to publish the banns and a justice to per- 
form the marriage. The register books were well kept under 
this civil system, but at the Restoration the old system was 
resumed. 

A tax upon births, marriages and burials imposed in 1694 
led to the clergy being ordered to register all births, apart 
from baptisms, but the act soon expired and births were not 
again registered till 1836. Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act 
(1754), by its rigid provisions, increased the registration of 
marriages by the parochial clergy and prescribed a form of 
entry. In 181 2 parish registers became the subject of parlia- 
mentary enactment, owing to the discovery of their deficiencies. 
Rose's Act provided for their safer custody, for efficient bishops, 
transcripts, and for uniformity of system. This act continued 
to regulate the registers till their supersession for practical 
purposes, in 1837, by civil registration under the act of 1836. 

In age; completeness and condition they vary much. A 
blue book on the subject was published in 1833, but the returns 
it contains are often inaccurate. A few begin even earlier 
than Cromwell's order, the oldest being that of Tipton, Staffs, 
(1513). Between 800 and 900, apparently, begin in 1538 or 
1539. The entries were originally made in Latin, but this 
usage died out early in the 17th century: decay and the 
crabbed handwriting of the time render the earlier registers 
extremely difficult to read. There is general agreement as 
to the shocking neglect of these valuable records in the past, 
and the loss of volumes appears to have continued even through 
the 19th century. Their custody is legally vested in the 
parochial clergy and their wardens, but several proposals have 
been made for their removal to central depositories. The 
fees for searching them are determined by the act of 1836, 
which prescribes half a crown for each certified extract, and 
sixpence a year for searching, with a shilling for the first year. 

The condition of the " bishops' transcripts " was, through- 
out, much worse than that of the parish registers, there being 
no funds provided for their custody. The report on Public 
Records in 1800 drew attention to their neglect, but, in spite 
of the provisions in Rose's Act (181 2), little or nothing was done, 
and, in spite of their importance as checking, and even some- 
times supplementing deficient parish registers, they remained 
" unarranged, unindexed and unconsultable." Of recent 
years, -however, some improvement has been made. It has 
also been discovered that transcripts from " peculiars " exist 
in other than episcopal registries. 

Outside the parochial registers, which alone were official 
in character, there were, till 1754, irregular marriage registers, 
of which those of the Fleet prison are the most famous, and 
also registers of private chapels in London. Those of the 
Fleet and of Mayfair chapel were deposited with the registrar- 
general, but not authenticated. The registers of dissenting 
chapels remained unofficial till an act of 1840 validated a 
number which had been authenticated, and was extended to 
many others in 1858. Useful information on these registers, 
now mostly deposited with the registrar-general, will be found 
in Sims' Manual, which also deals with those of private chapels, 
of English settlements abroad preserved in London, and with 
English Roman Catholic registers. These last, however, begin 
only under George II. and are restricted to certain London 
chapels. 

The printing of parish registers has of late made much 
progress, but the field is so vast that the rate is relatively 
slow. There is a Parish Register Society, and a section of 
the Harleian Society engaged on the same work, as well as 
some county societies and also one for Dublin. But 



REGISTRATION 



4i 



so many have been issued privately or by individuals that 
reference should be made to the lists in Marshall's Genealogist's 
Guide (1893) and Dr Cox's Parish Registers (1010), and even 
this last is not perfect. The Huguenot Society has printed 
several registers of the Protestant Refugees, and Mr Moens 
that of the London Dutch church. There are also several 
registers of marriages alone now in print, such as that of St 
Dunstan's, Stepney, in 3 vols. Colonel Chester's extensive 
MS. collection of extracts from parish registers is now in the 
College of Arms, London, and the parishes are indexed in 
Dr Marshall's book. MS. extracts in the British Museum are 
dealt with in Sims' Manual. 

In Scotland registers of baptisms and marriages were insti- 
tuted by the clergy in issr, and burials were added by order 
of the Privy Council in 1616; but these were very imperfectly 
kept, especially in rural parishes. Yet it was not till 1854 
that civil registration was introduced, by act of parliament, 
in their stead. Some 900 parish registers, beginning about 
1563, have been deposited in the Register House, Edinburgh, 
under acts of parliament which apply to all those prior to 1819. 
Mr Hallen has printed the register of baptisms of Muthill 
Episcopal Church. 

In Ireland, parish registers were confined to the now dis- 
established church, which was that of a small minority, and 
were, as in Scotland, badly kept. Although great inconvenience 
was caused by this system, civil registration of marriages, 
when introduced in 1844, was only extended to Protestants, 
nor was it till 1864 that universal civil registration was intro- 
duced, great difficulty under the Old Age Pensions Act being 
now the result. No provision was made, as in Scotland, for 
central custody of the registers, which, both Anglican and 
Nonconformist, remain in their former repositories. Roman 
Catholic registers in Ireland only began, apparently, to be 
kept in the 19th century. 

In France registers, but only of baptism, were first instituted 
in 1539. The Council of Trent, however, made registers both 
of baptisms and of marriages a law of the Catholic Church in 
1563, and Louis XIV. imposed a tax on registered baptisms and 
marriages in 1707. 

See Burn, The History of Parish Registers (1829, 1862) ; Sims, 
Manual for the Genealogist (1856,. 1888) ; Chester Waters, Parish- 
Registers in England (1870, 1882, 1887); Marshall, Genealogist's 
Guide (1893) ; A. M. Burke, Key to the Ancient Parish Registers 
(1908); J. C. Cox, Parish Registers of England (1910); W. D. Bruce, 
Account . . . of the Ecclesiastical Courts of Record (1854); Bigland , 
Observations on Parochial Registers (1764) ; Report of the Commis- 
sioners on the state of Registers of Births, &c. (1838); Lists of Non- 
parochial Registers and Records in the custody of the Registrar- 
General (1841); Report on Non-parochial Registers (1857); Detailed 
List of the old Parochial Registers of Scotland (1872). (J. H. R.) 

REGISTRATION. In all systems of law the registration 
of certain legal facts has been regarded as necessary, chiefly 
for the purpose of ensuring publicity arid simplifying evidence. 
Registers, when made in performance of a public duty, are as 
a general rule admissible in evidence merely on the production 
from the proper custody of the registers themselves or (in most 
cases) of examined or certified copies. The extent to which 
registration is carried varies very much in different countries. 
For obvious reasons, judicial decisions are registered in all 
countries alike. In other matters no general rule can be laid 
down, except perhaps that on the whole registration is not as 
fully enforced in the United Kingdom and the United States 
as in continental states. The most important uses of registra- 
tion occur in the case of judicial proceedings, land, ships, bills 
of sale, births, marriages and deaths, companies, friendly and 
other societies, newspapers, copyrights, patents, designs, trade 
marks and professions and occupations. In England registrars 
are attached to the privy council, the Supreme Court and the 
county courts. In the king's bench division (except in its 
bankruptcy jurisdiction) the duty of registrars is performed by 
the masters. Besides exercising limited judicial authority, 
registrars are responsible for the drawing up and recording of 
various stages of the proceedings from the petition, writ or 



plaint to the final decision. 1 With them are filed affidavits, 
depositions, pleadings, &c, when such filing is necessary. The 
difference between filing and registration is that the documents 
filed are filed without alteration, while only an 4 epitome is 
usually registered. The Judicature Act 1873 created district 
registries in the chief towns, the district registrar having an 
authority similar to that of a registrar of the Supreme Court. 
In the admiralty division cases of account are usually referred 
to the registrar arid merchants. The registration in the central 
office of the supreme court of judgments affecting lands, writs 
of execution, recognizances and lites pendentes in England, and 
the registration in Scotland of abbreviates of adjudications 
and of inhibitions, are governed by special legislation. All 
these are among the incumbrances for whkh search is made on 
investigating a title. Decisions of criminal courts are said to 
be recorded, not registered, except in the case of courts of 
summary jurisdiction, in which, by the Summary Jurisdiction 
Act 1879, a register of convictions is kept. Probates of wills 
and letters of administration, which are really judicial decisions, 
are registered in the principal or district registries of the probate 
division. In Scotland registration is used for giving a summary 
remedy on obligations without action by means of the fiction of 
a judicial decision having been given establishing the obligation. 

See also the separate articles Land Registration; 
Shipping; Bill of Sale; Companies; Friendly Societies; 
Building Societies; Press Laws; Copyright; Trade 
Marks; Patents, &c. 

Registration of Voters. — Prior to 1832 the right of parlia- 
mentary electors in England was determined at the moment 
of the tender of the vote at the election, or, in the event of a 
petition against the return, by a scrutiny, a committee of the 
House of Commons striking off those whose qualification was 
held to be insufficient, and, on the other hand, adding those 
who, having tendered their votes at the poll, with a good title 
to do so, were rejected at the time. A conspicuous feature of 
the Reform Act of that year was the introduction of a new 
mode of ascertaining the rights of electors by means of an 
entirely new system of published lists, subject to claims and 
objections, and after due inquiry and revision forming a register 
of voters. Registration was not altogether unknown in Great 
Britain in connexion with the parliamentary franchise before 
the Reform Acts of 1832. Thus in the Scottish counties the 
right to vote depended on the voter's name being upon the 
roll of freeholders established by an act of Charles II.; a 
similar register existed in Ireland of freeholders whose free- 
holds were under £20 annual value; and in the universities 
of Oxford and Cambridge the rolls of members of Convocation 
and of the Senate were, as they still are, the registers of par- 
liamentary voters. But except in such cases as the above, 
the right of a voter had to be determined by the returning 
officer upon the evidence produced before him when the vote 
was tendered at a poll. This necessarily took time, and the 
result was that a contested election in a large constituency 
might last for weeks. The celebrated Westminster election of 
1784, in which the poll began on the 1st of April and ended on 
the 17th of May, may be mentioned as an illustration. More- 
over, the decision of the returning officer was not conclusive; 
the title of every one who claimed to vote was liable to be 
reconsidered on an election petition, or, in the case of a rejected 
vote, in an action for damages by the voter against the returning 
officer. 

The inconvenience of such a state of things would have been 
greatly aggravated had the old practice continued after th? 
enlargement of the franchise in 1832. The establishment of a 
general system of registration was therefore a necessary and 
important part of the reform then effected. It has enabled an 
election in the most populous constituency to be completed in 
a single day. It has also been instrumental in the extinction 

1 The antiquity of registration of this kind is proved by the age of 
the Registrum Brevium, or register of writs, called by Lord Coke " a 
most ancient book of the Common Law " (Coke upon Littleton, 
I59a). 



42 



REGISTRATION 



of the " occasional voter," who formerly gave so much trouble 
to returning officers and election committees — the person, 
namely, who acquired a qualifying tenement with the view of 
using it for a particular election and then disposing of it. The 
period of qualification now required in all cases, being fixed 
with reference to the formation of the register, is neces- 
sarily so long anterior to any election which it could effect, 
that the purpose or intention of the voter in acquiring the 
qualifying tenement has ceased to be material, and is not inves- 
tigated. 

England. — The reform of parliamentary representation in 1832 
was followed in 1835 by that of the constitution of municipal 
corporations, which included the creation of a uniform quali- 
fication (now known as the old burgess qualification) for 
the municipal franchise. In 1888 the municipal franchise 
was enlarged, and was at the same time extended to the whole 
country for the formation of constituencies to elect county 
councils; and in 1894 parochial electors were called into 
existence for the election of parish councils and for other pur- 
poses. Inasmuch as provision was made for the registering of 
persons entitled to votes for the above purposes, there are now 
three registers of voters, namely, the parliamentary register, 
the local government register {i.e. in boroughs under the 
Municipal Corporation Acts, the burgess rolls, and elsewhere 
the county registers) and the register of parochial electors. 
Under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 the registration 
of burgesses, though on similar lines to that of parliamentary 
voters, was entirely separate from it. Since, however, the 
qualification for the municipal franchise covered to a great 
extent the same ground as that for the parliamentary franchise 
in boroughs which sent members to parliament, a considerable 
number of voters in such boroughs were entitled in respect of 
the same tenement to be upon both parliamentary register 
and burgess roll. The waste of labour involved in settling 
their rights twice over was put an end to in 1878, when the 
system of parliamentary registration was extended to the 
boroughs in question for municipal purposes, and the lists were 
directed to be made out in such a shape that the portion common 
to the two registers could be detached and combined with 
the portion peculiar to each, so as to form the parliamentary 
register and the burgess roll respectively. This system of 
registration was extended to the non-parliamentary boroughs 
and to the whole country in 1888, the separate municipal 
registration being completely abolished. 

The procedure of parliamentary registration is to be found in 
its main lines in the Parliamentary Registration Act 1843, which 
p superseded that provided by the Reform Act of 1832, 

" and has itself been considerably amended by later legis- 

' lation. The acts applying and adapting the system to local 
government and parochial registration are the Parliamentary and 
Municipal Registration Act 1878, the County Electors Act 1888, 
and the Local Government Act 1894. Registration is carried out 
by local machinery, the common-law parish being taken as the 
registration unit; and the work of preparing and publishing the 
lists, which when revised are to form the register, is committed to 
the overseers. The selection of these officers was no doubt due to 
their position as the rating authority, and to their consequent 
opportunities for knowing the ownership and occupation of tene- 
ments within their parish. They do not always perform the duties 
themselves, other persons being empowered to act for them in 
many parishes by general or local acts of parliament ; but in all 
or almost all cases they are entitled to act personally if they think 
fit, they sign the lists, and the proceedings are conducted in their 
name. 

In order to render intelligible the following summary of the 
procedure, it will be necessary to divide the voters to be regis- 
tered into classes based on the nature of their qualification, since 
the practice differs in regard to each class. The classes are as 
follows: (1) Owners, including the old forty-shilling freeholders, 
and the copyholders, long leaseholders and others entitled under 
the Reform Act of 1832 to vote at parliamentary elections for 
counties; (2) occupiers, including those entitled to (a) the £10 
occupation qualification, (b) the household qualification and (c) the 
old burgess qualification; (3) lodgers, subdivided into (a) old, 
i.e. those on the previous register for the same lodgings, and (b) new ; 
(4) those entitled to reserved rights, i.e. in addition to those (if 
any still remain) who were entitled to votes before the Reform Act 
of 1832 in respect of qualifications abolished by that act, (a) free- 



hold and burgage tenants in Bristol, Exeter, Norwich, and Notting- 
ham, and (b) liverymen of the City of London and freemen of 
certain old cities and boroughs, whose right to the parliamentary 
franchise was permanently retained by the same act. In regard 
to these classes it may be said that the general scheme is that 
owners must make a claim in the first instance before they can 
get their names upon the register, but that, once entered on the 
register, the names will be retained from year to year until removed 
by the revising barrister; that the lists of occupiers and of freehold 
and burgage tenants are made out afresh every year by the over- 
seers from their own information and inquiries, without any act 
being required on the part of the voters, who need only make claims 
in case their names are omitted; that lodgers must make claims 
every year; and that liverymen and freemen are in the same posi- 
tion as occupiers, except that the lists of liverymen are made out 
by the clerks of the several companies, and those of freemen by the 
town clerks, the overseers having nothing to do with these voters, 
whose qualifications are personal and not locally connected with 
any parish. 

The overseers and other officers concerned are required to perform 
their duties in connexion with registration in accordance with the 
instructions and precepts, and to use the notices and forms pre- 
scribed by Order in Council from time to time. The Registration 
Order, 1895, directs the clerk of every county council, on or within 
seven days before the 15th of April in every year, to send to the 
overseers of each parish in his county a precept with regard to the 
registration of ownership electors, and to every parish not within 
a parliamentary or municipal borough a precept with regard to 
the registration of occupation electors (which expression for this 
purpose includes lodgers as well as occupiers proper). The town 
clerk of every borough, municipal or parliamentary, is to send to 
the overseers of every parish in his borough a precept with regard 
to the registration of occupation electors. These precepts are set 
out in the Registration Order, and those issued by the town 
clerks differ according as the borough is parliamentary only, or 
municipal only, or both parliamentary and municipal; in the cases 
of Bristol, Exeter, Norwich and Nottingham they contain direc- 
tions as to freehold and burgage tenants. The duties of the over- 
seers in regard to registration are set out in detail in the precepts. 
Along with the precepts are forwarded forms of the various lists and 
notices required to be used, and with the ownership precept a certain 
number of copies of that portion of the parliamentary register of 
the county at the time in force which contains the ownership voters 
for the parish, the register being so printed that the portion relating 
to each parish can be detached. It is the duty of the overseers 
to publish on the 20th' of June, in manner hereinafter described, the 
portion of the register so received, together with a notice to owners 
not already registered to send in claims by the 20th of July. Mean- 
while the overseers are making the inquiries necessary for the 
preparation of the occupier list. For this purpose they may require 
returns to be furnished by owners of houses let out in separate 
tenements, and by employers who have servants entitled to the 
service franchise. The registrars of births, deaths and marriages 
are required to furnish the overseers with returns of deaths, as 
must the assessed tax collectors with returns of defaulters; the 
relieving officers are to give information as to recipients of parochial 
relief. On or before the 31st of July the overseers are to make 
out and sign the lists of voters. These are the following: the 
list of ownership electors, consisting of the portion of the register 
previously published with a supplemental list of those who have 
sent in claims by the 20th of July; the occupier list; and the old 
lodger list, the last being formed from claims sent in by the 25th of 
July. The overseers do not select the names in the first and last 
of these lists; they take them as supplied in the register and claims. 
It is, however, their dufy to write " dead " or " objected " in the 
margin against the names of persons whom they have reason to 
believe to be dead or not entitled to vote in respect of the qualifica- 
tion described. The ownership and old lodger lists will be divided 
into two parts, if the register contains names of owners entitled 
to a parochial vote only, or if claims by owners or old lodgers have 
been made limited to that franchise. The occupier list contains 
the names of persons whom the overseers believe to be qualified, 
and no others, and therefore will be free from marginal objections. 
Except in the administrative county of London, it is made out in 
three divisions — division I giving the names of occupiers of pro- 
perty qualifying for both parliamentary and local government 
votes, divisions 2 and 3 those of occupiers of property qualifying 
only for parliamentary and only for local government votes respec- 
tively. It happens so frequently that a tenement, if not of sufficient 
value to qualify for the £10 occupation franchise (parliamentary 
and local government), qualifies both for the household franchise 
(parliamentary) and for the old burgess franchise (local govern- 
ment), that division I would in most cases be the whole list, but for 
two circumstances. The service franchise is a special modification 
of the household franchise only; and the service occupants, being 
therefore restricted to the parliamentary vote, form the bulk of 
division 2; while peers and women, being excluded from the 
parliamentary vote, are consequently relegated to division 3. In 
the administrative county of London the local government register, 
being coextensive with the register of parochial electors, includes 



REGISTRATION 



43 



the whole of the parliamentary register. The occupier lists are 
consequently there made out in two divisions only, the names which 
would elsewhere appear in division 2 being placed in division 1. 
The lists of freehold and burgage tenants in Bristol, Exeter, Norwich 
and Nottingham are to be made out and signed by the same date. 
The overseers have also to make out and sign a list of persons 
qualified as occupiers to be elected aldermen or councillors, but as 
non-residents disqualified from being on the local government 
register. By the same date also the clerks of the livery companies 
are to make out, sign and deliver to the secondary (who performs 
in the City of London the registration duties which elsewhere fall 
on the town clerk) the lists of liverymen entitled as such to the 
parliamentary vote; and the town clerks are to make out and sign 
the lists of freemen so entitled in towns where this franchise exists. 

On the 1st of August all the above lists are to be published, the 
livery lists by the secondary, lists of freemen by the town clerks 
and the rest by the overseers. In addition the overseers may have 
to publish a list of persons disqualified by having been found guilty 
of corrupt or illegal practices; this list they will receive, when it 
exists, from the clerk of the county council or town clerk with the 
precept. Publication of lists and notices by overseers is made by 
affixing copies on the doors of the church and other places of worship 
of the parish (or, if there be none, in some public or conspicuous 
situation in the parish), and also, with the exception to be men- 
tioned, in the case of a parish wholly or partly within a municipal 
borough or urban district, in or near every public or municipal or 
parochial office and every post and telegraph office in the parish. 
The exception is that lists and notices relating to ownership electors 
need not be published at the offices mentioned when the parish is 
within a parliamentary borough. Publication by the secondary is 
made by affixing copies outside the Guildhall and Royal Exchange ; 
publication by town clerks is made by affixing copies outside their 
town hall, or, where there is none, in some public or conspicuous 
place in their borough. From the 1st to the 20th of August inclusive 
is allowed for the sending in of claims and objections. Those whose 
names have been omitted from the occupier or reserved rights lists, 
or the non-resident list, or whose names, place of abode or particu- 
lars of qualification have been incorrectly stated in such lists, may 
send in claims to have their names registered; lodgers who are not 
qualified as old lodgers, or who have omitted to claim as such, may 
claim as new lodgers; persons whose names are on the corrupt and 
illegal practices list may claim to have them omitted. Any person 
whose name is on the list of parliamentary, local government or 
parochial electors for the same parliamentary county, administrative 
county, borough or parish, may object to names on the same lists. 
Notices of claim and objection in the case of liverymen and freemen are 
to be sent to the secondary and town clerk, and in other cases to the 
overseers ; and notices of objection must also in all cases be sent to the 
person objected to. All notices must be sent in by the 20th of August, 
and on or before the 25th of August the overseers, secondary and town 
clerks are to make out, sign and publish lists of the claimants and 
persons objected to. It remains to be added that any person on a 
list of voters (i.e. on one of the lists published on the 1st of_ August) 
may make a declaration before a magistrate or commissioner for 
oaths correcting the entry relating to him. In the case of ownership 
electors the correction can only deal with the place of abode ; in the 
case of other lists it extends to all particulars stated, and is useful 
inasmuch as it enables the revising barrister to make corrections as 
to the qualification which he could not make in the absence of a 
declaration. The declarations must be delivered to the clerk of the 
county council or town clerk on or before the 5th of September. 

The next stage is the revision of the lists. For this purpose 
revising barristers are appointed yearly. The period within which 
revision courts can be held is from the 8th of September 
Revising to t jj e 12th of October, both days inclusive. The clerk of 
barrls- ^ e county CO uncil attends the first court held for each 
ters ' parliamentary division of his county, and the town clerk 

the first court held for his city or borough; and they respectively 
produce all lists, notices and declarations in their custody, and 
answer any questions put to them by the revising barrister. The 
overseers also attend the courts held for their parish, produce the 
rate books, original notices of claim and objection, &c, and answer 
questions. The claimants, objectors and persons objected to appear 
personally or by representative to support their several conten- 
tions. Any person qualified to be an objector may also appear 
to oppose any claims, upon giving notice to the barrister before such 
claims are reached. The powers of the revising barristers are as 
follows: As regards persons whose names are on the lists of voters 
published on the 1st of August, he is to expunge the names, whether 
objected to or not, of those who are dead or subject to personal in- 
capacity, such as infants and aliens, and for parliamentary purposes 
peers and women. If an entry is imperfect, the name must be 
removed, unless the particulars necessary for completing it are 
supplied to the barrister. All names marginally objected to by over- 
seers must be expunged, unless the voters prove to the barrister that 
they ought to be retained. Objections made by other objectors 
must be supported by prima facie proof, and if this is not rebutted 
the name is struck out. Claimants must be ready to support their 
claims. The declaration attached to a lodger claim is indeed prima 



facie proof of the facts stated in it, but other claimants require 
evidence to make out even a prirna facie case, and if they fail to 
produce it their claims will be disallowed. The barrister is required 
to correct errors in the lists of voters, and has a discretion to rectify 
mistakes in claims and objections upon evidence produced to him, 
although his power in this respect is limited. Lastly, the barrister 
has to deal with duplicates, as a voter is entitled to be on the register 
once, but not more than once, as a parliamentary voter for each 

Earliamentary county or borough, as a burgess for each municipal 
orough, as a county elector for each electoral division, and as a 
parochial elector for each parish in which he holds a qualification. 
Consequently, he deals with duplicate entries by expunging or trans- 
ferring them to separate parochial lists. The decision of the re- 
vising barrister is final and conclusive on all questions of fact; but 
an appeal lies from him on questions of law at the instance of any 
person aggrieved by the removal of his name from a list of voters, by 
the rejection of his claim or objection or by the allowance of a claim 
which he has opposed. Notice of the intention to appeal must be 
given to the barrister in writing on the day when his decision is 
given. The barrister may refuse to state a case for appeal; but if 
he does so without due cause he may be ordered by the High Court 
to state a case. The appeal is heard by a divisional court, from 
whose decision an appeal lies (by leave either of the divisional court 
or of the court of appeal) to the court of appeal, whose decision is 
final. 

On the completion of the revision the barrister hands the county 
and borough lists (every page signed and every alteration initialled 
by him) to the clerk of the county council and the town clerk re- 
spectively, to be printed. With the following exceptions the revised 
lists are to be made up and printed by the 20th of December, and 
come into force as the register for all purposes on the 1st of January. 
In the boroughs created by the London Government Act 1899, the 
whole register is to be made up and printed by the 20th of October, 
and to come into force for the purpose of borough elections under 
the act on the 1st of November. In boroughs subject to the Muni- 
cipal Corporations Acts, divisions I and 3 of the occupiers' list are 
to be made up and printed by the 20th of October, and come into 
force for the purpose of municipal and county council elections on 
the 1st of November. Corrections ordered in consequence of a 
successful appeal from a revising barrister are to be made by the 
officers having the custody of the registers, but a pending appeal 
does not affect any right of voting. The register in its final form 
will consist of the lists published on the 1st of August as corrected, 
with the claims which have been allowed on revision incorporated 
with them. It is printed in such form that each list and each 
division of a list for every parish can be separated from the rest for 
the purpose of making up the parliamentary, local government and 
parochial registers respectively. The alphabetical order is followed, 
except in London and some other large towns, where street order is 
adopted for all except the ownership lists and lists of liverymen and 
freemen. The parliamentary register for a parliamentary county 
will consist of the ownership lists for all parishes in the county, and 
of the lodger lists and divisions I and 2 of the occupier lists for 
parishes within the county and not within a parliamentary borough. 
The parliamentary register for a parliamentary borough will consist 
of the lodger lists, of the lists of freehold and burgage tenants (if 
any), and of divisions 1 and 2 of the occupier lists for all parishes 
within the borough, and also of the borough lists (if any) of liverymen 
or freemen. The local government register for an administrative 
county will consist of divisions 1 and 3 of the occupier lists for all 
parishes in the county, and the burgess roll for a municipal borough 
of divisions I and 3 of the occupier lists for all parishes in the borough. 
It will be seen, therefore, that, except in county boroughs, the 
burgess roll is also a part of the local government register of the 
administrative county within which the borough is situate. The 
register of parochial electors consists of the complete set of lists for 
each parish; but this does not include the lists of liverymen and 
freemen, which, as has been stated, are not parish lists. 

No one whose name is not on the register can vote at an election. 
The fact that a man's name is on the register is now so far con- 
clusive of his right that the returning officer is bound to receive 
his vote. Only two questions may be asked of him when he 
tenders his vote, namely, whether he is the person whose name is 
on the register, and whether he has voted before at the election. 
The Reform Act 1832 allowed him to be asked at parliamentary 
elections whether he retained the qualification for which he had 
been registered; but the Registration Act 1843 disallowed the 
question, and made the register conclusive as to the retention of 
the qualification. When, however, a petition is presented against 
an election, the register, although conclusive as to the retention 
of the qualification, does not prevent the court from inquiring 
into the existence of personal incapacities, arising in connexion 
with the election or otherwise, and striking off on scrutiny the 
votes of persons subject thereto, e.g. aliens, infants, or in parliamen- 
tary elections peers, &c. 

The City of London is not within the Municipal Corporations 
Acts, and is not subject to the general registration law in the 
formation of its roll of citizens for municipal purposes. But a 
register of parliamentary, county and parochial electors is made in 



44 



REGIUM 



the ordinary way. The universities are also exempt from the 
general law of registration. At Oxford and Cambridge the members 
of Convocation and the Senate respectively have always formed 
the parliamentary constituencies; and, as has been already stated, 
the registers of those members were before 1832, and still are, 
the parliamentary registers. Similarly, the Reform Act of 1867, 
which gave parliamentary representation to the university of 
London, simply enacted that the register of graduates constituting 
the Convocation should be the parliamentary register of that body. 

Scotland. — In Scotland the qualifications for local government 
and parish electors are the same as those for parliamentary voters, 
the only difference in the registers being in respect of personal 
incapacities for the parliamentary franchise, incapacity for the 
other franchises by reason of non-payment of rates, and duplicates. 
The principal act regulating registration in burghs is 19 & 20 Vict. 
c. 58, amended in some particulars as to dates by 31 & 32 Vict, 
c. 48, § 20. County registration, formerly regulated by 24 & 25 
Vict. c. 83, has been assimilated to burgh registration by 48 & 49 
Vict. c. 3, § 8 (6). The procedure consists, as in England, of the 
making and publication of lists of voters, the making of claims and 
objections and the holding of revision courts; but there are im- 
portant differences of detail. Though the parish is the registration 
unit, parochial machinery is not used for the formation of the 
register. The parliamentary lists for a county are made up yearly 
by one or more of the assessors of the county, and those for a burgh 
by one or more of the assessors for the burgh, or by the clerk of the 
commissioners. They are published on the 15th of September; 
and claims and objections must be sent in by the 21st and are 
published on the 25th of the same month. Publication is made 
in burghs by posting on or near the town hall, or in some other 
conspicuous place, in counties by posting the part relating to each 

Carish on the parish church door, and in both cases giving notice 
y newspaper advertisement of a place where the lists may be 
perused. The revision is conducted by the sheriff, the time within 
which his courts may be held being from the 25th of September to 
the 16th of October, both days inclusive. An appeal lies to three 
judges of the Court of Session, one taken from each division of the 
Inner House, and one from the Lords Ordinary of the Outer House. 
The revised lists are delivered in counties to the sheriff clerk, in 
burghs to the town clerk, or person to whom the registration duties 
of town clerk are assigned. The register comes into force for all 
purposes on the 1st of November. 

The municipal register of a royal burgh which is coextensive, 
or of that part of a royal burgh which is coextensive with a parlia- 
mentary burgh, consists of the parliamentary register with a supple- 
mental list of women who but for their sex would be qualified for 
the parliamentary vote. The municipal register for a burgh, or 
for that part of one which is not within a parliamentary burgh, 
consists of persons possessed of qualifications within the burgh 
which, if within a parliamentary burgh, would entitle them, or but 
for their sex would entitle them, to the parliamentary vote. The 
register of county electors consists of the parliamentary register for 
a county with the supplemental list hereafter mentioned; but 
inasmuch as exemption from or failure to pay the consolidated 
county rate is a disqualification for the county electors' franchise, 
the names of persons so disqualified are to be marked with a dis- 
tinctive mark on the register; as are also the names of persons 
whose qualifications are situated within a burgh, such marks indi- 
cating that the persons to whose names they are attached are not 
entitled to vote as county electors. Every third year, in prepara- 
tion for the triennial elections of county and parish councils 
(casual vacancies being filled up by co-optation), a supplemental 
list is to be made of peers and women possessed of qualifications 
which but for their rank and sex would entitle them to parlia- 
mentary votes. The register of county electors in a county and the 
municipal register in a burgh form the registers of parish electors 
for the parishes comprised in each respectively. Inasmuch, how- 
ever, as a man is entitled to be registered as a parish elector in every 
parish where he is qualified, duplicate entries are, when required, 
to be made in the register, with distinctive marks to all but one, 
to indicate that they confer the parish vote only. These dis- 
tinctive marks and those previously mentioned are to be made in 
the lists by the assessors, subject to revision by the sheriff. The 
register is conclusive to the same extent as in England, except that 
the vote of a parish elector who is one year in arrear in payment 
of a parish rate is not to be received. The clerk of the parish 
council is to furnish the returning officer one week before an 
election with the names of persons so in arrear; and the returning 
officer is to reject their votes except upon the production of a 
written receipt. _ Provision is made by 31 & 32 Vict. c. 48, §§ 27-41, 
for the formation of registers of parliamentary electors for the 
universities. The register for each university is to be made annually 
by the university registrar, with the assistance of two members of 
the council, from whose decisions an appeal lies to the university 
court. 

Ireland. — There are no parish councils in Ireland, and no par- 
ochial electors. There are therefore but two registers of voters, 
the parliamentary and the local government registers, the latter 
of which consists of the former with a local government supplement 



containing the names of those excluded from the parliamentary 
register by reason of their being peers or women, and duplicate 
entries relating to those whose names are registered elsewhere for 
the same parliamentary constituency. The principal acts regula- 
ting registration are 13 & 14 Vict. c. 69, 31 & 32 Vict. c. 112, 48 & 
49 Vict. c. 17, and 61 & 62 Vict. c. 2. The lord lieutenant is 
empowered to make by Order in Council rules for registration, 
and to prescribe forms; and under this power has made the Regis- 
tration (Ireland) Rules 1899, now in force. The registration 
unit is not the parish, but the district electoral division, except 
where such division is subdivided into wards, or is partly within 
and partly without any town or ward of a borough or town, in which 
cases each ward of the division or part of a division is a separate 
registration unit. 

The procedure is as follows, subject to variation in cases where 
there are clerks of unions who held office on the 31st of March 1898, 
and have not agreed to transfer their registration duties. The 
clerk of the peace sends out on the 1st of June a precept in the form 
prescribed for county registration to the secretary of the county 
council and clerks of urban district councils,, together with a copy 
of the existing register for their county or district; and a precept 
in the form prescribed for borough registration to town clerks of 
boroughs. As regards registration units not in a parliamentary 
or municipal borough, the secretary of the county council or clerk 
of the urban district council is to put marginal objections, " dead " 
or " objected," where required, to £10 occupiers and householders 
in the copy of the register, both in the parliamentary list and in 
the local government supplement. He is also to make out supple- 
mental parliamentary and local government lists of £10 occupiers 
and householders not on the existing register, and to put marginal 
objections where required to these. He is to verify on oath before 
a magistrate the copy of the register and supplemental lists, and 
to return them to the clerk of the peace by the 8th of July. As 
regards registration units in a parliamentary borough, but outside 
a municipal borough, the secretary of the county council or clerk 
of the urban district council is to make out lists of £10 occupiers 
and householders with local government supplement, and transmit 
them to the town clerk of the municipal borough or town. The 
clerk of the peace is to publish the copy of the register, after himself 
placing marginal objections where required to voters other than 
£10 occupiers and householders, and the supplemental lists as re- 
ceived, and also the corrupt and illegal practices list, if any, on the 
22nd of July. On the same day the' town clerk will publish the 
lists received as aforesaid for registration units outside the muni- 
cipal borough, and the lists, which he will have made out himself 
for the municipal borough, including the freemen's list and corrupt 
and illegal practices list. Freemen being entitled to the local 
government vote will, if resident, be placed on the list of the regis- 
tration unit where they reside, and will, if non-resident, be allotted 
by the revising barrister among the registration units Of the borough 
for local government purposes in proportion to the number of 
electors in each registration unit. Claims are to be sent in to the 
clerk of the peace and town clerk by the 4th of August, including 
old lodger claims and, in the case of the clerk of the peace, owner- 
ship claims. Lists of claimants with marginal objections, where 
required, are to be published by the clerk of the peace .and town 
clerk by the nth of August. Notices of objection to voters or 
claimants may be given by the 20th of August ; and lists of persons 
objected to are to be published by the clerk of the peace and town 
clerk by the 24th of the same month. Publication of lists and 
notices by a clerk of the peace is made by posting copies of those 
relating to each registration unit outside every court-house, petty 
sessions court, and other public offices in the unit; publication by 
a town clerk is made by posting copies outside the town hall, or, 
if there be none, in some public and conspicuous place in the 
borough. 

Revising barristers are specially appointed for the county and 
city of Dublin by the lord lieutenant; elsewhere the county court 
judges and chairmen of quarter sessions act as such ex officio, 
assisted, when necessary, by additional barristers appointed by 
the lord lieutenant. The time for the holding of revision courts 
is from the 8th of September to the 25th of October inclusive. An 
appeal lies to the court of appeal, whose decision is final. The 
revised lists are handed to the clerk of the peace; they are to be 
made up by him by the 31st of December, and come into force on 
the 1st of January. 

The registrar of the university of Dublin is to make out in 
December a list of the persons entitled to the parliamentary vote 
for the university, and to print the same in January, and to publish 
a copy in the university calendar, or in one or more public journals 
circulating in Ireland. He is to revise the list annually, and ex- 
punge the names of those dead or disqualified; but an elector 
whose name has been expunged because he was supposed to be 
dead is entitled, if alive, to have his name immediately restored 
and to vote at any election. (L. L. S.) 

REGIUM (Gr. 'Viiyiov. in Latin the aspirate is omitted), a 
city of the territory of the Bruttii in South Italy, on the east 
side of the strait between Italy and Sicily (Strait of Messina). 



REGIUM DONUM— REGNARD 



45 



A colony, mainly of Chalcidians, partly of Messenians from the 
Peloponnesus, settled at Regium in the 8th century B.C. About 
404 B.C. Anaxilas, a member of the Messenian party, made him- 
self master of Regium (apparently — from numismatic evidence, 
for the coins assignable to this period are modelled on Samian 
types — with the help of the Samians: see Messina) and about 
488 joined with them in occupying Zancle (Messina). Here 
they remained. (See C. H. Dodd in Journal of Hellenic Studies, 
xxviii. (1008) 56 sqq.) This coinage was resumed after the 
establishment of the democracy about 461 B.C., when Anaxilas' 
sons were driven out. In 433 Regium made a treaty with 
Athens, and in 427 joined the Athenians against Syracuse, but 
in 415 it remained neutral. An attack which it made on 
Dionysius I. of Syracuse in 399 was the beginning of a great 
struggle which in 387 resulted in its complete destruction and the 
dispersion of its inhabitants as slaves. Restored by the younger 
Dionysius under the name of Phoebias, the colony soon recovered 
its prosperity and resumed its original designation. In 280, 
when Pyrrhus invaded Italy, the Regines admitted within their 
walls a Roman garrison of Campanian troops; these mercenaries 
revolted, massacred the male citizens, and held the city till in 
270 they were besieged and put to death by the Roman consul 
Genucius. The city remained faithful to Rome throughout the 
Punic wars, and Hannibal never succeeded in taking it. Up 
till the Social War it struck coins of its own, with Greek legends. 
Though one of the cities promised by the triumvirs to the 
veterans, Regium escaped through the favour of Octavius 
(hence it took the name Regium Julium). It continued, 
however, to be a Greek city even under the Empire, and never 
became a colony. Towards the end of the Empire it was made 
the chief city of the Bruttii. 

Of ancient buildings hardly anything remains at Regium, and 
nothing of the archaic Greek period is in situ, except possibly the 
remains of a temple of Artemis Phacelitis, which have not yet been 
explored, though various inscriptions relative to it have been found. 
The museum, however, contains a number of terra-cottas, vases, 
inscriptions, &c, and a number of Byzantine lead seals. Several 
baths of the Greek period, modified by the Romans, have been 
found, and the remains of one of these may still be seen. A large 
mosaic of the 3rd or 4th century a.d. with representations of wild 
animals and the figure of a warrior in the centre was found in 1904 
and covered up again. The aqueduct and various cisterns connected 
with it have been traced, and some tombs of the 5th or 4th century 
B.C. (or even later) were found in 1907. 

See Notizie degli scavi, passim; P. Larizza, Rhegium Ckalcidense 
(Rome, 1905). ♦ (T. As.) 

REGIUM DONUM, or Royal Gift, an annual grant formerly 
made from the public funds to Presbyterian and other Non- 
conformist ministers in Great Britain and Ireland. It dates 
from the reign of Charles II., who, according to Bishop Burnet, 
after the declaration of indulgence of 1672 ordered sums of 
money to be paid to Presbyterian ministers. These gifts or 
pensions were soon discontinued, but in 1690 William III. made 
a grant of £1 200 a year to the Presbyterian ministers in Ireland 
as a reward for their services during his struggle with James II. 
Owing to the opposition of the Irish House of Lords the money 
was not paid in 1711 and some subsequent years, but it was 
revived in 1715 by George I., who increased the amount to 
£2000 a year. Further additions were made in 1784 and in 
1792, and in 1868 the sum granted to the Irish Presbyterian 
ministers was £45,000. The Regium Donum was withdrawn 
by the act of 1869 which disestablished the Irish church. Pro- 
vision was made, however, for existing interests therein, and 
many Presbyterian ministers commuted these on the same 
terms as the clergy of the church of Ireland. 

In England the Regium Donum proper dates from 1 721, when 
Dr Edmund Calamy (1671-1732) received £5°° from the royal 
bounty " for the use and behalf of the poor widows of dissenting 
ministers." Afterwards this sum was increased to £1000 and 
was made an annual payment " for the assisting either ministers 
or their widows," and later it amounted to £1695 per annum. 
It was given to distributors who represented the three denomina- 
tions, Presbyterians, Baptists and Independents, enjoying the 
grant. Among the Nonconformists themselves, however, or 



at least among the Baptists and the Independents, there was 
some objection to this form of state aid, and in 1851 the chancellor 
of the exchequer announced that it would be withdrawn. This 
was done six years later. 

See J. Stoughton, History of Religionin England (1901) ; J. S. Reid, 
History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland (Belfast, 1867); and 
E. Calamy, Historical Account of my own Life, edited by J.T. Rutt 
(1829-30). 

REGLA, formerly an important suburb of Havana, Cuba, 
opposite that city, on the bay; now a part of Havana. Pop. 
(1899) 11,363. It was formerly the scene of the Havana bull- 
fights. The church is one of the best in Cuba; the building 
dates substantially from 1805, but the church settlement goes 
back to a hermitage established in 1690. Regla is the shipping- 
point of the Havana sugar trade. It has enormous sugar and 
tobacco warehouses, fine wharves, a dry dock, foundries and an 
electric railway plant. It is the western terminus of the eastern 
line of the United Railways of Havana, and is connected with 
the main city of Havana by ferry. A fishing village was estab- 
lished here about 1733. At the end of the 18th century Regla 
was a principal centre of the smuggling trade, and about 1820 
was notorious as a resort- of pirates. It first secured an 
ayuntamiento (city council) in 1872, and after 1899 was annexed 
to Havana. 

REGNARD, JEAN FRANCOIS (1655-1709), French comic 
dramatist, was born in Paris on the 7th of February 1655. His 
father, a rich shopkeeper, died when Regnard was about 
twenty, leaving him master of a considerable fortune. He set 
off at once for Italy, and, after a series of romantic adventures, 
he journeyed by Holland, Denmark and Sweden to Lapland, 
and thence by Poland, Turkey, Hungary and Germany back to 
France. He returned to Paris at the end of 1683, and bought 
the place of treasurer of France in the Paris district; he had a 
house at Paris in the Rue Richelieu; and he acquired the 
small estate of Grillon near Dourdan in the department of 
Seine-et-Oise, where he hunted, feasted and wrote comedies. 
This latter amusement he began in 1688 with a piece called 
Le Divorce, which was performed at the ThMtre Italien. In four 
slight pieces of the same nature he collaborated with Charles 
Riviere Dufresny. He gained access to the Theatre Francais 
on the 19th of May 1694 with a piece called Attendez-moi sous 
I'orme, and two years later, on the 19th of December 1696, he 
produced there the masterly comedy of Le Joueur. The idea of 
the play was evolved in collaboration with Dufresny, but the 
authors disagreed in carrying it out. Finally they each produced 
a comedy on the subject, Dufresny in prose, and Regnard in 
verse. Each accused the other of plagiarism. The plot of 
Regnard's piece turns on the love of two sisters for Valere, the 
gambler, who loves one and pretends to love the other, really 
deceiving them both, because there is no room for any other 
passion in his character except the love of play. Other of his 
plays were La Sfrinade (1694), Le Bourgeois de Falaise (1696), 
Le Distrait (1697), Democrite (1700), Le Retour imprevu (1700), 
Les Folies amoureuses (1704), Les MSneckmes (1705), a clever 
following of Plautus, and his masterpiece, Le L&gataire universel 
(1708). 

Regnard's death on the 4th of September 1709 renews the 
doubtful and romantic circumstances of his earlier life. Some 
hint at poison, but the truth seems to be that his death was 
hastened by the rate at which he lived. 

Besides the plays noticed above and others, Regnard wrote 
miscellaneous poems, the autobiographical romance of La Provencale, 
and several short accounts in prose of his travels, published pos- 
thumously under the title of Voyages. Regnard had written a reply 
to the tenth satire of Boileau, Centre les femmes, and Boileau had 
retorted by putting Regnard among the poets depreciated in his 
epistle Sur mes vers. After the appearance of Le Joueur the poet 
altered his opinion and cut out the allusion. The saying attributed 
to Boileau wh&i some one, thinking to curry favour, remarked that 
Regnard was only a mediocre poet, " II n'est pas mediocrement gai," 
is both true and very appropriate. His French style, especially in 
his purely prose works, is not considered faultless. He is often un- 
original in his plots, and, whether Dufresny was or was not justified 
in his complaint about Le Joueur, it seems likely that Regnard owed 
not a little to him and to others; but he had a thorough grasp 0/ 



46 REGNAULT, H.— REGNAULT DE SAINT JEAN D'ANGELY 



comic situation and incident, and a most amusing faculty of dia- 
logue. , . 

The first "edition of Regnard's works was published in 1731 
(5 vols., Rouen and Paris). There is a good selection of almost every- 
thing important in the Collection Didot (4 vols., 18 19), but there is no 
absolutely complete edition. The best is that published by Crapelet 
(6 vols., Paris, 1822). A selection by L. Moland appeared in 1893. 
See also a Bibliographie et iconographie des ceuvres de J. F. Regnard 
(Paris, Rouquette, 1878); Le Poete J. F. Regnard en son chasteau de 
Grillon, by J. Guyot (Paris, 1907). 

REGNAULT, HENRI (1843-1871), French painter, born at 
Paris on the 31st October 1843, was the son of Henri Victor 
Regnault {q.v.). On leaving school he successively entered the 
studios of Montfort, Lamothe and Cabanel, was beaten for the 
Grand Prix (1863) by Layraud and Montchablon, and in 1864 
exhibited two portraits in no wise remarkable at the Salon. 
In 1866, however, he carried off the Grand Prix with a work 
of unusual force and distinction — " Thetis bringing the Arms 
forged by Vulcan to Achilles " (School of the Fine Arts). The 
past in Italy did not touch him, but his illustrations to Wey's 
Rome show how observant he was of actual life and manners; 
even his " Automedon " (School of Fine Arts), executed in obedi- 
ence to Academical regulations, was but a lively recollection of a 
carnival horse-race. At Rome, moreover, Regnault came into 
contact with the modern Hispano-Italian school, a school highly 
materialistic and inclined to regard even the human subject 
only as one amongst many sources whence to obtain amusement 
for the eye. The vital, if narrow, energy of this school told on 
Regnault with ever-increasing force during the few remaining 
years of his life. In 1868 he had sent to the Salon a life-size 
portrait of a lady in which he had made one of the first attempts 
to render the actual character of fashionable modern life. While 
making a tour in Spain, he saw Prim pass at the head of his troops, 
and received that lively image of a military demagogue which 
he afterwards put on canvas, somewhat to the displeasure of his 
subject. But this work made an appeal to the imagination 
of the public, whilst all the later productions of Regnault were 
addressed exclusively to the eye. After a further flight to 
Africa, abridged by the necessities of his position as a pensioner 
of tne school of Rome, he painted " Judith, " then ( 1 8 70) " Salome," 
and, as a work due from the Roman school, despatched from 
Tangier the large canvas, " Execution without Hearing under 
the Moorish Kings," in which the painter had played with the 
blood of the victim as if he were a jeweller toying with rubies. 
The war arose, and found Regnault foremost in the devoted 
ranks of Buzenval, where he fell on the 19th of January 1871. 

See Correspondance de H. Regnault; Duparc, H. Regnault, sa vie 
et son osuvre; Cazalis, H. Regnault, 184.3-1871; Bailliere, Les Artistes 
de mon temps; C. Blanc, H. Regnault; P. Mantz, Gazette des Beaux 
Arts (1872). 

REGNAULT, HENRI VICTOR (1810-1878), French chemist 
and physicist, was born on the 21st of July 1810 at Aix-la- 
Chapelle. His early life was a struggle with poverty. When 
a boy he went to Paris and obtained a situation in a large 
drapery establishment, where he remained, occupying every 
spare hour in study, until he was in his twentieth year. Then 
he entered the Ecole Poly technique, and passed in 1832 to the 
Ecole des Mines, where he developed an aptitude for experi- 
mental chemistry. A few years later he was appointed to a 
professorship of chemistry at Lyons. His most important con- 
tribution to organic chemistry was a series of researches, begun 
in 1835, on the haloid and other derivatives of unsaturated 
hydrocarbons. He also studied the alkaloids and organic 
acids, introduced a classification of the metals according to 
the facility with which they or their sulphides are oxidized 
by steam at high temperatures, and effected a comparison 
of the chemical composition of atmospheric air from all parts 
of the world. In 1840 he was recalled to Paris by his ap- 
pointment to the chair of chemistry in the ficple Polytech- 
nique; at the same time he was elected a member of the 
Acad6mie des Sciences, in the chemical section, in room of 
P. J. Robiquet (1 780-1840); and in the following year he be- 
came professor of physics in the College de France, there suc- 
ceeding P. L. Dulong, his old master, and in many respects 



his model. From this time Regnault devoted almost all his 
attention to practical physics; but in 1847 he published a 
four-volume treatise on Chemistry which has been translated 
into many languages. 

Regnault executed a careful redetermination of the specific 
heats of all the elements obtainable, and of many compounds — 
solids, liquids and gases. He investigated the expansibility 
of gases by heat, determining the coefficient for air as 0-003665, 
and showed that, contrary to previous opinion, no two gases 
had precisely the same rate of expansion. By numerous delicate 
experiments he proved that Boyle's law is only approximately 
true, and that those gases which are most readily liquefied 
diverge most widely from obedience to it. He studied the whole 
subject of thermometry critically; he introduced the use of 
an accurate air-thermometer, and compared its indications 
with those of a mercurial thermometer, determining the ab- 
solute dilatation of mercury by heat as a step in the process. 
He also paid attention to hygrometry and devised a hygrometer 
in which a cooled metal surface is used for the deposition of 
moisture. 

In 1854 he was appointed to succeed J. J. Ebelmen (1814-1852) 
as director of the porcelain manufactory at Sevres. He carried 
on his great research on the expansion of gases in the laboratory 
at Sevres, but all the results of his latest work were destroyed 
during the Franco-German War, in which also his son Henri 
(noticed above) was killed. Regnault never recovered from the 
double blow, and, although he lived until the 19th of January 
1878, his scientific labours ended in 1872. He wrote more than 
eighty papers on scientific subjects, and he made important 
researches in conjunction with other workers. His greatest 
work, bearing on the practical treatment of steam-engines, 
forms vol. xxi. of the Mimoires de V Academic des Sciences. 

REGNAULT, JEAN BAPTISTE (1754-1829), French painter, 
was born at Paris on the 9th of October 1754, and died in the 
same city on the 12th of November 1829. He began life at 
sea in a merchant vessel, but at the age of fifteen his talent 
attracted attention, and he was sent to Italy by M. de Monval 
under the care of Bardin. After his return to Paris, Regnault, 
in 1776, obtained the Grand Prix, and in 1783 he was elected ■ 
Academician. His diploma picture, the " Education of Achilles 
by Chiron," is now in the Louvre, as also the " Christ taken down 
from the Cross," originally executed for the royal chapel at 
Fontainebleau, and two minor works — the " Origin of Painting " 
and " Pygmalion praying Venus to give Life to his Statue." Be- 
sides various small pictures and allegorical subjects, Regnault 
was also the author of many large historical paintings; and his 
school, which reckoned amongst its chief attendants Guerin, 
Crepin, Lafitte, Blondel, Robert Lefevre and Menjaud, was 
for a long while the rival in influence of that of David. 

REGNAULT DE SAINT JEAN D'ANGELY, MICHEL LOUIS 
ETIENNE, Comte (1761-1819), French politician, was born at 
Saint Fargeau (Yonne) on the 3rd of December 1761. Before the 
Revolution he was an avocat in Paris and lieutenant of the maritime 
provostship of Rochefort. In 1 789 he was elected deputy to the 
States General by the Third Estate of the stnechaussie of Saint 
Jean d'Angely. His eloquence made him a prominent figure in 
the Constituent Assembly, where he boldly attacked Mirabeau, 
and settled the dispute about the ashes of Voltaire by decreeing 
that they belonged to the nation. But the moderation shown 
by the measures he proposed at the time of the flight of the 
king to Varennes, by his refusal to accede to the demands for 
the king's execution, and by the articles he published in the 
Journal de Paris and the Ami des patriotes, marked him out 
for the hostility of the advanced parties. He was arrested after 
the revolution of the 10th of August 1792, but succeeded in 
escaping, and during the reaction which followed the fall of 
Robespierre was appointed administrator of the military 
hospitals in Paris. His powers of organization brought him 
to Bonaparte's notice, and he took part in the coup d'etat of 
18 Brumaire, year VIII. (9th of November 1799). Under the 
Empire he enjoyed the confidence of Bonaparte, and was made 
councillor of state, president of section in the Council of State, 



REGNIER, H.- 



-REGULA 



47 



member of the French Academy, procureur giniral of the high 
court, and a count of the Empire. He was dismissed on the 
first restoration of the Bourbons, but resumed his posts during 
the Hundred Days, and after Waterloo persuaded the emperor 
to abdicate. He was exiled by the government of the second 
Restoration, but subsequently obtained leave to return to 
France. He died on the day of his return to Paris (nth of 
March 1819). Les Souvenirs du Comte Regnault de St Jean 
d'Angely (Paris, 1817) are spurious. His son, Auguste Michel 
Etienne Regnault de Saint Jean d'Angely (1794-1870), 
an army officer, was dismissed from the army by the Restora- 
tion government, fought for the Greeks in the Greek War of 
Independence, and rejoined the French army in 1830. In 
1848 he was elected deputy and sat on the right. Under the 
Second Empire he went through the Crimean and Italian cam- 
paigns, and was made senator and marshal for bravery at 
the battle of Magenta. 

REGNIER, HENRI FRANCOIS JOSEPH DE (1864- ), 
French poet, was born at Honfleur (Calvados) on the 28th of 
December 1864, and was educated in Paris for the law. In 
1885 he began to contribute to the Parisian reviews, and his 
verses found their way into most of the French and Belgian 
periodicals favourable to the symbolist writers. Having begun, 
however, to write under the leadership of the Parnassians, he 
retained the classical tradition, though he adopted some of 
the innovations of Moreas and Gustave Kahn. His gorgeous 
and vaguely suggestive style shows the influence of Stephane 
Mallarme, of whom he was an assiduous disciple. His first 
volume of poems, Lendemains, appeared in 1885, and among 
numerous later volumes are Poemes anciens et romanesques 
(1890), Les Jeux rustiques et divins (1890), Les MSdailles d'argent 
(1900), La CiU des eaux (1903). He is also the author of a 
series of realistic novels and tales, among which are La Canne 
de jaspe (2nd ed., 1897), La Double Maitresse (5th ed., 1900), 
Les Vacances d'un jeune homme sage (1904), and Les Amants 
singuliers (1905). M. de Regnier married Mile. Marie de 
Heredia, daughter of the poet, and herself a novelist and poet 
under the name of Gerard d'Houville. 

See E. Gosse, French Profiles (1905), and Poltes d'aujourd'hui 
(6th ed., 1905), by van Bever and L6autaud. 

REGNIER, MATHURIN (1573-1613), French satirist, was 
born at Chartres on the 21st of December 1573- His father, 
Jacques Regnier, was a bourgeois of good means and position; 
his mother, Simone Desportes, was the sister of the poet Des- 
portes. Desportes, who was richly beneficed and in great 
favour at court, seems to have been regarded as Mathurin 
Regnier's natural protector and patron; and the boy himself, 
with a view to his following in his uncle's steps, was tonsured 
at eight years old. Little is known of his youth, and it is 
chiefly conjecture which fixes the date of his visit to Italy in 
a humble position in the suite of the cardinal, Francois de 
Joyeuse, in 1587. The cardinal was accredited to the papal 
court in that year as " protector " of the royal interests. 
Regnier found his duties irksome, and when, after many years 
of constant travel in the cardinal's service, he returned definitely 
to France about 1605, he took advantage of the hospitality of 
Desportes. He early began the practice of satirical writing, 
and the enmity which existed between his uncle and the poet 
Malherbe gave him occasion to attack the latter. In 1606 
Desportes died, leaving nothing to Regnier, who, though dis- 
appointed of the succession to Desportes's abbacies, obtained a 
pension of 2000 livres, chargeable upon one of them. He was 
also made in 1609 canon of Chartres through his friendship 
with the lax bishop, Philippe Hurault, at whose abbey of 
Royaumont he spent much time in the later years of his life. 
But the death of Henry IV. deprived him of his last hope of 
great preferments. His later life had been one of dissipation, 
and he died at Rouen at his hotel, the Ecu d'Orleans, on the 
22nd of October 1613. 

About the time of his death numerous collections of licentious 
and satirical poems were published, while others remained in 
manuscript. Gathered from these there has been a floating 



mass of licentious epigrams, &c, attributed to Regnier, little 
of which is certainly authentic, so that it is very rare to find 
two editions of Regnier which exactly agree in contents. His 
undoubted work falls into three classes: regular satires in 
alexandrine couplets, serious poems in various metres, and 
satirical or jocular epigrams and light pieces, which often, if 
not always, exhibit considerable licence of language. The real 
greatness of Regnier consists in the vigour and polish of his 
satires, contrasted and heightened as that vigour is with the 
exquisite feeling and melancholy music of some of his minor 
poems. In these Regnier is a disciple of Ronsard (whom he 
defended brilliantly against Malherbe), without the occasional 
pedantry, the affectation or the undue fluency of the Pleiade; 
but in the satires he seems to have had no master except the 
ancients, for some of them were written before the publication 
of the satires of Vauquelin de la Fresnaye, and the Tragiques 
of D'Aubign6 did not appear until 1616. He has sometimes 
followed Horace closely, but always in an entirely original 
spirit. His vocabulary is varied and picturesque, and is not 
marred by the maladroit classicism of some of the Ronsardists. 
His verse is extraordinarily forcible and nervous, but his chief 
distinction as a satirist is the way in which he avoids the 
commonplaces of satire. His keen and accurate knowledge 
of human nature and even his purely literary qualities extorted 
the admiration of Boileau. Regnier displayed remarkable in- 
dependence and acuteness in literary criticism, and the famous 
passage (Satire ix., A Monsieur Rapin) in which he satirizes 
Malherbe contains the best denunciation of the merely " correct " 
theory of poetry that has ever been written. Lastly, Regnier 
had a most unusual descriptive faculty, and the vividness 
of what he called his narrative satires was not approached 
in France for at least two centuries after his death. All his 
merits are displayed in the masterpiece entitled Macette ou 
I'Hypocrisie diconcertee, which does not suffer even on com- 
parison with Tartuffe; but hardly any one of the sixteen 
satires which he has left falls below a very high standard. 

Les Premibres CEuvres ou satyres de RSgnier (Paris, 1608) included 
the Discours au roi and ten satires. There was another in 1609, and 
others in 1612 and 1613. The author had also contributed to two 
collections— Lei Muses gaillardes in 1609 and Le Temple d'Apollon 
in 161 1. In 1616 appeared Les Satyres et autres ceuvres folastres 
du sieur RSgnier, with many additions and some poems by other 
hands. Two famous editions by Elzevir (Leiden, 1642 and 1652) 
are highly prized. The chief editions of the 18th century are that 
of Claude Brossette (printed by Lyon & Woodman, London, 1729), 
which supplies the standard commentary on Regnier, and that 
of Lenglet Dufresnoy (printed by J. Tonson, London, 1733). The 
editions of Prosper Poitevin (Paris, i860), of Ed. de Barthflemy 
(Paris, 1862), and of E. Courbet (Paris, 1875), may be specially 
mentioned. The last, printed after the originals in italic type, and 
well edited, is perhaps the best. See also Vianey's Mathurin Regnier 
(1896); M. H. Cherrier, Bibliographic de Mathurin RSgnier (1884). 

RE6NITZ, a river of Germany, and a left-bank tributary of 
the Main, the most important river of the province of Lower 
Bavaria. It is formed by the confluence, near Fiirth, of the 
Rednitz and Pegnitz. The united river flows north through 
an undulating vine-clad country, past Erlangen, Baiersdorf 
and Forchheim, from which point it is navigable, and falls 
into the Main at Bischberg, just below Bamberg, after a course 
of 126 m. Near Bamberg it is joined by the Ludwigskanal, 
which, running parallel to it from Fiirth and separated by the 
railway, forms the water-connexion between the Main and the 
Danube. Its main tributaries from the right are the Grundlach 
and the Wiesent, and from the left the Zenn, the Aurach and 
the Aisch. 

REORATING (O.Fr. regrater, to sell by retail), in English 
criminal law, was the offence of buying and selling again in 
the same market, or within four miles thereof. (See En- 
grossing.) 

REGULA, the Latin word for a rule, hence particularly 
applied to the rules of a religious order (see Monasticism). 
In architecture the term is applied to a rule or square, the 
short fillet or rectangular block, under the taenia (q.v.) on the 
architrave of the Doric entablature. 



4 8 



REGULAR— REICHENAU 



REGULAR, orderly, following or arranged according to a 
rule (Lat. regula, whence O.Fr. reule, whence English " rule "), 
steady, uniform, formally correct. The earliest and only 
use in English until the 16th century was in the Med. Lat. sense 
of regularis, one bound by and subject to the rule (regula) 
of a monastic or religious order, a member of the " regular " 
as opposed to the " secular " clergy, and so, as a substantive, 
a regular, i.e. a monk or friar. Another specific application 
is to that portion of the armed forces of a nation which are 
organized on a permanent system, the standing army, as 
opposed to " irregulars," levies raised on a voluntary basis 
and disbanded when the particular campaign or war for which 
they were raised is at an end. In the British army, the forces 
were divided into regulars, militia and volunteers, until 1906, 
when they were divided into regular and territorial forces. 

REGULUS, MARCUS ATILIUS, Roman general and consul 
(for the second time) in the ninth year of the First Punic War 
(256 B.C.). He was one of the commanders in the Punic naval 
expedition which shattered the Carthaginian fleet at Ecnomus, 
and landed an army on Carthaginian territory (see Punic 
Wars). The invaders were so successful that the other 
consul, L. Manlius Vulso, was recalled to Rome, Regulus being 
left behind to finish the war. After a severe defeat at Adys 
near Carthage, the Carthaginians were inclined for peace, but 
the terms proposed by Regulus were so harsh that they 
resolved to continue the war. In 255, Regulus was completely 
defeated and taken prisoner by the Spartan Xanthippus. 
There is no further trustworthy information about him. Accord- 
ing to tradition, he remained in captivity until 250, when after 
the defeat of the Carthaginians at Panormus he was sent to 
Rome on parole to negotiate a peace or exchange of prisoners. 
On his arrival he strongly urged the senate t6 refuse both 
proposals, and returning to Carthage was tortured to death 
(Horace, Odes, iii. 5). This story made Regulus to the later 
Romans the type of heroic endurance; but most historians 
regard it as insufficiently attested, Polybius being silent. The 
tale was probably invented by the annalists to excuse the 
cruel treatment of the Carthaginian prisoners by the Romans. 

See Polybius i. 25-34; Florus ii. 2; Cicero, De Officiis, iii. 26; 
Livy, Epit. 18; Valerius Maximus ix. 2; Sil. Ital. vi. 299-550; 
Appian, Punica, 4; Zonaras viii. 15; see also O. Jager, M. Ahlius 
Regulus (1878). 

REHAN, ADA (i860- ), American actress, whose real 
name was Crehan, was born in Limerick, Ireland, on the 22nd 
of April i860. Her parents removed to the United States 
when she was five years old, and it was in Newark, N.J., that 
in 1874 she made her first stage appearance in a small part in 
Across the Continent. She was with Mrs John Drew's stock 
company in Philadelphia, John W. Albaugh's in Albany and 
Baltimore, and other companies for several seasons, playing 
every kind of minor part, until she became connected with 
Augustin Daly's theatrical management in 1879. Under his 
training she soon showed her talents for vivid, charming por- 
trayal of character, first in modern and then in older comedies. 
She was the heroine in all the Daly adaptations from the German, 
and added to her triumphs the parts of Peggy in Wycherly's 
Country Girl, Julia in the Hunchback, and especially Katharina 
in The Taming of the Shrew, besides playing Rosalind and 
Viola. Miss Rehan accompanied Daly's company to England 
(first in 1884), France and Germany (1886). Her life-size 
portrait as Katharina is in the picture-gallery, and her bust, 
with Ellen Terry's, at the entrance to the theatre in the Shake- 
speare Memorial at Stratford-on-Avon. 

REHEARSAL (from " rehearse," to say over again, repeat, 
recount, O.Fr. rehercer, from re, again, and hercer, to harrow, 
cf. " hearse," the original meaning being to rake or go over 
the same ground again as with a harrow), a recital of words or 
statements, particularly the trial performance in private of a 
play, musical composition, recitation, &c, for the purpose of 
practice preparatory to the performance in public. In the 
theatre a " full rehearsal " is one in which the whole performance 
is gone through with all the performers, a " dress rehearsal " 



one in which the performance is carried out with scenery, 
costumes, properties, &c, exactly as it is to be played in 
public. 

REHOBOAM (Heb. rehab'am, probably " the clan is en- 
'arged," see Ecclus. xlvii. 23, although on the analogy of 
Rehabiah and Bab. ra'bi-ilu, % Am may represent some god; 
Septuagint reads po/3oo/x), son of Solomon and first king of 
Judah. On the events which led to his accession and the 
partition of the Hebrew monarchy, see Jeroboam, Solomon. 
Although his age is given as forty-one (1 Kings xiv. 21), the 
account of his treatment of the Israelite deputation (1 Kings xii.), 
as also 2 Chron. xiii. 7, give an impression of youth. He was 
partly of Ammonite origin (1 Kings xiv. 21), and, like his 
father, continued the foreign worship which his connexions 
involved. The chief event of his reign was the incursion of 
Egypt under Sheshonk (Shishak) I., who came up against 
Judah and despoiled the temple about 930 B.C. (see Egypt, 
History, § " Deltaic Dynasties "). That this invasion is to 
be connected with the friendly relations which are said to 
have subsisted between the first of the Libyan dynasty and 
Rehoboam's rival is unlikely. Sheshonk has figured his 
campaign outside the great temple of Karnak with a list of 
some 150 places which he claims to have conquered, but it 
is possible that these were only tributary, and the names may 
be largely based upon older lists. Towns of both Judah and 
Israel are incorporated, and it is possible that Jerusalem once 
stood where now the stone is mutilated. 1 The book of 
Chronicles enumerates several Judaean cities fortified by 
Rehoboam (not necessarily connected with Sheshonk's cam- 
paign), and characteristically regards the invasion as a punish- 
ment (2 Chron. xi. 5 sqq., xii. 1-15; for the prophet Shemaiah 
see 1 Kings xii. 21-24). Of Rehoboam's successor Abijah (or 
Abijam) little is known except a victory over Jeroboam re- 
corded in 2 Chron. xiii. See further Asa, Omri, and Jews 
(History), §§ 7, 9. 

REICHA, ANTON JOSEPH (1770-1836), French musical 
theorist and teacher of composition, was born at Prague on the 
27th of February 1770, and educated chiefly by his uncle, 
Joseph Reicha (1746-1795), a clever violoncellist, who first 
received him into his house at Wallerstein in Bohemia, and 
afterwards carried him to Bonn. Here, about 1789, he was made 
flutist in the orchestra of the elector. In 1794 he went to 
Hamburg and gave music lessons there, also producing the 
opera Godefroid de Montfort. He was in Paris in 1799 and in 
Vienna from 1802 to 1808, during which period he saw much of 
Beethoven and Haydn. In the latter year he returned to Paris> 
where he produced three operas without much success. In 
181 7 he succeeded Mehul as professor of counterpoint at the 
Conservatoire. In 1829 he was naturalized as a Frenchman, and 
in 1835 he was admitted as a member of the Institute in the 
place of Boieldieu. He died in Paris on the 28th of May 1836. 
He produced a vast quantity of church music, five operas, a 
number of symphonies, oratorios and many miscellaneous 
works. Though clever and ingenious, his compositions are 
more remarkable for their novelty than for the beauty of the 
ideas upon which they are based. His fame is, indeed, more 
securely based upon his didactic works. His Traits de melodie 
(Paris, 1814), Cours de composition musicale (Paris, 1818), 
Traite de haute composition musicale (Paris, 1824-26), and 
Art du compositeur dramatique (Paris, 1833), are valuable and 
instructive essays for the student, though many of the theories 
they set forth are now condemned as erroneous. 

REICHENAU, a picturesque island in the Untersee or 
western arm of the lake of Constance, 3 m. long by 1 broad, and 
connected with the east shore by a causeway three-quarters of a 
mile long. It belongs to the grand duchy of Baden. The soil 

1 The once popular view that " king of Judah " stands in no. 29 is 
untenable. See Petrie, Hist, of Egypt, ii. p. 235; L. B. Paton, Syria 
and Pal. p. 193 sq.; W. M. Miiller, Mitteil. Vorderasiat. Gesell., 
1900, p. 19 sq., and Ency. Bib. col. 4486. Breasted (Amer. Journ. of 
Sem. Lang., 1904, p. 36) has made the interesting observation that 
the list mentions " the field of Abram " (nos. 71 and 72I : see further, 
id., Egypt Hist. Records, iv. pp. 348-357. 



REICHENBACH, G.— REICHSTADT, DUKE OF 



49 



is very fertile, and excellent wine is produced in sufficient 
quantity for exportation. The Benedictine abbey of Reichenau, 
founded in 724, was long celebrated for its wealth and for the 
services rendered by its monks to the cause of learning. In 
1540 the abbey, which had previously been independent, was 
annexed to the see of Constance, and in 1799 it was secularized. 
The abbey church, dating in part from the 9th century, contains 
the tomb of Charles the Fat (d. 888), who retired to this island 
in 887, after losing the empire of Charlemagne. It now 
serves as the parish church of Mittelzell, while the churches of 
Oberzell and Unterzell are also interesting buildings of the 
Carolingian era. 

REICHENBACH, GEORG VON (1772-1826), German astro- 
nomical instrument maker, was born at Durlach in Baden on 
the 24th of August 1772. From 1796 he was occupied with 
the construction of a dividing engine; in 1804, with Joseph, 
Liebherr and Joseph Utzschneider, he founded an instrument- 
making business in Munich; and in 1809 he established, with 
Joseph Fraunhofer and Utzschneider, optical works at Benedict- 
beuern, which were moved to Munich in 1823. He withdrew 
from both enterprises in 1814, and founded with T. L. Ertel a 
new optical business, from which also he retired in 1821, on 
obtaining an engineering appointment under the Bavarian 
government. He died at Munich on the 21st of May 1826. 

Reichenbach's principal merit was that he introduced into ob- 
servatories the meridian or transit circle, combining the transit in- 
strument and the mural circle into one instrument. This had 
already been done by O. Romer about 1704, but the idea had not 
been adopted by any one else, except in the transit circle constructed 
by Edward Troughton for Stephen Groombridge in 1 806. The 
transit circle in the form given it by Reichenbach had one finely 
divided circle attached to one end of the horizontal axis and read 
by four verniers on an " alidade circle," the unaltered position of 
which was tested by a spirit level. The instrument came almost at 
once into universal use on the continent of Europe (the first one was 
made for F. W. Bessel in 1819), but in England the mural circle and 
transit instrument were not superseded for many years. 

REICHENBACH, a town of Germany, in the Prussian 
province of Silesia, situated on the Peile, at the foot of the 
Eulengebirge, a spur of the Riesengebirge, 30 m. S.W. of Breslau 
by rail. Pop. (1905) 15,984. Among its industries are weaving, 
spinning, dyeing, brewing and machine building, and there is a 
considerable trade in grain and cattle. Reichenbach is memor- 
able for the victory gained here on the 16th of August 1762 by 
the Prussians over the Austrians. Here was held the congress 
which resulted in the convention of Reichenbach — signed on the 
27th of July 1790 between Great Britain, Prussia, Austria, 
Poland and Holland— guaranteeing the integrity of Turkey. 
Here, too, in June 1813, was signed the treaty of alliance between 
Austria and the Allies for the prosecution of the war against 
France. 
See the Kurze Geschichte der Stadt Reichenbach (Reichenbach, 1874). 

REICHENBACH, a town in the kingdom of Saxony, situated 
in a hilly district, known as the Vogtland, n m. S.W. of Zwickau, 
at the junction of the main lines of railway Dresden-Leipzig- Hof. 
Pop. (1005) 24,915. It contains a handsome town-hall rebuilt 
in 1833, and a natural history museum. The industries embrace 
the manufacture of cloth, machinery and carriages, also dyeing 
and bleaching. The earliest mention of the town occurs in a 
document of 1212, and it acquired municipal rights in 1367. 
The woollen manufacture was introduced in the 15th century, 
and took the place of the mining industry which had been 
established earlier. 

REICHENBERG (Czech, Liberec), a town of Bohemia, 
87 m. N.E. of Prague by rail. Pop. (1900) 34,099, chiefly 
German. The most prominent buildings are the new town-hall 
(1893); the castle of Count Clam Gallas, built in the 17th 
century, with additions dating from 1774 and 1850; the 
Erzdekanatskirche, of the 16th century; the Protestant church, 
a handsome modern Romanesque edifice (1864-68) and the hall 
of the cloth-workers. Reichenberg is one of the most important 
centres of trade and industry in Bohemia, its staple industry 
being the cloth manufacture. Next in importance comes the 



spinning and weaving of wool, cotton, linen and carpet manu- 
factures, and dyeing. 

Reichenberg is first mentioned in a document of 1348, and from 
1622 to 1634 was among the possessions of the great Wallenstein, 
since whose death it has belonged to the Gallas and Clam Gallas 
families, though their jurisdiction over the town has long ceased. 
The cloth-making industry was introduced in 1579. 

REICHENHALL, a town and watering-place in the kingdom 
of Bavaria, finely situated in an amphitheatre of lofty moun- 
tains, on the river Saalach, 1570 ft. above sea-level, 9 m. S.W. 
of Salzburg. Pop. (1900) 4927, excluding visitors. Reichen- 
hall possesses several copious saline springs, producing about 
8500 tons of salt per annum. The water of some of the springs, 
the sources of which are 50 ft. below the surface, is so strongly 
saturated with salt (up to 24%) that it is at once conducted 
to the boiling houses, while that of the others is first submitted 
to a process of evaporation. Reichenhall is the centre of the 
four chief Bavarian salt-works, which are connected with each 
other by brine conduits having an aggregate length of 60 m. 
The surplus brine of Berchtesgaden is conducted to Reichen- 
hall, and thence, in increased volume, to Traunstein and Rosen- 
heim, which possess larger supplies of timber for use as fuel 
in the process of boiling. Since 1846 Reichenhall has become 
one of the most fashionable spas and climatic health resorts 
in Germany, and it is now visited annually by about ten 
thousand patients, besides many thousand passing tourists. 
The saline springs are used both for drinking and bathing, 
and are said to be efficacious in scrofula and incipient tuber- 
culosis. 

The brine springs of Reichenhall are mentioned in a docu- 
ment of the 8th century and were perhaps known to the Romans; 
but almost all trace of antiquity of the town was destroyed 
by a conflagration in 1834. The brine conduit to Traunstein 
dates from 16 18. The environs abound in numerous charming 
Alpine excursions. 

See G. von Liebig, Reichenhall, sein Klima und seine Heilmittel 
(6th ed., Reichenhall, 1889) ; and Goldschmidt, Der Kurort Bad 
Reichenhall und seine Umgebung (Vienna, 1892). 

REICHENSPERGER, AUGUST (1808-1895), German poli- 
tician, was born at Coblenz on the 22nd of March 1808, studied 
law and entered government service, becoming counsellor to 
the court of appeal (Appellalionsgerichlsrat) at Cologne in 1849. 
He was a member of the German parliament at Frankfort in 
1848, when he attached himself to the Right, and of the Erfurt 
parliament in 1850, when he voted against the Prussian Union. 
From 1850 to 1863 he sat in the Prussian Lower House, from 
1867 to 1884 in the Reichstag, and from 1879 onwards also 
in the Prussian Chamber of Deputies. Originally of Liberal 
tendencies, he developed from 1837 onwards ultramontane 
opinions, founded in 1852 the Catholic group which in 1861 
took the name of the Centre party {Centrum) and became one 
of its most conspicuous orators. He died on the 16th of July 
1895 at Cologne. He published a considerable number of 
works on art and architecture, including Die christlich-ger- 
manische Baukunst (Trier, 1852, 3rd ed., i860); Fingerzeige 
auf dem Gejpete der christlichen Kunst (Leipzig, 1854); Augustus 
Pugin, der Neubegrunder der christlichen Kunst in England 
(Freiburg, 1877). 

See L. v. Pastor, August Reichensperger, 2 vols. (Freiburg-im- 
Breisgau, 1899). 

His brother, Peter Reichensperger (1810-1892), counsellor 
to the appeal court at Cologne (1850) and until 1879 to the 
Obertribunal at Berlin, was elected to the Reichstag in 1867 
as a member of the Liberal Opposition, but subsequently 
joined the Centre party. In the Kulturkatnpf he took an 
active part on the ultramontane side. He had been a member 
of the Prussian National Assembly in 1848, and in 1888 he 
published his Erlebnisse eines alien Parlamentariers im Revolti- 
tionsjahr 1848. 

REICHSTADT, NAPOLEON FRANCIS JOSEPH CHARLES, 
Duke of (1811-1832), known by the Bonapartists as Napo- 
leon II., was the son of the Emperor Napoleon I. and Marie 
Louise, archduchess of Austria. He was born on the 20th of 



5° 



REID, SIR G.— REID, SIR R. G. 



March 1811, in Paris at the Tuileries palace. He was at first 
named the king of Rome, after the analogy of the heirs of the 
emperors of the Holy Roman Empire. By his birth the 
Napoleonic dynasty seemed to be finally established; but in 
three years it crumbled in the dust. At the time of the downfall 
of the empire (April 1814) Marie Louise and the king of Rome 
were at Blois with Joseph and Jerome Bonaparte, who wished 
to keep them as hostages. This design, however, was frustrated. 
Napoleon abdicated in favour of his son; but events prevented 
the reign of Napoleon II. from being more than titular. While 
Napoleon repaired to Elba, his consort and child went to 
Vienna; and they remained in Austria during the Hundred 
Days (1815), despite efforts made by the Bonapartists to carry 
off the prince to his father at Paris. 

Meanwhile the congress of Vienna had carried out the con- 
ditions of the treaty of Fontainebleau (March 1814) whereby 
the duchies of Parma and Guastalla were to go to the ex- 
Empress Marie Louise and her son, although much opposition 
was offered to this proposal by Louis XVIII. and even (so it 
now appears) by Metternich. The secret treaty of the 31st 
of May 1815 between Austria, Russia and Prussia secured 
those possessions to her, her son bearing the title Prince of 
Parma, with hereditary rights for his descendants. But after 
the second abdication of Napoleon in favour of his son (22nd 
of June 181 5) — a condition which was wholly nugatory — the 
powers opposed all participation of the prince in the affairs 
of Parma. He therefore remained in Austria, while Marie 
Louise proceeded to Parma. From this time onward he be- 
came, as it were, a pawn in the complex game of European 
politics, his claims being put forward sometimes by Metternich, 
sometimes by the unionists of Italy, while occasionally mal- 
contents in France used his name to discredit the French 
Bourbons. The efforts of malcontents increased the resolve 
of the sovereigns never to allow a son of Napoleon to bear 
rule; and in November 18 16 the court of Vienna informed 
Marie Louise that her son could not succeed to the duchies. 
This decision was confirmed by the treaty of Paris of the 10th 
of June 181 7. Marie Louise demanded as a slight compensa- 
tion that he should have a title derived from the lands of the 
" Bavarian Palatinate " in northern Bohemia, and the title 
of " duke of Reichstadt " was therefore conferred on him on 
the 22nd of July 1818. Thus Napoleon I., who once averred 
that he would prefer that his son should be strangled rather 
than brought up as an Austrian prince, lived to see his son 
reduced to a rank inferior to that of the Austrian archdukes. 

His education was confided chiefly to Count Dietrichstein, 
who found him precocious, volatile, passionate and fond of 
military affairs. The same judgment was given by Marshal 
Marmont, duke of Ragusa, who recognized the warlike strain 
in his character. His nature was sensitive, as appeared on his 
receiving the news of the death of his father in 1821. The 
upheaval in France in 1830 and the disturbances which ensued 
led many Frenchmen to turn their thoughts to Napoleon II.; 
but though Metternich dallied for a time with the French 
Bonapartists, he had no intention of inaugurating a Napoleonic 
revival. By this time, too, the duke's health was on the decline ; 
his impatience of all restraint and his indulgence in physical 
exercise far beyond his powers aggravated a natural weakness 
of the chest, and he died on the 22nd of July 1832. 

See A. M. Barthelemy and J. P. A. M6ry, Le Fits de Vhomme 
(Paris, 1829), Baron G. I. Comte de Montbel, Le Due de Reichstadt 
(Paris, 1832); J. de Saint-F61ix, Histoire de Napoleon II. (Paris, 
1853); Guy de l'Herault, Histoire de Napoleon II. (Paris, 1853); 
Count Anton von Prokesch-Osten, Mein Verhaltniss zum Herzog 
von Reichstadt (Stuttgart, 1878) ; H. Welschinger, Le Roi de Rome 
(Paris, 1897); E. de Wertheimer, The Duke of Reichstadt (Eng. ed., 
London, 1905); M. Rostand's play L'Aiglon is a dramatic setting 
of the career of the prince. (J. Hl. R.) 

REID, SIR GEORGE (1841- ), Scottish artist, was born 
in Aberdeen on the 31st of October 1841. He developed an 
early passion for drawing, which led to his being apprenticed 
in 1854 for seven years to Messrs Keith & Gibb, lithographers 
in Aberdeen. In 1861 Reid took lessons from an itinerant 



portrait-painter, William Niddrie, who had been a pupil of 
James Giles, R.S.A., and afterwards entered as a student in 
the school of the Board of Trustees in Edinburgh. He returned 
to Aberdeen to paint landscapes and portraits for any trifling 
sum which his work could command. His first portrait to 
attract attention, from its fine quality, was that of George 
Macdonald, the poet and novelist, now the property of the 
university of Aberdeen. His early landscapes were con- 
scientiously painted in the open air and on the spot. But 
Reid soon came to see that such work was inherently false, 
painted as the picture was day after day under varying con- 
ditions of light and shade. Accordingly, in 1865 he proceeded 
to Utrecht to study under A. Mollinger, whose work he ad- 
mired, from its unity and simplicity. This change in his 
method of viewing Nature was looked on as revolutionary by 
the Royal Scottish Academy, and for some years his work 
found little favour in that quarter; but other artists gradually 
adopted the system of tone-studies-, which ultimately pre- 
vailed. Reid went to Paris in 1868 to study under the figure 
painter Yvon; and he worked in 1872 with Josef Israels 
at the Hague. From this time forward Reid's success was 
continuous and marked. He showed his versatility in land- 
scape, as in his " Whins in Bloom," which combined great 
breadth with fine detail; in flower-pieces, such as his " Roses," 
which were brilliant in rapid suggestiveness and force; but 
most of all in his portraits, which are marked by great indi- 
viduality, and by fine insight into character. His work in 
black-and-white, his admirable illustrations in brushwork of 
Edinburgh and its neighbourhood, and also his pen-drawings, 
about which it has been declared that " his work contains 
all the subtleties and refinements of a most delicate etching," 
must also be noted. Elected Associate of the Royal Scottish 
Academy in 1870, Reid attained full membership in 1877, 
and took up his residence in Edinburgh in 1882. In 1801 
he was elected President — a post which he held until 1902 — 
receiving also the honour of knighthood, and he was awarded 
a gold medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1900. His brother 
Samuel (b. 1854) was also a painter and a writer of tales and 
verse. 

REID, ROBERT (1862- ), American artist, was born at 
Stockbridge, Mass., on the 29th of July 1862. He studied 
at the art schools of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the 
Art Students' League, New York, and under Boulanger and 
Lefebvre in Paris. His early pictures were figures of French 
peasants, painted at Etaples, but subsequently he became best 
known for mural decoration and designs for stained glass. 
He contributed with others to the frescoes of the dome of 
the Liberal Arts Building at the Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 
in 1893. Other work is in the Congressional Library, Washing- 
ton, the Appellate Court House, New York, and the State 
House, Boston, where are his three large panels, " James 
Otis Delivering his Speech against the Writs of Assistance," 
" Paul Revere's Ride " and the " Boston Tea Party." He 
executed a panel for the American Pavilion at the Paris Ex- 
hibition, 1900, and in 1906 he completed a series of ten stained 
glass windows for a church at Fairhaven, Mass., for the Rogers 
Memorial. In 1906 he became a full member of the National 
Academy of Design. 

REID, SIR ROBERT GILLESPIE (1840-1908), Canadian 
railway contractor, was born at Coupar-Angus, Scotland. 
When a young man he spent a few years in Australia gold- 
mining, and in 1871 he settled in America, where he began his 
career as a contractor. He built one section of the Canadian 
Pacific railway, and was responsible for the erection of the 
international bridge over the Niagara river, the international 
railway bridge over the Rio Grande river and the Lachine 
bridge over the St Lawrence. In 1893 Reid signed a contract 
with the government of Newfoundland by which he under- 
took to construct a railway from St John's to Pcrt-aux-Basques 
and to work the line for ten years in return for a large grant 
of land. In 1898 he further contracted to work all the railways 
in Newfoundland for fifty years on condition that at the end 



REID, T. 



5i 



of this time they should become his property. This bargain, 
which included other matters such as steamers, docks and 
telegraphs, was extraordinarily favourable to Reid; who, by 
further enormous grants of land, became one of the largest 
landed proprietors in the world; public opinion was aroused 
against it, and at first the governor, Sir Herbert Murray, refused 
to ratify it. After the premier, Sir James Winter, had been 
replaced by Mr (afterwards Sir) Robert Bond, the terms of 
the contract were revised, being made more favourable to 
Newfoundland, and Reid's interests were transferred to a 
company, the Reid Newfoundland Company, of which he was 
the first president (see Newfoundland, Roads and Railways). 
Reid was knighted in 1007, and he died on the 3rd of June 1908. 
REID, THOMAS (1710-1706), Scottish philosopher, was born 
at Strachan in Kincardineshire, on the 26th of April 17 10. 
His father was minister of the place for fifty years, and traced 
his descent from a long line of Presbyterian ministers on Dee- 
side. His mother belonged to the brilliant Gregory family 
(?.».), which, in the 18th century, gave so many representatives 
to literature and science in Scotland. Reid graduated at Aber- 
deen in 1726, and remained there as librarian to the university 
for ten years, a period which he devoted largely to mathematical 
reading. In 1737 he was presented to the living of Newmachar 
near Aberdeen. The parishioners, violently excited at the 
time about the law of patronage, received him with open 
hostility; and tradition asserts that his uncle defended him 
on the pulpit stair with a drawn sword. Though not dis- 
tinguished as a preacher, he was successful in winning the 
affections of his people. The publication of Hume's treatise 
turned his attention to philosophy, and in particular to the 
theory of external perception. His first publication, however, 
dealt with a question of philosophical method suggested by 
the reading of Hutcheson. The " Essay on Quantity, occa- 
sioned by reading a Treatise in which Simple and Compound 
Ratios are applied to Virtue and Merit," denies the possibility 
of a mathematical treatment of moral subjects. The essay 
appeared in the Transactions of the Royal Society (1748). 
In 1740 Reid married a cousin, the daughter of a London 
physician. In 1752 the professors of King's College, Aberdeen, 
elected him to the chair of philosophy, which he held for twelve 
years. The foundation of the Aberdeen Philosophical Society 
(the " Wise Club "), which numbered among its members 
Campbell, Beattie, Gerard and Dr John Gregory, was mainly 
owing to the exertions of Reid, who was secretary for the first 
year (1758). Many of the subjects of discussion were drawn 
from Hume's speculations; and during the last years of his 
stay in Aberdeen Reid propounded his new point of view 
in several papers read before the society. The results of these 
papers were embodied in the Enquiry into the Human Mind on 
the Principles of Common Sense (1764). The Enquiry does not 
go beyond an analysis of sense perception, and is therefore more 
limited in scope than the later Essays; but if the latter are more 
mature, there is more freshness about the earlier work. In 
this year, Reid succeeded Adam Smith as professor of moral 
philosophy in the university of Glasgow. After seventeen 
years of active teaching, he retired in order to complete his 
philosophical system. As a lecturer, he was inferior in charm 
and eloquence to Brown and Stewart; the latter says that 
" silent and respectful attention " was accorded to the " sim- 
plicity and perspicuity of his style " and " the gravity and 
authority of his character." His philosophical influence was 
exerted largely through the writings of Dugald Stewart and 
Sir William Hamilton. The Essays on the Intellectual Powers 
of Man appeared in 1785, and their ethical complement, the 
Essays on the Active Powers of the Human Mind, in 1788. These, 
with an account of Aristotle's Logic appended to Lord Karnes's 
Sketches of the History of Man (1774), conclude the list of works 
published in Reid's lifetime. Hamilton's edition of Reid also 
contains an account of the university of Glasgow and a selection 
of Reid's letters, chiefly addressed to his Aberdeen friends the 
Skenes, to Lord Karnes, and to Dr James Gregory. With the 
two last named he discussed the materialism of .Priestley and 



the theory of necessitarianism. He reverted in his old age 
to the mathematical pursuits of his earlier years, and his ardour 
for knowledge of every kind remained fresh to the last. He 
died of paralysis on the 7th of October 1706, his wife and all 
his children save one having predeceased him. His portrait 
by Raeburn is the property of Glasgow University, and in 
the National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh, there is a good 
medallion by Tassie, taken in his eighty-first year. His char- 
acter was marked by independence, economy and generosity. 

The key to Reid's philosophy is to be found in his revulsion from 
the sceptical conclusions of Hume. In several passages of his 
writings he expressly dates his philosophical awakening from the 
appearance of the Treatise of Human Nature. In the dedication 
of the Enquiry, he says: "The ingenious author of that treatise 
upon the principles of Locke — who was no sceptic — hath built a 
system of scepticism which leaves no ground to believe any one 
thing rather than its contrary. His reasoning appeared to me to 
be just; there was, there/ore, a necessity to call in question the 
principles upon which it was founded, or to^admit the conclusion." 
Reid thus takes Hume's scepticism as, on its own showing, a reductio 
ad impossibUe (see Hume, ad fin.) of accepted philbsophical 
principles, and refuses, accordingly, to separate Hume from his 
intellectual progenitors. From its origin in Descartes and onwards 
through Locke and Berkeley, modern philosophy carried with it, 
Reid contends, the germ of scepticism. Embracing the whole 
philosophic movement under the name of " the Cartesian system," 
Reid detects its fundamental error in the unproved assumption 
shared by these thinkers " that all the objects of my knowledge 
are ideas in my own mind." This doctrine or hypothesis he usually 
speaks of as the ideal system " or " the theory of ideas";andto 
it he opposes his own analysis of the act of perception. In view 
of the results of this analysis, Reid's theory (and the theory of 
Scottish philosophy generally) has been dubbed natural realism or 
natural dualism, in contrast to theories l;ke subjective idealism 
and materialism or to the cosmothetic idealism or hypothetical 
dualism of the majority of philosophers. But this unduly narrows 
the scope of Scottish philosophy, which does not exhaust itself, 
as is sometimes supposed, in uncritically reasserting the independent 
existence of matter and its immediate presence to mind. The 
real significance of Reid's doctrine lies in its attack upon Hume's 
fundamental principles, (1) that all our perceptions are distinct 
existences, and (2) that the mind never perceives any real connexion 
among distinct existences (cf. Appendix to the third volume of the 
Treatise, 1740). It is here that the danger of " the ideal system " 
really lies — in its reduction of reality to " particular perceptions," 
essentially unconnected with each other. This theory admitted, 
nothing is left for philosophy save to explain the illusion of necessary 
connexion. Reid, however, attacks the fundamental assumption. 
In logical language, he denies the actuality of the abstract particular. 
The unit of knowledge is not an isolated impression but a judgment; 
and in such a judgment is contained, even initially, the reference 
both to a permanent subject and to a permanent world of thought, 
and, implied in these, such judgments, for example, as those of 
existence, substance, cause and effect. Such principles are not 
derived from sensation, but are " suggested " on occasion of 
sensation, in such a way as to constitute the necessary conditions 
of our having perceptive experience at all. Thus we do not start 
with " ideas, and afterwards refer them to objects; we are never 
restricted to our own minds, but are from the first immediately 
related to a permanent world. Reid has a variety of names for the 
principles which, by their presence, lift us out of subjectivity into 
perception. He calls them " natural judgments," " natural sug- 
gestions," "judgments of nature," "judgments immediately 
inspired by our constitution," " principles of our nature," " first 
principles," " principles of common sense." The last commoo 
designation, which became the current one, was un- sense. 
doubtedly unfortunate, and has conveyed to many a false 
impression of Scottish philosophy. It has been understood as if 
Reid had merely appealed from the reasoned conclusions of philo- 
sophers to the unreasoned beliefs of common life. But Reid's 
actions are better than his words; his real mode of procedure is to 
redargue Hume's conclusions by a refutation of the premises in- 
herited by him from his predecessors. For the rest, as regards 
the question of nomenclature, Reid everywhere unites common 
sense and reason, making the former " only another name for 
one branch or degree of reason." Reason, as judging of things 
self-evident, is called common sense to distinguish it from ratio- 
cination or reasoning. And in regard to Reid's favourite proof of 
the principles in question by reference to " the consent of ages and 
nations, of the learned and unlearned," it is only fair to observe 
that this argument assumes a much more scientific form in the 
Essays, where it is almost identified with an appeal to " the structure 
and grammar of all languages." " The structure of all languages," 
he says, " is grounded upon common sense." To take but one 
example, " the distinction between sensible qualities and the 
substance to which they belong, and between thought and the 
mind that thinks, is not the invention of philosophers ; it is found 



52 



REID, T, Mi^-REIGATE 



in the structure of all languages, and therefore must be common 
to all men who speak with understanding " (Hamilton's Reid, pp. 

229 and 454). . . . , 

The principles which Reid insists upon as everywhere present 
in experience evidently correspond pretty closely to the Kantian 

categories and the unity of apperception. Similarly, Reid s 
Reid and asser ti on f the essential distinction between space or 
KaaU extension and feeling or any succession of feelings may_ 

be compared with Kant's doctrine in the Aesthetic. " Space, 
he says, " whether tangible or visible, is not so properly 
an object [Kant's " matter "] as a necessary concomitant of the 
objects both of sight and touch." Like Kant, too, Reid finds in 
space the source of a necessity which sense, as sense, cannot give 
(Hamilton's Reid, p. 323) . In the substance of their answer to Hume, 
the two philosophers have therefore much in common. But Reid 
lacked the art to give due impressiveness to the important advance 
which his positions really contain. Although at times he states 
his principles with a wonderful degree of breadth and insight, he 
mars the effect by looseness of statement, and by the incorporation 
of irrelevant psychological matter. And, if Kant was overridden 
by a love of symmetry, Reid's indifference to form and system is 
an even more dangerous defect. Further, Reid is inclined to state 
his principles dogmatically rather than as logical deductions. The 
transcendental deduction, or proof from the possibility of experi- 
ence in general, which forms the vital centre of the Kantian scheme, 
is wanting in Reid; or, at all events, if the spirit of the proof is 
occasionally present, it is nowhere adequately developed. Never- 
theless, Reid's insistence on judgment as the unit of knowledge and 
his sharp distinction between sensation and perception must still 
be recognized as of the highest importance. 

The relativism or phenomenalism which Hamilton afterwards 
adopted from Kant and sought to engraft upon Scottish philosophy 

is wholly absent from the original Scottish doctrine. One 
c* C «i t, or two passages may certainly be quoted from Reid in 
c 1 1 which he asserts that we know only pioperties of things 

and are ignorant of their essence. But the exact meaning 
which he attaches to such expressions is not quite clear; and they 
occur, moreover, only incidentally and with the air of current phrases 
mechanically repeated. Dugald Stewart, however, deliberately 
emphasizes the merely qualitative nature of our knowledge as the 
foundation of philosophical argument, and thus paves the way for 
the thoroughgoing philosophy of nescience elaborated by Hamilton. 
But since Hamilton's time the most typical Scottish thinkers have 
repudiated his relativistic doctrine, and returned to the original 
tradition of the school. For Reid's ethical theory, see Ethics. 

The complete edition of the works by Sir William Hamilton, 
published in two volumes with notes and supplementary disserta- 
tions by the editor (6th ed. 1863), has superseded all others. For 
Reid's life see D. Stewart's Memoir prefixed to Hamilton's edition 
of Reid's works. See also McCosh, Scottish Philosophers (1875); 
Rait, Universities of Aberdeen, pp. 190-203, 223; A. C. Fraser, 
Monograph (1898); A. Bain, Mental Science, p. 207, p. 422 (for his 
theory of free will), and Appendix, pp. 29, 63, 88, 89. 

\ri. o. r^.-Jr . J ■&■•) 

REID, THOMAS MAYNE (1818-1883), better known as 
Mayne Reid, British novelist, the son of a Presbyterian minister, 
was born at Ballyroney, Co. Down, Ireland, on the 4th of April 
1818. His own early life was as adventurous as any boy 
reader of his novels could desire. He was educated for the 
church, but did not take orders, and when twenty years old 
went to America in search of excitement and fortune. He 
made trading excursions on the Red river, studying the ways 
of the red man and the white pioneer. He made acquaintance 
with the Missouri in the same manner, and roved through all 
the states of the Union. In Philadelphia, where he was engaged 
in journalism from 1843^0 1846, he made the acquaintance of 
Edgar Allan Poe. When the war with Mexico broke out in 1846 
he obtained a captain's commission, was present at the siege 
and capture of Vera Cruz, and led a forlorn hope at Chapulte- 
pec, where he sustained such severe injuries that his life was 
despaired of. In one of his novels he says that he believed 
theoretically in the military value of untrained troops, and 
that he had found his theories confirmed in actual warfare. 
An enthusiastic republican, he offered his services to the 
Hungarian insurgents in 1849, raised a body of volunteers, 
and sailed for Europe, but arrived too late. He then settled in 
England, and began his career of a novelist with the publication, 
in 1850, of the Rifle Rangers. This was followed next year 
by the Scalp Hunters. He never surpassed his first productions, 
except perhaps in The White Chief (1859) and The Quadroon 
(1856): but he continued to produce tales of self-reliant enter- 
prise and exciting adventure with great fertility. Simplicity of 



plot and easy variety of exciting incident are among the merits 
that contribute to his popularity with boys. His reflections 
are not profound, but are frequently more sensible than might 
be presumed at first from his aggressive manner of expressing 
them. He died in London on the 22nd of October 1883. 

See Memoir (1890) by his widow, Elizabeth Mayne Reid. 

REID, WHITELAW (1837- ), American journalist and 
diplomatist, was born of Scotch parentage, near Xenia, Ohio, 
on the 27th of October 1837. He graduated at Miami Uni- 
versity in 1856, and spoke frequently in behalf of John C. 
Fremont, the Republican candidate for the presidency in 
that year; was superintendent of schools of South Charleston, 
Ohio, in 1856-58, and in 1858-59 was editor of the Xenia 
News. In i860 he became legislative correspondent at 
Columbus for several Ohio newspapers, including the Cincinnati 
Gazette, of which he was made city editor in 1861. He was 
war correspondent for the Gazette in 1861-62, serving also 
as volunteer aide-de-camp (with the rank of captain) to General 
Thomas A. Morris (1811-1904) and General William S. Rosecrans 
in West Virginia. He was Washington correspondent of the 
Gazette in 1862-68, acting incidentally as clerk of the mili- 
tary committee of Congress (1862-63) and as librarian of the 
House of Representatives (1863-66). In 1868 he became a 
leading editorial writer for the New York Tribune, in the 
following year was made managing editor, and in 1872, upon 
the death of Horace Greeley, became the principal proprietor 
and editor-in-chief. In 1905 Reid relinquished his active 
editorship of the Tribune, but retaine'd financial control. He 
declined an appointment as United States minister to Germany 
in 1877 and again in 1881, but served as minister to France in 
1889-92, and in 1892 was the unsuccessful Republican candi- 
date for vice-president on the ticket with Benjamin Harrison. 
In 1897 he was special ambassador of the United States on the 
occasion of Queen Victoria's jubilee; in 1898 was a member of 
the commission which arranged the terms of peace between 
the United States and Spain; in 1902 was special ambassador 
of the United States at the coronation of King Edward VII., 
and in 1905 became ambassador to Great Britain. He was 
elected a life member of the New York State Board of Regents 
in 1878; and in 1902 he became vice-chancellor and, in 1904, 
chancellor of the university of the state of New York. In 1881 
he married a daughter of Darius Ogden Mills (1825-1910), a 
prominent financier. 

His publications include After the War (1867), in which he gives 
his observations during a journey through the Southern States in 
1866; Ohio in the War (2 vols., 1868); Some Consequences of the 
Last Treaty of Paris (1899); Our New Duties (1899); Later Aspects 
of Our New Duties (1899); Problems of Expansion (1900); The 
Greatest Fact in Modern History (1906), and How America faced its 
Educational Problem (1906). 

REID, SIR WILLIAM (1 791-1858), Scottish administrator 
and man of science, was born on the 25th of April 1791 at 
the manse of Kinglassie, Fifeshire, and entered the Royal 
Engineers in 1809. He saw active service in the Peninsula 
under Wellington, and took part in the bombardment of Algiers 
in 1816. In 1835 and 1836 he again saw active service, in 
Spain against Don Carlos. In 1838 he published his Attempt 
to develop the Law of Storms, which obtained wide popularity. 
In 1839 he was appointed governor of the Bermudas, where 
he did much to develop the agricultural resources of the islands, 
and in 1846 he was transferred to Barbados. In 1850-51 he 
was chairman of the executive committee of the Great Exhi- 
bition; on the completion of the work he was made a K.C.B. 
and appointed governor of Malta. He died in London on the 
31st of October 1858. 

REIGATE, a market town and municipal borough in the 
Reigate parliamentary division of Surrey, England, 24 m. 
S. by W. of London by the South-Eastern & Chatham rail- 
way. Pop. (1901) 25,993. It is situated at the head of the 
long valley of Holmsdale Hollow, beneath the North Downs. 
A very fine prospect over a great part of Surrey and Sussex, 
and extending to Hampshire and Kent, is obtained from the 
I neighbouring . Reigate Hill. Of the old castle, supposed to 



REIMARUS-—REIMS 



53 



have been built before the Conquest to command the pass 
through the valley, there only remains the entrance to a cave 
beneath, 150 ft. long and from 10 to 12 ft. high, excavated in 
the sandstone, which was used as a guardroom. The grounds 
are laid out as a public garden. Near the market house is 
the site of an ancient chapel dedicated to Thomas a. Becket. 
In the chancel of the parish church of St Mary, a building 
ranging from Transitional Norman to Perpendicular, is buried 
Lord Howard, the commander of the English navy against the 
Spanish Armada. Above the vestry there is a library contain- 
ing choice manuscripts and rare books. The grammar school 
was founded in 1675. Among the other public buildings are 
the town hall, the public hall, the market hall, and the working 
men's institute. The borough includes the township of Red- 
hill, adjacent on the east. The town has some agricultural 
trade, and in the neighbourhood are quarries for freestone, 
hearthstone and white sand. The borough is under a mayor, 
6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 5994 acres. 

Reigate {Cherchefelle, Regat, Reygate) owed its first settlement to 
its situation at a cross-road on the Pilgrim's Way, at the foot of the 
North Downs ; and its early importance to the castle which was the 
stronghold of the De Warennes in the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries. 
On the death of Edith, the widow of Edward the Confessor, to whom 
it belonged, William I. secured the manor of Cherchefelle, as it was 
then called. It was granted by William Rufus to Earl Warenne, 
through whose family it passed in 1347 to the earls of Arundel. The 
name Reigate occurs in 1199. Burgesses of Reigate are mentioned 
in a close roll of 1348, but no eaily charter is known. The town was 
incorporated in 1863. It returned two members to parliament 
from 1295 till 1831, and afterwards one member only until 1867, 
when it was disfranchised for corruption. In the reign of Edward I. 
Earl Warenne held a weekly market on Saturdays, and fairs on 
Tuesday in Whitsun-week, the eve and day of St Lawrence, and 
the eve and day of the Exaltation of the Cross, by prescriptive right. 
Edward II. granted a market on Tuesdays, which is still held. The 
fair days are now Whit-Tuesday and the 9th of December. 

REIMARUS, HERMANN SAMUEL (1694-1768), German 
philosopher and man of letters, was born at Hamburg, on the 
22nd of December 1694. He was educated by his father and 
by the famous scholar J. A. Fabricius, whose son-in-law he 
subsequently became. He studied theology, ancient languages, 
and philosophy at Jena, became Privatdozent in the university 
of Wittenberg in 1716, and in 1720-21 visited Holland and 
England. In 1723 he became rector of the high school at 
Wismar in Mecklenburg, and in 1727 professor of Hebrew 
and Oriental languages in the high school of his native city. 
This post he held till his death, though offers of more lucrative 
positions were made to him. His duties were light, and he 
employed his leisure in the study of philology, mathematics, 
philosophy, history, political economy, natural science and 
natural history, for which he made large collections. His house 
was the centre of the highest culture of Hamburg, and a monu- 
ment of his influence in that city still remains in the Haus 
der patriotischen Gesellschaft, where the learned and artistic 
societies partly founded by him still meet. He had seven 
children, only three of whom survived him — the distinguished 
physician Johann Albrecht Heinrich, and two daughters, one 
of them being Elise, Lessing's friend and correspondent. He 
died on the 1st of March 1 768. 

Reimarus's reputation as a scholar rests On the valuable edition 
of Dio Cassius (1750-52) which he prepared from the materials 
collected by J. A. Fabricius. He published a work on logic 
{Vernunftlehre als Anweisung zum richtigen Gebrauche der 
Vernunft, 1756, 5th ed., 1790), and two popular books on the 
religious questions of the day. The first of these was a col- 
lection of essays on the principal truths of natural religion 
{Abhandlungen von den vornehmsten Wahrheiten der natilrlichen 
Religion, 1755, 7th ed., 1798); the second (Betrachtungen ilber 
die Triebe der Thiere, 1760, 4th ed., 1798) dealt with one par- 
ticular branch of the same subject. His philosophical position 
is essentially that of Christfan Wolff. But he is best known by 
his Apologie oder Schutzschrift fur die vernjinftigen Verehrer 
Gottes (carefully kept back during his lifetime), from which, 
after his death, Lessing published certain chapters under the 
title of the WolfenbUUel Fragments (see Lessing). The original 



MS. is in the Hamburg town library; a copy was made for 
the university library of Gottingen, 18 14, and other copies 
are known to exist. In addition to the seven fragments pub- 
lished by Lessing, a second portion of the work was issued in 
1787 by C. A. E. Schmidt (a pseudonym), under the title Uebrige 
noch ungedruckte Werke des Wolfenbiittelschen Fragmentislen, 
and a further portion by D. W. Klose in Niedner's Zeitschrift 
fiir historische Theologie, 1850-52. Two of the five books of 
the first part and the whole of the second part, as well as appen- 
dices on the canon, remain unprinted. But D. F. Strauss has 
given an exhaustive analysis of the whole work in his book on 
Reimarus. 

The standpoint of the Apologie is that of pure naturalistic deism. 
Miracles and mysteries are denied, and natural religion is put forward 
as the absolute contradiction of revealed. The essential truths of 
the former are the existence of a wise and good Creator and the 
immortality of the soul. These truths are discoverable by reason, 
and are such as can constitute the basis of a universal religion. A 
revealed religion could never obtain universality, as it could never 
be intelligible and credible to all men. Even supposing its possi- 
bility, the Bible does not present such a revelation. It abounds in 
error as to matters of fact, contradicts human experience, reason 
and morals, and is one tissue of folly, deceit, enthusiasm, selfishness 
and crime. Moreover, it is not a doctrinal compendium, or catechism, 
which a revelation would have to be. What the Old Testament says 
of the worship of God is little, and that little worthless, while its 
writers are unacquainted with the second fundamental truth of 
religion, the immortality of the soul. The design of the writers of 
the New Testament, as well as that of Jesus, was not to teach true 
rational religion, but to serve their own selfish ambitions, in pro- 
moting which they exhibit an amazing combination of conscious 
fraud and enthusiasm. It is important, however, to remember that 
Reimarus attacked atheism with equal effect and sincerity, and 
that he was a man of high moral character, respected and esteemed 
by his contemporaries. 

Modern estimates of Reimarus may be found in the works of 
B. Punjer, O. Pfleiderer and H. Hoffding. Punjer states the position 
of Reimarus as follows: " God is the Creator of the world, and His 
wisdom and goodness are conspicuous in it. Immortality is 
founded upon the essential nature of man and upon the purpose of 
God in creation. Religion is conducive to our happiness and alone 
brings satisfaction. Miracles are at variance with the divine 
purpose; without miracles there could be no revelation " (Punjer, 
History of Christian Philosophy of Religion since Kant, Engl, trans., 
PP- 550-57.I which contains an exposition of the Abhandlungen and 
Schutzschrift). Pfleiderer says the errors of Reimarus were that he 
ignored historical and literary criticism, sources, date, origin, &c, 
of documents, and the narratives were said to be either purely 
divine or purely human. He had no conception of an immanent 
reason {Philosophy of Religion, Eng. trans., vol. i. p. 102). H. 
Hoffding also has a brief section on the Schutzschrift, stating 
its main position as follows: " Natural religion suffices; a revelation 
is therefore superfluous. Moreover, such a thing is both physically 
and morally impossible. God cannot interrupt His own work by 
miracles; nor can He favour some men above others by revelations 
which are not granted to all, and with which it is not even possible 
for all to become acquainted. But of all doctrines that of eternal 
punishment is most contrary, Reimarus thinks, to true ideas of God, 
and it was this point which first caused him to stumble " {History 
of Modern Phil., Eng. trans. (1900), vol. ii. pp. 12, 13). 

See the " Fragments " as published by Lessing, reprinted in 
vol. xv. of Lessing's Werke, Hempel's edition; D. F. Strauss, H. S. 
Reimarus und seine Schutzschrift fur die vernilnftigen Verehrer Gottes 
(1862, 2nd ed. 1877); Charles Voysey, Fragments from Reimarus 
(London, 1879) (a translation of the life of Reimarus by Strauss, with 
the second part of the seventh fragment, on the " Object of Jesus 
and his Disciples"); the Lives of Lessing by Danzel and G. E. 
Guhrauer, Sime, and Zimmern; Kuno Fischer, Geschichte der neuern 
Philosophie (vol. ii. pp. 759-72, 2nd ed. 1867); Zeller, Geschichte der 
deutschen Philosophie (2nd ed., 1875, pp. 243-46). 

REIMS (Rheims), a city of north-eastern France, chief town 
of an arrondissement of the department of Marne, 98 m. E.N.E. 
of Paris, on the Eastern railway. Pop. (1906) 102,800. Reims 
is situated in a plain on the right bank of the Vesle, a tributary 
of the Aisne, and on the canal which connects the Aisne with 
the Marne. South and west rise the " montagne de Reims " 
and vine-clad hills. Reims is limited S.W. by the Vesle and 
the canal, N.W. by promenades which separate it from the 
railway and in other directions by boulevards lined with fine 
residences. Beyond extend large suburbs, the chief of which 
are Ceres to the N.E., Coutures to the E., Laon to the N. and 
Vesle to the W. Of its squares the principal are the Place 



54 



REIMS 



Royale, with a statue of Louis XV., and the place du Parvis, 
with an equestrian statue of Joan of Arc. The rue de Vesle, 
the chief street, continued under other names, traverses the 
town from S.W. to N.W., passing through the Place Royale. 

The oldest monument in Reims is the Mars Gate (so called from a 
temple to Mars in the neighbourhood), a triumphal arch 108 ft. in 
length by 43 in height, consisting of three archways flanked by 
columns. It is popularly supposed to have been erected by the 
Remi in honour of Augustus when Agrippa made the great roads 
terminating at the town, but probably belongs to the 3rd or 4th 
century. In its vicinity a curious mosaic, measuring 36 ft. by 26, 
with thirty-five medallions representing animals and gladiators, was 
discovered in i860. To these remains must be added a Gallo- 
Roman sarcophagus, said to be that of the consul Jovinus (see below) 
and preserved in the archaeological museum in the cloister of the 
abbey of St Remi. The cathedral of Notre-Dame, where the kings 
of France used to be crowned^ replaced an older church (burned in 
121 1) built on the site of the basilica where Clovis was baptized by 
St Remigius. The cathedral, with the exception of the west front, 
was completed by the end of the 13th century. That portion was 
erected in the 14th century after 13th-century designs — the nave 
having in the meantime been lengthened to afford room for the 
crowds that attended the coronations. In 1481 fire destroyed the 
roof and the spires. In 1875 the National Assembly voted £80,000 
for repairs of the fagade and balustrades. This fagade is the finest 
portion of the building, and one of the most perfect masterpieces of 
the middle ages. The three portals are laden with statues and 
statuettes. The central portal, dedicated to the Virgin, is surmounted 
by a rose-window framed in an arch itself decorated with statuary. 
The " gallery of the kings " above has the baptism of Clovis in the 
centre and statues of his successors. The towers, 267 ft. high, Were 
originally designed to rise 394 ft.; that on the south contains two 
great bells, one of which, named " Charlotte " by Cardinal de 
Lorraine in 1570, weighs more than II tons. The facades of the 
transepts are also decorated with sculptures — that on the north 
with statues of the principal bishops of Reims, a representation of 
the Last Judgment and a figure of Christ (le Beau Dieu) while that 
on the south side has a beautiful rose-window with the prophets and 
apostles. Of the four towers which flanked the transepts nothing 
remains above the height of the roof since the fire of 1481. Above 
the choir rises an elegant bell-tower in timber and lead, 59 ft. high, 
reconstructed in the 15th century. The interior of the cathedral 
is 455 ft. long, 98 ft. wide in the nave, and 125 ft. high in the centre, 
and comprises a nave with aisles, transepts with aisles, a choir with 
double aisles, and an apse with deambulatory and radiating chapels. 
It has a profusion of statues similar to those of the outside, and 
stained glass of the 13th century. The rose-window over the main 
portal and the gallery beneath are of rare magnificence. The 
cathedral possesses fine tapestries. Of these the most important 
series is that presented by Robert de Lenoncourt, archbishop under 
Francis I., representing the life of the Virgin. The north transept 
contains a fine organ in a Flamboyant Gothic case. The choir 
clock is ornamented with curious mechanical figures. Several 
paintings, by Tintoretto, Nicolas Poussin, and others, and the 
carved woodwork and the railings of the choir, also deserve mention. 
The treasury contains the Sainte Ampoule, or holy flask, the successor 
of the ancient one broken at the Revolution (see below), a fragment 
of which it contains. 

The archiepiscopal palace, built between 1498 and 1509, and in 
part rebuilt in 1675, was occupied by the kings on the occasion 
of their coronation. The saloon (salle du Tau), where the royal 
banquet was held, has an immense stone chimney of the 15th century, 
medallions of the archbishops of Rei.ns, and portraits of fourteen 
kings crowned in the city. Among the other rooms of the royal 
suite, all of which are of great beauty and richness, is that now used 
for the meetings of the Reims Academy ; the building also contains a 
library. The chapel of the archiepiscopal palace consists of two 
storeys, of which the upper still serves as a place of worship. Both 
the chapel and the salle du Tau are decorated with tapestries of the 
17th century, known as the Perpersack tapestries, after the Flemish 
weaver who executed them. 

After the cathedral, which it almost equals in size, the most 
celebrated church is St Remi, once attached to an important abbey, 
the buildings of which are used as a hospital. St Remi dates from 
the nth, 12th, 13th and 15th centuries. The nave and transepts, 
Romanesque in style, date mainly from the earliest, the facade of the 
south transept from the latest, of those periods, the choir and apse 
chapels from the 12th and 13th centuries. The valuable monu- 
ments with which the church was at one time filled were pillaged 
during the Revolution, and even the tomb of the saint is a modern 
work; but there remain the 12th-century glass windows of the apse 
and tapestries representing the history of St Remigius, given by 
Robert de Lenoncourt. The churches of St Jacques, St Maurice 
(partly rebuilt in 1867), St Andrd, and St Thomas (erected from 
1847 to 1853, under the patronage of Cardinal Gousset, now buried 
within its walls), are all of minor interest. Of the fine church of 
St Nicaise only insignificant remains are to be seen. 

The town hall, erected in the 17th and enlarged in the 19th 



century, has a pediment with an equestrian statue of Louis XIII. 
and a tall and elegant campanile.* It contains a picture gallery, 
ethnographical, archaeological and other collections, and the public 
library. There are many old houses, the House of the Musicians 
(13th century) being so called from the seated figures of musicians 
which decorate the front. 

In 1874 the construction of a chain of detached forts was 
begun in the vicinity, Reims being selected as one of the chief 
defences of the northern approaches of Paris. The ridge of 
St Thierry is crowned with a fort of the same name, which 
with the neighbouring work of Chenay closes the west side of 
the place. To the north the hill of Brimont has three works 
guarding the Laon railway and the Aisne canal. Farther east, 
on the old Roman road, lies the fort de Fresnes. Due east the 
hills of Arnay are crowned with five large and important works 
which cover the approaches from the upper Aisne. Forts 
Pompelle and Montbre close the south-east side, and the Falaise 
hills on the Paris side are open and unguarded. The perimeter 
of the defences is not quite 22 m., and the forts are a mean 
distance of 6 m. from the centre of the city. 

Reims L the seat of an archbishop, a court of assize and 
a sub-prefect. It is an important centre for the combing, 
carding and spinning of wool and the weaving of flannel, merino, 
cloth and woollen goods of all kinds, these industries employing 
some 24,000 hands; dyeing and " dressing " are also carried 
on. It is the chief wool market in France, and has a " con- 
ditioning house " which determines the loss of weight resulting 
from the drying of the wool. The manufacture of and trade 
in champagne is also very important. The wine is stored in 
large cellars tunnelled in the chalk. Other manufactures are 
machinery, chemicals, safes, capsules, bottles, casks, candles, 
soap and paper. The town is well known for its cakes and 
biscuits. 

History. — Before the Roman conquest Reims, as Durocor- 
torum, was capital of the Remi, from whose name that of the 
town was subsequently derived. The Remi made voluntary 
submission to the Romans, and by their fidelity throughout the 
various Gallic insurrections secured the special favour of their 
conquerors. Christianity was established in the town by 
the middle of the 3rd century, at which period the bishopric 
was founded. The consul Jovinus, an influential supporter 
of the new faith, repulsed the barbarians who invaded Cham- 
pagne in 336; but the Vandals captured the town in 406 and 
slew St Nicasus, and Attila afterwards put it to fire and sword. 
Clovis, after his victory at Soissons (486), was baptized at 
Reims in 496 by St Remigius. Later kings desired to be 
consecrated at Reims with the oil of the sacred phial which was 
believed to have been brought from heaven by a dove for the 
baptism of Clovis and was preserved in the abbey of St Remi. 
Meetings of Pope Stephen III. with Pippin the Short, and of 
Leo III. with Charlemagne, took place at Reims; and here 
Louis the Debonnaire was crowned by Stephen IV. Louis IV. 
gave the town and countship of Reims to the archbishop 
Artaldus in 940. Louis VII. gave the title of duke and peer 
to William of Champagne, archbishop from n 76 to 1202, and 
the archbishops of Reims took precedence of the other eccle- 
siastical peers of the realm. In the 10th century Reims had 
become a centre of intellectual culture, Archbishop Adalberon, 
seconded by the monk Gerbert (afterwards Pope Silvester II.), 
having founded schools where the " liberal arts " were taught. 
Adalberon was also one of the prime authors of the revolution 
which put the Capet house in the place of the Carolingians. 
The most important prerogative of the archbishops was the 
consecration of the kings of France — a privilege which was 
exercised, except in a few cases, from the time of Philip Augustus 
to that of Charles X. Louis VII. granted the town a communal 
charter in 1139. The treaty of Troyes (1420) ceded it to the 
English, who had made a futile attempt to take it by siege in 
1360; but they were expelled on the approach of Joan of Arc, 
who in 1429 caused Charles VII. to be consecrated in the 
cathedral. A revolt at Reims, caused by the salt tax in 1461, 
was cruelly repressed by Louis XL The town sided with the 
League (1585), but submitted to Henry IV. after the battle of 



REIN— REINDEER 



55 



Ivxy. In the foreign invasions of 1814 it was captured and 
recaptured; in 1870-71 it was made by the Germans the 
seat of a governor-general and impoverished by heavy re- 
quisitions. 

See G. Marlot, Histoire de la ville, cM et university de Reims, 
4 vols. (Reims, 1843-46); J. Justinus (Baron I. Taylor), La Ville 
de Reims (Paris, 1854). 

REIN, a guiding or controlling leather strap or thong, attached 
to the bit of a ridden or driven horse (see Saddlery). The 
word is taken from the O. Fr. rene, modern fine, and is usually 
traced to a supposed Late Latin substantive retina formed from 
retinere, to hold back, restrain, cf. classical Latin retinaculum, 
halter. The word, usually in the plural, has been often used 
figuratively, as a type of that which guides, restrains or controls, 
e.g. in such phrases as the " reins of government," &c. The 
" reins," i.e. the kidneys (Lat. renes, cf. Gr. (jtpfiv, the midriff), 
or the place where the kidneys are situated, hence the loins, 
also, figuratively, the seat of the emotions or affections, must be 
distinguished. 

REINACH, JOSEPH (1856- ), French author and politician, 
was born in Paris on the 30th of September 1856. After 
leaving the Lycee Condorcet he studied for the bar, being 
called in 1887. He attracted the attention of Gambetta by 
articles on Balkan politics published in the Revue bleue, and 
joined the staff of the Ripublique franqaise. In Gambetta's 
grand ministere M. Reinach was his secretary, and drew up the 
case for a partial revision of the constitution and for the electoral 
method known as the scrutin de liste. In the Ripublique 
francaise he waged a steady war against General Boulanger 
which brought him three duels, one with EdmondMagnier and 
two with Paul Deroulede. Between 1889 and 1898 he sat 
for the Chamber of Deputies for Digne. As member of the 
army commission, reporter of the budgets of the ministries of 
the interior and of agriculture he brought forward bills for the 
better treatment of the insane, for the establishment of a 
colonial ministry, for the taxation of alcohol, and for the repara- 
tion of judicial errors. He advocated complete freedom of the 
theatre and the press, the abolition of public executions, and 
denounced political corruption of all kinds. He was indirectly 
implicated in the Panama scandals through his father-in-law, 
Baron de Reinach, though he made restitution as soon as he 
learned that he was benefiting by fraud. But he is best known 
as the champion of Captain Dreyfus. At the time of the 
original trial he attempted to secure a public hearing of the 
case, and in 1897 he allied himself with Scheurer-Kestner to 
demand its revision. He denounced in the Steele the Henry 
forgery, and Esterhazy's complicity. His articles in the 
Siecle aroused the fury of the anti-Dreyfusard party, especially 
as he was himself a Jew and therefore open to the charge of 
having undertaken to defend the innocence of Dreyfus on racial 
grounds. He lost his seat in the Chamber of Deputies, and, 
having refused to fight Henri Rochefort, eventually brought 
an action for libel against him. Finally, the " affaire " being 
terminated and Dreyfus pardoned, he undertook to write the 
history of the case, the first four volumes of which appeared in 
1901. This was completed in 1905. In 1906 M. Reinach was 
re-elected for Digne. In that year he became member of the 
commission of the national archives, and next year of the 
council on prisons. Reinach was a voluminous writer on 
political subjects. On Gambetta he published three volumes 
in 1884, and he also edited his speeches. For the criticisms of 
the anti-Dreyfusard pi ess see Henri Dutrait-Croyon, Joseph 
Reinach, historien (Paris, 1905), a violent criticism in detail of 
Reinach's history of the " affaire." 

His brother, the well-known savant, Salomon Reinach 
(1858- ), born at St Germain-en-Laye on the 29th of August 
1858, was educated at the Ecole normale sup6rieure, and joined 
the French school at Athens in 1879. He made valuable 
archaeological discoveries at Myrina near Smyrna in 1880-82, 
at Cyme in 1881, at Thasos, Imbros and Lesbos (1882), at 
Carthage and Meninx (1883-84), at Odessa (1893) and else- 
where. He received honours from the chief learned societies 



of Europe, and in 1886 received an appointment at the National 
Museum of Antiquities at St Germain; in 1893 he became 
assistant keeper, and in 1902 keeper of the national museums. 
In 1903 he became joint editor of the Revue archSologique, and 
in the same year officer of the Legion of Honour. The lectures 
he delivered on art at the Ecole du Louvre in 1902-3 were pub- 
lished by him under the title of Apollo. This book has been 
translated into most European languages, and is one of the most 
compact handbooks of the subject. 

His first published work was a translation of Schopenhauer's 
Essay on Free Will (1877), which passed through many editions. 
This was followed by many works and articles in the learned re- 
views of which a list — up to 1903— is available in Bibliographie 
de S. R. (Angers, 1903). His Manuel de philologie classique (1880- 
1884) was crowned by the French association for the study of 
Greek; his Grammaire latine (1886) received a prize from the 
Society of Secondary Education; La Necropole de Myrina (1887), 
written with E. Pottier, and Antiquites nationales were crowned by 
the Academy of Inscriptions. He compiled an important Re- 
pertoire de la statuaire grecque et romaine (3 vols., 1897-98); also 
Repertoire de peintures du moyen Age et de la Renaissance 1280-1580 
(190,5, &c); Repertoire des vases peints grecs et ttrusques (1900). 
In 1905 he began his Cultes, mythes et religions; and in 1909 he 
published a general sketch of the history of religions under the 
title of Orpheus. He also translated from the English H. C. Lea's 
History of the Inquisition. 

A younger brother, Theodore Reinach (i860- ), also 
had a brilliant career as a scholar. He pleaded at the Parisian 
bar in 1881-86, but eventually gave himself up to the study 
of numismatics. He wrote important works on the ancient 
kingdoms of Asia Minor — Trois royaumes de I'Asie Mineure, 
Cappadoce, Bithynie, Pont (1888), Mithridate Eupator (1890); 
also a critical edition and translation with H. Weil of Plutarch's 
Treatise on Music; and an Histoire des Israelites depuis la 
mine de leur indSpendance nalionale jusqu'a nos jours (2nd ed., 
1901). From 1888 to 1897 he edited the Revue des itudes 
grecques. 

REINAUD, JOSEPH TOUSSAINT (1795-1867), French orien- 
talist, was born on the 4th of December 1795 at Lambesc, 
Bouches du Rh6ne. He came to Paris in 1815, and became a 
pupil of Silvestre de Sacy. In' 181 8-1 9 he was at Rome as an 
attache to the French minister, and studied under the Maronites 
of the Propaganda, but gave special attention to Mahommedan 
coins. In 1824 he entered the department of oriental MSS. 
in the Royal Library at Paris, and in 1838, on the death of 
De Sacy, he succeeded to his chair in the school of living 
oriental languages. In 1847 he became president of the 
Societe Asiatique, and in 1858 conservator of oriental MSS. 
in the Imperial Library. His first important work was his 
classical description of the collections of the due de Blacas 
(1828). To history he contributed an essay on the Arab in- 
vasions of France, Savoy, Piedmont and Switzerland (1836), 
and various collections for the period of the crusades; he 
edited (1840) and in part translated (1848) the geography 
of Abulfeda; to him too is due a useful edition of the very 
curious records of early Arab intercourse with China of which 
Eusebe Renaudot had given but an imperfect translation (Re- 
lation des voyages, &c, 1845), and various other essays illus- 
trating the ancient and medieval geography of the East. 
Reinaud died in Paris on the 14th of May 1867. 

REINDEER, in its strict sense the title of a European deer 
distinguished from all other members of the family Cervidae 
(see Deer), save those of the same genus, by the presence of 
antlers in both sexes; but, in the wider sense, including Asiatic 
and North American deer of the same general type, the latter 
of which are locally designated caribou. Reindeer, or caribou, 
constitute the genus Rangifer, and are large clumsily built deer, 
inhabiting the sub-Arctic and Arctic regions of both hemispheres. 
As regards their distinctive features, the antlers are of a complex 
type and situated close to the occipital ridge of the skull, and 
thus far away from the sockets of the eyes, with the brow-tines 
in adult males palmated, laterally compressed, deflected towards 
the middle of the face, and often unsymmetrically developed. 
Above the brow-tine is developed a second palmated tine, 



56 



REINECKE— REINHOLD 



which appears to represent the bez-tine of the red-deer; there 
is no trez-tine, but some distance above the bez the beam is 
suddenly bent forward to form an " elbow," on the posterior 
side of which is usually a short back-tine; above the back-tine 
the beam is continued for some distance to terminate in a large 
expansion or palmation. The antlers of females are simple and 
generally smaller. The muzzle is entirely hairy; the ears and 
tail are short; and the throat is maned. The coat is unspotted 
at all ages, with a whitish area in the region of the tail. The 
main hoofs are short and rounded and the lateral hoofs very 
large. There is a tarsal, but no metatarsal gland and tuft. In 
the skull the gland-pit is shallow, and the vacuity of moderate 
size; the nasal bones are well developed, and much expanded 
at the upper end. Upper canines are wanting; the cheek-teeth 
are small and low-crowned, with the third lobe of the last molar 
in the lower jaw minute. The lateral metacarpal bones are 
represented only by their lower extremities; the importance of 
this feature being noticed in the article Deer. 

In spite of the existence of a number of more or less well-marked 
geographical forms, reindeer from all parts of the northern hemi- 
sphere present such a marked similarity that it seems preferable 
to regard them as all belonging to a single widespread species, of 
which most of the characters will be the same as those of the genus. 
American naturalists, however, generally regard these as distinct 
species. The coat is remarkable for its density and compactness; 
the general colour of the head and upper parts being clove-brown, 
with more or less white or whitish grey on the under parts and inner 
surfaces of the limbs, while there is also some white above the hoofs 
and on the muzzle, and there may be whitish rings round the eyes ; 
there is a white area in the region of the tail, which includes the sides 
but not the upper surface of the latter; and the tarsal tuft is gener- 
ally white. The antlers are smooth, and brownish white in colour, 
but the hoofs jet black. Albino varieties occasionally occur in the 
wild state. A height of 4 ft. 10 in. at the shoulder has been re- 
corded in the case of one race. 

The wild Scandinavian reindeer (Rangifer larandus) may be re- 
garded as the typical form of the species. It is a smaller animal 
than the American woodland race, with antlers approximating to 
those of the barren-ground race, but less elongated, and with a 
distinct back-tine in the male, the brow-tines moderately palmated 
and frequently nearly symmetrical, and the bez-tine not exces- 
sively expanded. Female antlers are generally much smaller 
than those of males, although occasionally as large, but with much 
fewer points. The antlers make their appearance at an unusually 
early age. 

Mr Madison Grant considers that American reindeer, or caribou, 
may be grouped under two types, one represented by the barren- 
ground caribou R. tarandus arcticus, which is a small animal with 
immense antlers characterized by the length of the beam, and the 
consequent wide separation of the terminal palmation from the 
brow-tine; and the other by the woodland-caribou {R. t. caribou), 
which is a larger animal with shorter and more massive antlers, 
in which the great terminal expansions are in approximation to 
the brow-tine owing to the shortness of the beam. Up to 1902 
seven other American races had been described, four of which are 
grouped by Grant with the first and three with the second type. 
Some of these forms are, however, more or less intermediate between 
the two main types, as is a pair of antlers from Novaia Zemlia 
described by the present writer as R. t. pearsoni. The Scandinavian 
reindeer is identified by Mr Grant with the barren-ground type. 

Reindeer are domesticated by the Lapps and other nationalities 
of northern Europe and Asia, to whom these animals are all-im- 
portant. Domesticated reindeer have also been introduced into 
Alaska. 

See Madison Grant, " The Caribou," ph Annual Report, New 
York Zoological Society (1902); J. G. Millais, Newfoundland and 
its Untrodden Ways (1908). (R. L.*) 

REINECKE, CARL HEINRICH CARSTEN (1824-1910), 
German composer and pianist, was born at Altona on the 23rd of 
June 1824; his father, Peter Reinecke (who was also his teacher), 
being an accomplished musician. At the age of eleven he made 
his first appearance as a pianist, and when scarcely eighteen he 
went on a successful tour through Denmark and Sweden. After 
a stay in Leipzig, where he studied under Mendelssohn and 
under Schumann, Reinecke went on tour with Konigslow and 
Wasielewski, Schumann's biographer, in North Germany and 
Denmark. From 1846 to 1848 Reinecke was court pianist to 
Christian VIII. of Denmark. After resigning this post he went 
first to Paris, and next to Cologne, as professor in the Con- 
servatorium. From 1854 to 1859 he was music director at 
Barmen, in the latter year filling this post at Breslau University; 



in i860 he became conductor of the famous Leipzig Gewandhaus, 
a post which (together with that of professor at the Conserva- 
torium) he held with honour and distinction for thirty-five 
years. He finally retired into private life in 1902 and died 
in March 1910. During this time Reinecke continually made 
concert tours to England and elsewhere. His pianoforte playing 
belonged to a school now almost extinct. Grace and neatness 
were its characteristics, and at one time Reinecke was probably 
unrivalled as a Mozart player and an accompanist. His grand 
opera Konig Manfred, and the comic opera Auf hoken Befekl, 
were at one time frequently played in Germany; and his 
cantata Hakon Jarl is melodiously beautiful, as are many of his 
songs; while his Friedensfeier overture was once quite hack- 
neyed. By far his most valuable works are those written 
for educational purposes. His sonatinas, his " Kinder- 
garten " and much that he has ably edited will keep his name 
alive. 

REINHART, CHARLES STANLEY (1844-1896), American 
painter and illustrator, was born at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 
and after having been employed in railway work and at a steel 
factory, studied art in Paris and at the Munich Academy under 
Straehuber and Otto. He afterwards settled in New York, 
but spent the years 1882-1886 in Paris. He was a regular 
exhibitor at the National Academy in New York, and contri- 
buted illustrations in black and white and in colours to the 
leading American periodicals. He died in 1896. Among his 
best-known pictures are: " Reconnoitring," " Caught Napping," 
" September Morning," " Mussel Fisherwoman," " At the 
Ferry," " Normandy Coast," " Gathering Wood," " The Old 
Life Boat," " Sunday," and " English Garden "; but it is as an 
illustrator that he is best known. 

REINHART, JOACHIM CHRISTIAN (1761-1847), German 
painter and etcher, was born at Hof in Bavaria in 1 761, and 
studied under Oeser at Leipzig and under Klingel at Dresden. 
In 1789 he went to Rome, where he became a follower of the 
classicist German painters Carstens and Koch. He devoted 
himself more particularly to landscape painting and to aquatint 
engraving. Examples of his landscapes are to be found at 
most of the important German galleries, notably at Frankfort, 
Munich, Leipzig and Gotha. In Rome he executed a series 
of landscape frescoes for the Villa Massimi. He died in Rome 
in 1847. 

REINHOLD, KARL LEONHARD (1758-1823), German 
philosopher, was born at Vienna. At the age of fourteen he 
entered the Jesuit college of St Anna, on the dissolution of which 
(1774) he joined a similar college of the order of St Barnabas. 
Finding himself out of sympathy with monastic life, he fled in 
1783 to North Germany, and settled in Weimar, where he 
became Wieland's collaborateur on the German Mercury, and 
eventually his son-in-law. In the German Mercury he published, 
in the years 1786-87, his Brief e uber die Kantische Philosophic, 
which were most important in making Kant known to a wider 
circle of readers. As a result of the Letters, Reinhold received 
a call to the university of Jena, where he taught from 1787 to 
1794. In 1789 he published his chief work, the Versuch einer 
neuen Theorie des menschlichen Vorstellungsvermogens, in which 
he attempted to simplify the Kantian theory and make it more 
of a unity. In 1794 he accepted a call to Kiel, where he taught 
till his death in 1823, but his independent activity was at an 
end. In later life he was powerfully influenced by Fichte, and 
subsequently, on grounds of religious feeling, by Jacobi and 
Bardili. His historical importance belongs entirely to his earlier 
activity. The development of the Kantian standpoint contained 
in the " New Theory of Human Understanding " (1789), and in 
the Fundament des philosophischen Wissens (1791), was called 
by its author Elementarphilosophie. 

" Reinhold lays greater emphasis than Kant upon the unity and 
activity of consciousness. The principle of consciousness tells us 
that every idea is related both to an object and a subject, and ie 
partly to be distinguished, partly united to both. Since form 
cannot produce matter nor subject object, we are forced to assume 
a thine-in-itself. But this is a notion which is self-contrac\ictory 
if consciousness be essentially a relating activity. There is there- 



REINKENS— REISKE 



57 



for« something which must bethought and yet cannot be thought" 
(Hoffding, History of Modern Philosophy, Eng. trans., vol. ii.). 

See R. Keil, Wieland und Reinhold (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1890); 
J. E. Erdmann, Grundriss der Geschichle der Philosophie (Berlin, 
1866); histories of philosophy by R. Folckenberg and W. Windel- 
band. 

REINKENS, JOSEPH HUBERT (1821-1896), German Old 
Catholic bishop, was born at Burtscheid, near Aix-la-Chapelle, 
on the 1 st of March 1821, his father being a gardener. In 
1836, on the death of his mother, he took to manual work 
in order to support his numerous brothers and sisters, but in 
1840 he was able to go to the gymnasium at Aix, and he after- 
wards studied theology at the universities of Bonn and Munich. 
He was ordained priest in 1848, and in 1849 graduated as 
doctor in theology. He was soon appointed professor of ecclesi- 
astical history at Breslau, and in 1865 he was made rector of 
the university. During this period he wrote, among other 
treatises, monographs on Clement of Alexandria, Hilary of 
Poitiers and Martin of Tours. In consequence of an essay 
on art, especially in tragedy, after Aristotle, he was made 
doctor in philosophy in the university of Leipzig. When, 
in 1870, the question of papal infallibility was raised, Reinkens 
attached himself to the party opposed to the proclamation of 
the dogma. He wrote several pamphlets on church tradition 
relative to infallibility and on the procedure of the Council. 
When the dogma of infallibility was proclaimed, Reinkens 
joined the band of influential theologians, headed by Dollinger, 
who resolved to organize resistance to the decree. He was 
one of those who signed the Declaration of Nuremberg in 1871, 
and at the Bonn conferences with Orientals and Anglicans in 
1874 and 1875 he was conspicuous. The Old Catholics having 
decided to separate themselves from the Church of Rome, 
Reinkens was chosen their bishop in Germany at an enthusiastic 
meeting at Cologne in 1873 (see Old Catholics). On the nth 
of August of that year he was consecrated by Dr Heykamp, 
bishop of Deventer. Reinkens devoted himself zealously to 
his office, and it was due to his efforts that the Old Catholic 
movement crystallized into an organized church, with a definite 
status in the various German states. He wrote a number of 
theological works after his consecration, but none of them so 
important as his treatise on Cyprian and the Unity of the 
Church (1873). The chief act of his episcopal career was his 
consecration in 1876 of Dr Edward Herzog to preside as bishop 
over the Old Catholic Church in Switzerland. In 1881 Reinkens 
visited England, and received Holy Communion more than 
once with bishops, clergy and laity of the Church of England, 
and in 1894 he defended the validity of Anglican orders against 
his co-religionists, the Old Catholics of Holland. He died at 
Bonn on the 4th of January 1896. 

See Joseph Hubert Reinkens, by his nephew, J. M. Reinkens 
(Gotha, 1906). 

REISKE, JOHANN JACOB (1716-1774), German scholar and 
physician, was born on the 25th of December 1716 at Zorbig 
in Electoral Saxony. From the Waisenhaus at Halle he passed 
in 1733 to the university of Leipzig, and there spent five years. 
He tried to find his own way in Greek literature, to which 
German schools then gave little attention; but, as he had not 
mastered the grammar, he soon found this a sore task and took 
up Arabic. He was very poor, having almost nothing beyond 
his allowance, which for the five years was only two hundred 
thalers. But everything of which he could cheat his appetite 
was spent on Arabic books, and when he had read all that 
was then printed he thirsted for manuscripts, and in March 
1738 started on foot for Hamburg, joyous though totally 
unprovided, on his way to Leiden and the treasures of the 
Warnerianum. At Hamburg he got some money and letters 
of recommendation from the Hebraist Wolf, and took ship 
to Amsterdam. Here d'Orville, to whom he had an intro- 
duction, proposed to retain him as his amanuensis at a salary 
of six hundred guilders. Reiske refused, though he thought 
the offer very generous; he did not want money, he wanted 
manuscripts. When he reached Leiden (June 6, 1738) he found 
that the lectures were over for the term and that the MSS. 



were not open to him. But d'Orville and A. Schultens helped 
him to private teaching and reading for the press, by which he 
was able to live. He heard the lectures of A. Schultens, and 
practised himself in Arabic with his son J. J. Schultens. 
Through Schultens too he got at Arabic MSS., and was even 
allowed sub rosa to take them home with him. Ultimately 
he seems to have got free access to the collection, which he 
re-catalogued— the work of almost a whole summer, for which 
the curators rewarded him with nine guilders. 

Reiske's first years in Leiden were not unhappy, till he got 
into serious trouble by introducing emendations of his own 
into the second edition of Burmann's Petronius, which he had 
to see through the press. His patrons withdrew from him, and 
his chance of perhaps becoming professor was gone; d'Orville 
indeed soon came round, for he could not do without Reiske, 
who did work of which his patron, after dressing it up in his 
own style, took the credit. But A. Schultens was never the 
same as before to him; Reiske indeed was too independent, 
and hurt him by his open criticisms of his master's way of 
making Arabic mainly a handmaid of Hebrew. Reiske, however, 
himself admits that Schultens always behaved honourably to 
him. In 1742 by Schultens's advice Reiske took up medicine 
as a study by which he might hope to live if he could not do so 
by philology. In 1746 he graduated as M.D., the fees being 
remitted at Schultens's intercession. It was Schultens too 
who conquered the difficulties opposed to his graduation at 
the last moment by the faculty of theology on the ground that 
some of his theses had a materialistic ring. On the 10th of 
June 1746 he left Holland and settled in Leipzig, where he 
hoped to get medical practice. 

But his shy, proud nature was not fitted to gain patients, 
and the Leipzig doctors would not recommend one who 
was not a Leipzig graduate. In 1747 an Arabic dedication 
to the electoral prince of Saxony got him the title of professor, 
but neither the faculty of arts nor that of medicine was willing 
to admit him among them, and he never delivered a course of 
lectures. He had still to go on doing literary task-work, but 
his labour was much worse paid in Leipzig than in Leiden. 
Still he could have lived and sent his old mother, as his custom 
was, a yearly present of a piece of leather to be sold in retail 
if he had been a better manager. But, careless for the morrow, 
he was always printing at his own cost great books which 
found no buyers. His academical colleagues were hostile; 
and Ernesti, under a show of friendship, secretly hindered 
his promotion. His unsparing reviews made bad blood with 
the pillars of the university. 

At length in 1758 the magistrates of Leipzig rescued him 
from his misery by giving him the rectorate of St Nicolai, 
and, though he still made no way with the leading men of the 
university and suffered from the hostility of men like Ruhnken 
and J. D. Michaelis, he was compensated for this by the esteem 
cf Frederick the Great, of Lessing, Karsten Niebuhr, and many 
foreign scholars. The last decade of his life was made cheerful 
by his marriage with Ernestine Muller, who shared all his 
interests and learned Greek to help him with collations. In 
proof of his gratitude her portrait stands beside his in the 
first volume of the Oratorcs Graeci. Reiske died on the 14th of 
August 1774, and his MS. remains passed, through Lessing's 
mediation, to the Danish minister Suhm, and are now in the 
Copenhagen library. 

Reiske certainly surpassed all his predecessors in the range and 
quality of his knowledge of Arabic literature. It was the history, the 
realia of the literature, that always interested him; he did not care 
for Arabic poetry as such, and the then much praised Hariri seamed 
to him a grammatical pedant. He read the poets less for their 
verses than for such scholia as supplied historical notices. Thus for 
example the scholia on Jarir furnished him with a remarkable 
notice of the prevalence of Buddhist doctrine and asceticism in 
'Irak under the Omayyads. In the Adnotationes historicae to his 
Abulfeda (Abulf. Annates Moslemici, 5 vols., Copenhagen, 1789-91), 
he collected a veritable treasure of sound and original research ; he 
knew the Byzantine writers as thoroughly as the Arabic authors, and 
was alike at home in modern works of travel in all languages and 
in ancient and medieval authorities. He was interested too in 



58 



REJANE— RELATIVITY OF KNOWLEDGE 



numismatics, and his letters on Arabic coinage (in Eichhorn's 
Repertorium, vols, ix.-xi.) form, according to De Sacy, the basis 
of that branch of study. To comprehensive knowledge and very 
wide reading he added a sound historical judgment. He was not, 
like Schultens, deceived by the pretended antiquity of the Yemenite 
Kasldas. 1 Errors no doubt he made, as in the attempt to ascertain 
the date of the breach of the dam of Marib. 

Though Abulfeda as a late epitomator did not afford a starting- 
point for methodical study of the sources, Reiske's edition with his 
version and notes certainly laid the foundation for research in Arabic 
history. The foundation of Arabic philology, however, was laid not 
by him but by De Sacy. Reiske's linguistic knowledge was great, 
but he used it only to understand his authors; he had no feeling for 
form, for language as language, or for metre. 

In Leipzig Reiske worked mainly at Greek, though he continued 
to draw on his Arabic stores accumulated in Leiden. Yet his merit 
as an Arabist was sooner recognized than the value of his Greek 
work. Reiske the Greek scholar has been rightly valued only in 
recent years, and it is now recognized that he was the first German 
since Sylburg who had a living knowledge of the Greek tongue. His 
reputation does not rest on his numerous editions, often hasty or 
even made to booksellers' orders, but in his remarks, especially his 
conjectures. He himself designates the Animadversation.es in 
Scriptores Graecos nsflos ingenii sui, and in truth these thin booklets 
outweigh his big editions. Closely following the author's thought 
he removes obstacles whenever he meets them, but he is so steeped 
in the language and thinks so truly like a Greek that the difficulties 
he feels often seem to us to lie in mere points of style. His criticism 
is empirical and unmethodic, based on immense and careful reading, 
and applied only when he feels a difficulty ; and he is most successful 
when he has a large mass of tolerably homogeneous literature to lean 
on, whilst on isolated points he is often at a loss. His corrections 
are often hasty and false, but a surprisingly large proportion of 
them have since received confirmation from MSS. And, though 
his merits as a Grecian lie mainly in his conjectures, his realism is 
felt in this sphere also ; his German translations especially show more 
freedom and practical insight, more feeling for actual life, than is 
common with the scholars of that age. 2 

For a list of Reiske's writings see Meusel, xi. 192 seq. His chief 
Arabic works (all posthumous) have been mentioned above. In 
Greek letters his chief works are Constantini Porphyrogeniti libri 
II. de ceremoniis aulae Byzant., vols, i ii. (Leipzig, 1751-66), vol. iii. 
(Bonn, 1829) ; Animadv. ad Graecos auctores (5 vols., Leipzig, 1751-66) 
(the rest lies unprinted at Copenhagen) ; Oratorum Graec. quae 
super sunt (8 vols'., Leipzig, 1770-73); A pp. crit. ad Demosthenem 
(3vols.,i6., 1774-75); Maximus Tyr. {ib., 1774) ; Plutarchus (11 vols., 
ib., 1774-79) I Dionys Italic. (6 vols., ib., 1774-77) > Libanius (4 vols., 
Altenburg, 1784-97). Various reviews in the Acta eruditorum and 
Zuverl. Nachrichten are characteristic and worth reading. Compare 
D. Johann Jacob Reiskens von ihm selbst aufgesetzte Lebensbe- 
schreibung (Leipzig, 1783). (J. We.) 

REJANE, GABRIELLE [Charlotte Rfju] (1857- ), 
French actress, was born in Paris, the daughter of an actor. 
She was a pupil of Regnier at the Conservatoire, and took the 
second prize for comedy in 1874. Her debut was made the next 
year, during which she played attractively a number of light — 
especially soubrette — parts. Her first great success was in 
Henri Meilhac's Ma camarade (1883), and she soon became 
known as an emotional actress of rare gifts, notably in DScori, 
Germinie Lacerteux, Ma cousine, Amoureuse and Lysistrata. 
In 1892 she married M. Porel, the director of the Vaudeville 
theatre, but the marriage was dissolved in 1905. Her per- 
formances in Madame Sans Glne (1893) made her as well 
known in England and America as in Paris, and in later years 
she appeared in characteristic parts in both countries, being 
particularly successful in Zaza and La Passerelle. She opened 
the Theatre Rejane in Paris in 1906. The essence of French 
vivacity and animated expression appeared to be concentrated 
in Madame Rejane's acting, and made her unrivalled in the parts 
which she had made her own. 

RELAND, ADRIAN (1676-1718), Dutch Orientalist, was 
born at Ryp, studied at Utrecht and Leiden, and was professor 
of Oriental languages successively at Harderwijk (1699) and 
Utrecht (1701). His most important works were Palaestina ex 
veteribus monumentis illustrata (Utrecht, i7i4),and Antiquitates 
sacrae veterum Hebraeorum. (See also Burman, Traj. Erud., 
p. 296 seq.). 

1 ," Animadvers. criticae in Hamzae hist, regni Joctanidarum," in 
Eichhorn's Mon. Ant. Hist. Ar., 1775. 

8 For this estimate of Reiske as a Greek scholar the writer is in- 
debted to Prof. U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. 



RELAPSING FEVER (Febris recurrens), the name given to 
a specific infectious disease occasionally appearing as an epidemic 
in communities suffering from scarcity or famine. It is char- 
acterized mainly by its sudden invasion, with violent 'febrile 
symptoms, which continue for about a week and end in a 
crisis, but are followed, after another week, by a return of the 
fever. 

This disease has received many other names, the best known 
of which are famine fever, seven-day, bilious relapsing fever, 
and spirillum fever. As in the case of typhoid, relapsing fever 
was long believed to be simply a form of typhus. The distinction 
between them appears to have been first clearly established 
in 1826, in connexion with an epidemic in Ireland. 

Relapsing fever is highly contagious. With respect to the nature 
of the contagion, certain important observations have been made 
(see also Parasitic Diseases). In 1873 Obermeier discovered in 
the blood of persons suffering from relapsing fever minute organisms 
in the form of spiral filaments of the genus Spirochaete, measuring 
in length 5 fo to i^b inch and in breadth fuJinj to sfijjnj inch, and 
possessed of rotatory or twisting movements. This organism 
received the name of Spirillum obermeieri. Fritz Schaudinn has 
brought forward evidence that- it is an animal parasite. The most 
constantly recognized factor in the origin and spread of relapsing 
fever is destitution; but this cannot be regarded as metre than a 
predisposing cause, since in many lands widespread and destructive 
famines have prevailed without any outbreak of this fever. In- 
stances, too, have been recorded where epidemics were distinctly 
associated with overcrowding rather than with privation. Relapsing 
fever is most commonly met with in the young. One attack does 
not appear to protect from others, but rather, according to some 
authorities, engenders liability. 

The incubation of the disease is about one week. The symptoms 
of the fever then show themselves with great abruptness and violence 
by a rigor, accompanied with pains in the limbs and severe head- 
ache. The febrile phenomena are very marked, and the tempera- 
ture quickly rises to a high point (i05°-io7° Fahr.), at which it con- 
tinues with little variation, while the pulse is rapid (100-140), 
full and strong. There is intense thirst, a dry brown tongue, 
bilious vomiting, tenderness over the liver and spleen, and occa- 
sionally jaundice. Sometimes a peculiar bronzy appearance of the 
skin is noticed, but there is no characteristic rash as in typhus. 
There is much prostration of strength. After the continuance of 
these symptoms for a period of from five to seven days, the tem- 
perature suddenly falls to the normal point or below it, the pulse 
becomes correspondingly slow, and a profuse perspiration occurs, 
while the severe headache disappears and the appetite returns. 
Except for a sense of weakness, the patient feels well and may 
even return to work, but in some cases there remains a condition of 
great debility, accompanied with rheumatic pains in the limbs. 
This state of freedom from fever continues for about a week, when 
there occurs a well-marked relapse with scarcely less abruptness 
and severity than in the first attack, and the whole symptoms 
are of the same character, but they do not, as a rule, continue so 
long, and they terminate in a crisis in three or four days, after 
which convalescence proceeds satisfactorily. Second, third and 
even fourth relapses, however, may occur in exceptional cases. 

The mortality in relapsing fever is comparatively small, about 
5 % being the average death-rate in epidemics (Murchison). 
The fatal cases occur mostly from the complications common to 
continued fevers. The treatment is essentially the same as that 
for typhus fever. Lowenthal and Gabritochewsky by using the 
serum of an immune horse succeeded in averting the relapse in 40% 
of cases. 

RELATIVITY OF KNOWLEDGE, a philosophic term which 
was much used by the philosophers of the middle of the 19th 
century, and has since fallen largely into disuse. It deserves 
explanation, however, not only because it has occupied so large 
a space in the writings of some great British thinkers, but also 
because the main question for which it stands is still matter of 
eager debate. We get at the meaning of the term most easily 
by considering what it is that " relativity " is opposed to. 
" Relativity " of knowledge is opposed to absoluteness or 
positiveness of knowledge. Now there are two senses in which 
knowledge may claim to be absolute. The knower may say, " I 
know this absolutely," or he may say, "I know this absolutely." 
With the emphasis upon the " know " he asserts that his know- 
ledge of the matter in question cannot be affected by anything 
whatever. " I know absolutely that two and two are four " 
makes an assertion about the knower's intellectual state: he is 
convinced that his certain knowledge of the result of adding two 
to two is independent of any other piece of knowledge. With 



RELEASE— RELICS 



59 



the emphasis upon the object of knowledge, " I know this ," we 
have the other sense of absoluteness of knowledge: it is an 
assertion that the knower knows the " this," whatever it may be, 
in its .essence or as it truly is in itself. The phrase " relativity 
of knowledge" has therefore two meanings: (a) that no 
portion of knowledge is absolute, but is always affected by its 
relations to other portions of knowledge; (b) that what we know 
are not absolute things in themselves, but things conditioned in 
their quality by our channels of knowledge. Each of these 
two propositions must command assent as soon as uncritical 
ignorance gives place to philosophic reflection; but each may 
be exaggerated, indeed has currently been exaggerated, into 
falsity. The simplest experience — a single note struck upon the 
piano — would not be what it is to us but for its relation by 
contrast or comparison with other experiences. This is true; 
but we may easily exaggerate it into a falsehood by saying that 
a piece of experience is entirely constituted by its relation to 
other experiences. Such an extreme relativity, as advocated 
by T. H. Green in the first chapter of his Prolegomena to Ethics, 
involves the absurdity that our whole experience is a tissue of 
relations with no points of attachment on which the relations 
depend. The only motive for advocating it is the prejudice of 
absolute idealism which would deny that sensation has any part 
whatever in the constitution of experience. As soon as we 
recognize the part of sensation, we have no reason to deny the 
common-sense position that each piece of experience has its 
own quality, which is modified indefinitely by the relations in 
which it stands. 

The second sense of relativity, that which asserts the impossi- 
bility of knowing things except as conditioned by our perceptive 
faculties, is more important philosophically and has had a more 
interesting history. To apprehend it is really the first great 
step in philosophical education. The unphilosophical person 
assumes that a tree as he sees it is identical with the tree as it is 
in itself and as it is for other percipient minds. Reflection 
jhows that our apprehension of the tree is conditioned by the 
jense-organs with which we have been endowed, and that the 
ipprehension of a blind man, and still more the apprehension 
of a dog or horse, is quite different from ours. What the tree is 
m itself — that is, for a perfect intelligence — we cannot know, 
any more than a dog or horse can know what the tree is for a 
human intelligence. So far the relativist is on sure ground; 
but from this truth is developed the paradox that the tree has 
no objective existence at all and consists entirely of the conscious 
states of the perceiver. Observe the parallelism of the two 
paradoxical forms of relativity: one says that things are 
relations with nothing that is related; the other says that things 
are perceptive conditions with nothing objective to which the 
conditions apply. Both make the given nothing and the work 
of the mind everything. 

To see the absurdity of the second paradox of relativity is 
easier than to refute it. If nothing exists but the conscious 
states of the perceiver, how does he come to think that there is 
an objective tree at all ? Why does he regard his conscious 
states as produced by an object ? And how does he come to 
imagine that there are other minds than his own ? In short, this 
kind of relativity leads straight to what is generally known as 
" the abyss of solipsism." But, like all the great paradoxes 
of philosophy, it haa its value in directing our attention to a 
vital, yet much neglected, element of experience. We cannot 
avoid solipsism (q.v.) so long as we neglect the element of force 
or power. If, as Hegel asserted, our experience is all knowledge, 
and if knowledge is indefinitely transformed by the conditions 
of knowing, then we are tempted to regard the object as super- 
fluous, and to treat our innate conviction that knowledge has 
reference to objects as a delusion which philosophical reflection 
is destined to dispel. The remedy for the paradox is to recognize 
that the foundation for our belief in the existence of objects is 
the force which they exercise upon us and the resistance which 
they offer to our will. What the tree is In regard to its specific 
qualities depends on what faculties we have for perceiving it. 
But, whatever specific qualities it may have, it will still exist 



as an object, so long as it comes into dynamic relations with 
our minds. 

In the history of thought the relativity of knowledge as just 
described begins with Descartes, the founder of modern philosophy: 
the characteristic of modern philosophy is that it lays more stress 
upon the subjective than upon the objective side of experience. It 
is a mistake to refer it back to the Greeks. The maxim of Protagoras, 
for example, " Man is the measure of all things," has a different 
purpose; it was meant to point to the truth that man rather than 
nature is the primary object of human study : it is a doctrine of 
humanism rather than of relativism. To appreciate the relativistic 
doctrines we find in various thinkers we must take account of the 
use to which they were put. By Descartes the principle was used 
as an instrument of scepticism, the beneficent scepticism of pulling 
down medieval philosophy to make room for modern science; by 
Berkeley it was used to combat the materialists; by Hume in the 
cause of scepticism once more against the intellectual dogmatists; 
by Kant to prepare a justification for a noumenal sphere to be 
apprehended by faith; by J. S. Mill and Herbert Spencer to support 
their derivation o( all our experience from sensation. It is in Mill's 
Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy that the classical 
statement of the Relativity of Knowledge is to be found. The 
second chapter of that book sets forth the various forms of the 
doctrine with admirable lucidity and precision, and gives many 
references to other writers. 

For the sake of clearness it seems desirable to keep for the future 
the term " relativity of knowledge " to the first meaning explained 
above: for the second meaning it has been superseded in contem- 
porary philosophizing by the terms " subjectivism," " subjective 
idealism," and, for its extreme form, " solipsism " (q.v.). (H. St.) 

RELEASE (O.Fr. reles, variant of relais, from relaisser, to 
release, let go, Lat. relaxare), freedom or deliverance from 
trouble, pain or sorrow, the freeing or discharge from some 
obligation or debt, the action of letting go or releasing something 
fixed or set in position. In law, the term is applied to the 
discharge of some obligation, by which it is extinguished (see 
Debt), and to the conveyance of an estate or interest in real or 
personal property to one who has already some estate or interest 
therein. For the special form of conveyancing known as " lease 
and release," see Conveyancing. 

RELICS (Lat, reliquiae, the equivalent of the English 
" remains " in the sense of a dead body), the name given in the 
Catholic Church to,(i) the bodies of the saints, or portions of 
them,(2) such objects as the saints made use of during their 
lives, or as were used at their martyrdom. These objects are 
held by the Church in religious veneration, and by their means 
it hopes to obtain divine grace and miraculous benefits {Cone. 
Trid. sess. 24). 

These ideas had taken shape, in all essentials, during the early 
days of the Church, underwent further development in the middle 
ages, and were maintained by the Catholic Church in the face 
of the opposition of the Reformers, while all the Protestant 
Churches rejected them. 

The origins of the veneration of relics lie in the anxiety for 
the preservation of the bodies of the martyrs. Nothing is more 
natural than that the pious solicitude felt by all men for the 
bodies of their loved ones should in the primitive Christian 
Churches have been turned most strongly towards the bodies 
of those who had met with death in confessing their faith. The 
account given by the church at Smyrna of the death of their 
bishop Polycarp (155) gives us an insight into these feelings, 
The church collected and buried the remains of the martyr, 
who had been burnt, in order duly to celebrate the anniversary 
of the martyrdom at the place of burial. The possession of the 
relics seemed to assure the continuation of the common life of 
the church with their bishop, of the living with the dead {Mart. 
Polyc. c. 17). 

The custom of which we have here for the first time an account 
had become universal by the 3rd century. In all parts the 
Christians assembled on the anniversary of the martyrs' death 
at their graves, to celebrate the Agape and the Eucharist at 
this spot. It was a favourite custom to bury the dead near the 
graves of the martyrs; and it was the highest wish of many to 
" rest with the saints." It was the body lying in the tomb which 
was venerated (see Euseb. Hist. eccl. vii. n, 24; viii. 6, 7). 

But these customs soon underwent a further development. 
About the end of the 3rd and the beginning of the 4th century 



6o 



RELICS 



it became customary for the bodies of the martyrs not to be 
buried, but preserved for the purpose of veneration. Already 
individual Christians began to possess themselves of portions 
of the bodies of martyrs, and to carry them about with them. 
Both these practices met with criticism and opposition, especially 
from the leading men of the Church. According to the testi- 
mony of Athanasius of Alexandria, the hermit Anthony decided 
that it should be held to be unlawful and impious to leave the 
bodies of the martyrs unburied (Vita Ant. 90). In Carthage the 
archdeacon and later the bishop Caecilianus severely blamed a 
certain Lucilla for carrying about with her a relic which she used 
to kiss before receiving the Eucharist (Optatus, De schism. Donat. 
i. 16). The compiler of the Acta S. Fructuosi, a Spanish ecclesi- 
astic, represents the martyred bishop as himself requesting the 
burial of his relics. But energetic as the opposition was, it was 
unsuccessful, and died out. For in the meantime opinion as to 
the efficacy of relics had undergone a transformation, parallel 
with the growth of the theory, which soon predominated in the 
Church, that material instruments are the vehicles of divine 
grace. When the Christians of Smyrna decided that the bones 
of the martyrs were of more worth than gold or gems, and when 
Origen (Exh. ad mart. 50) spoke of the precious blood of the 
martyrs, they were thinking of the act of faith which the martyrs 
had accomplished by the sacrifice of their life. Now, on the 
other hand, the relic came to be looked upon as in itself a thing 
of value as the channel of miraculous divine powers. These 
ideas are set forth by Cyril of Jerusalem. He taught that a 
certain power dwelt in the body of the saint, even when the 
soul had departed from it; just as it was the instrument of 
the soul during life, so the power passed permanently into it 
(Cat. xviii. 16). This was coming very near to a belief that 
objects which the saints had used during their life had also a 
share in their miraculous powers. And this conclusion Cyril 
had already come to (loc. cit.). 

We can see how early this estimate of relics became general 
from the fact that the former hesitation as to whether they 
should be venerated as sacred died out during the 4th century. 
The Fathers of the Greek Church especially were united in 
recommending the veneration of relics. All the great theologians 
of the 4th and 3th centuries may be quoted as evidence of this: 
Eusebius of Caesarea (Praep. Ev. xiii.n), Gregory of Nazianzus 
(Oral, in Cypr. 17), Gregory of Nyssa (Oral, de S. Tkeod. mart.), 
Basil of Caesarea (Ep. ii. 197), Chrysostom (Laud. Drosidis), 
Theodoret of Cyrus (Inps. 67, n), &c. John of Damascus, the 
great exponent of dogma in the 8th century, gave expression 
to the result of a uniform development which had been going 
on for centuries when he taught that Christ offers the relics to 
Christians as means of salvation. They must not be looked 
upon as something that is dead; for through them all good 
things come to those who pray with faith. Why should it 
seem impossible to believe in this power of the relics, when water 
could be made to gush from a rock in the desert? (De fide 
orthod. iv. 15). 

Such was the theory; and the practice was in harmony with 
it. Throughout the whole of the Eastern Church the veneration 
of relics prevailed. Nobody hesitated to divide up the bodies 
of the saints in order to afford as many portions of them as 
possible. They were shared among the inhabitants of cities 
and villages, Theodoret tells us, and cherished by everybody 
as healers and physicians for both body and soul (Decur.Graec. 
off. 8). The transition from the true relic to the hallowed object 
was especially common. Jerusalem, as early as the time of 
Eusebius, rejoiced in the possession of the episcopal chair of 
James the Just (Hist. eccl. vii. 19); and as late as the 4th century 
was discovered the most important of the relics of Christ, the 
cross which was alleged to have been His. Cyril of Jerusalem 
already remarks that the whole world was filled with portions 
of the wood of the cross (Cat. iv. 10). 

The development which the veneration of relics underwent 
in the West did not differ essentially from that in the East. 
Here also the idea came to prevail that the body of the saint, 
<jr a portion of it, was possessed of healing and protective power 



(Paulinus of Nola, Poem. xix. 14 et seq., xxvii. 443). The 
objection raised by the Aquitanian presbyter Vigilantius (c. 400) 
to the belief that the souls of the martyrs to a certain extent 
clung to their ashes, and heard the prayers of those who ap- 
proached them, appeared to his contemporaries to be frivolous; 
and he nowhere met with any support. 

The only doubt which was felt was as to whether the bodies 
of the saints should be divided, and removed from their original 
resting-place. Both practices were forbidden by law under 
the emperor Theodosius I. (Cod. Theodos. ix. 17, 7), and the 
division of the bodies of martyrs into pieces was prohibited 
for centuries. Even Pope Gregory I., in a letter to the empress 
Constantia, disapproved it (Ep. iv. 30). Ambrose of Milan, by 
the discovery of the relics of Protasius and Gervasius (cf. 
Ep. 22 and Augustine, Confess, ix. 7), started in the West the 
long series of discoveries and translations of hitherto unknown 
relics. His example was followed, to name only the best 
known instances, by Bishop Theodore of Octodurum (now 
Martigny in the Vaud), who discovered the relics of the Theban 
legion which was alleged to have been destroyed by the emperor 
Maximian on account of its belief in the Christian faith (see 
Passio Acaun. Mart. 16), and by Clematius, a citizen of 
Cologne, to whom the virgin martyrs of this city revealed 
themselves (Kraus, Inschriften der Rheinlande, No. 294), after- 
wards to be known as St Ursula and her eleven thousand 
virgins. 

The West was much poorer in relics than the East. Rome, 
it is true, possessed in the bodies of Peter and Paul a treasure 
the virtue of which outshone all the sacred treasures of the 
East. But many other places were entirely wanting in relics. 
By the discoveries which we have mentioned their number 
was notably increased. But the longing for these pledges 
of the divine assistance was insatiable. In order to satisfy 
it relics were made by placing pieces of cloth on the graves 
of the saints, which were afterwards taken to their homes 
and venerated by the pilgrims. The same purpose was served 
by oil taken from the lamps burning at the graves, flowers from 
the altars, water from some holy well, pieces of the garments of 
saints, earth from Jerusalem, and especially keys which had 
been laid on the grave of St Peter at Rome. All these things 
were not looked upon as mementoes, but the conviction pre- 
vailed that they were informed by a miraculous power, which 
had passed into them through contact with that which was 
originally sacred (cf. Greg. Tur. De Glor. mart. i. 25; Greg. I. 
Ep. iv. 29, No. 30). A dishonest means of satisfying the 
craving for relics was that of forging them, and how common 
this became can be gathered from the many complaints about 
spurious relics (Sulp. Sev. Vita Mart. 8; Aug. De op. mon. 28; 
Greg. I. Ep. iv. 30, &c). 

But in the long run these substitutes for relics did not satisfy 
the Christians of the West, and, following the example of 
the Eastern Church, they took to dividing the bodies of the 
saints. Medieval relics in the West also were mostly portions 
of the bodies of saints or of things which they had used during 
their lives. The veneration of relics also received a strong 
impulse from the fact that the Church required that a relic 
should be deposited in every altar. Among the first of those 
whom we know to have attached importance to the placing of 
relics in churches is Ambrose of Milan (Ep. 22), and the 7th 
general council of Nicaea (787) forbade the consecration of 
churches in which relics were not present, under pain of ex- 
communication. This has remained part of the law of the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

The most 'famous relics discovered during the middle ages 
were those of the apostle James at St Jago de Compostella 
in Spain (see Pilgrimage), the bodies of the three kings, which 
were brought from Milan to Cologne in 1164 by the emperor 
Frederick I. (Chron. reg. Colon, for the year n 64), the so- 
called sudarium of St Veronica, which from the 12th century 
onwards was preserved in the Capella Santa Maria ad praesepe 
of St Peter's in Rome (see Dobschiitz, Christusbilder,p. 218 seq.), 
and the seamless robe of Christ, the possession of which lent 



RELIEF-RELIGION 



61 



renown to the cathedral of Trier since the beginning of the 
1 2th century (fiesta Trevir., Mon. Germ. Scr. viii. p. 152). 

The number of relics increased to a fabulous extent dur- 
ing the middle ages. There were churches which possessed 
hundreds, even thousands, of relics. In the cathedral of 
Eichstatt were to be found, as early as 107 1, 683 relics 
(Gundech, Lib. pont. Eist., Mon. Germ. Scr. vii. p. 246 seq.); 
the monastery of Hirschau had 222 in the year 1091 (De cons, 
mai. mon., Mon. Germ. Scr. xiv. p. 261); the monastery of 
Stedernburg 515 in the year 1166 (Ann. Sled. Scr. xvi. p. 212 
seq.). But these figures are trifling compared with those 
at the end of the middle ages. In the year 1520 could be 
counted 19,013 in the Schlosskirche at Wittenberg, and 21,483 
in the Schlosskirche at Halle in 1521 (Kostlin, Friedrich der W., 
und die Schlosskirche zu Wittenberg, p. 58 seq. ; Redlich, Cardinal 
Albrecht und das Neue Stiff zu Halle, p. 260). There were also 
collections on the same scale belonging to individuals; a 
patrician of Nuremberg named Muffel was able to gain pos- 
session of 308 relics (Chroniken der deutschen StSdte, xi. p. 745). 

It is curious that while the popular craving for relics had 
passed all bounds, medieval theology was very cautious in 
its declarations on the subject of the veneration of relics. 
Thomas Aquinas based his justification of them on the idea 
of reverent commemoration; since we venerate the saints, 
we must also show reverence for their relics, for whoever loves 
another does honour to that which remains of him after death. 
On this account it is our duty, in memory of the saints, to pay 
due honour to their relics and especially to their bodies, which 
were the temples and dwellings of the Holy Ghost in which 
He dwelt and worked, and which in the resurrection are to be 
made like to the body of Christ; and in likewise because God 
honours them, in that He works wonders in their presence 
(Summa theol. iii. qu. 25, art. 6). The great scholastic philo- 
sopher abandoned the theory that the relics in themselves are 
vessels and instruments of the divine grace and miraculous 
power. But these ideas were revived, on the other hand, by 
the Catholicism of the counter-Reformation, which again taught 
and teaches that God grants many benefits to mankind through 
the sacred bodies of the martyrs (Cone. Trid. sess. xxv.). The 
doctrine has adapted itself to the popular belief. (A. H.*) 

RELIEF (through Fr. from Lat. relevare, to lift up), an act 
of raising or lifting off or up. Apart from the general sense 
of a mitigation, cessation or removal of pain, sorrow, discomfort, 
&c, and the artistic use (It. relievo) of the projection of a figure 
or design in sculpture from the ground on which it is formed, 
which is treated below, the term "relief" is used in the following 
senses; it was one of the feudal incidents between lord and vassal, 
and consisted of a payment to the lord in kind or money made 
by the heir on the death of the ancestor for the privilege of 
succession, for, fiefs not being hereditary, the estate had lapsed 
to the lord; by this payment the heir caducum praedium 
relevabat (Du Cange, Gloss, s.v. Relevare). The word is also 
generally used, in law, for any exemption granted by a court 
from the strict legal consequences of an act, &c, e.g. to a parlia- 
mentary candidate from the penal consequences ensuing from 
breaches of the regulations of the Corrupt and Illegal Practices 
Acts. Relief is also the term used in English law for the assist- 
ance given to the indigent poor by the Poor Law authorities 
(see Poor Law). 

RELIEF, a term in sculpture signifying ornament, a figure 
or figures raised from the ground of a flat surface of which the 
sculptured portion forms an inherent part of the body of the 
whole. The design may be in high relief — "alto-relievo"(gM>.),or 
low relief — " bas-relief" or "basso-relievo" (q.v.); in the former 
case the design is almost wholly detached from the ground, the 
attachment, through " under-cutting," remaining only here and 
there; in the latter it is wholly attached and may scarcely rise 
above the surface (as in the modern medal), or it may exceed in 
projection to about a half the proportionate depth (or thickness) 
of the figure or object represented. Formerly three terms were 
commonly employed to express the degree of relief — alto- 
relievo, basso-relievo and mezzo-relievo (or half -relief) ; but the 



two last-named have been merged by modern custom into 
" low-relief," to the disadvantage of accurate description. The 
term relief belongs to modern sculpiuie. Io low relief as under- 
stood by us Pliny applied th>: word ana^lypta, but it is to be 
observed that embossing and chasing came within the same 
category. It may be considered that less sculptural skill 
(independently of manipulative skill) is needed in high relief 
than in low relief, because in the former the true relative pro- 
portions in the life (whether figure or other object) have to be 
rendered, while in the latter, although the true height and, 
in a measure, breadth can be given, the thickness of the object 
is reduced by at least one-half, sometimes to almost nothing; 
and yet in spite of this departure from actuality, this abandon- 
ment of fact for a pure convention, a true effect must still be 
produced, not only in respect to perspective, but also of the 
actual shadows cast. And insomuch as the compositions are 
often extremely complicated and have sometimes to suggest 
retreating planes, the true plane of the material affords little 
scope for reproducing the required effect. In the beginning 
the essential idea of the relief was always maintained: that is 
to say, the sense of the flatness of the slab from which it was 
cut was impressed throughout the design on the mind of the 
spectator. Thus the Egyptians merely sunk the outlines and 
scarcely more than suggested the modelling of the figures, which 
never projected beyond the face of the surrounding ground. 
The Persians, the Etruscans and the Greeks carried on the art 
to the highest perfection, alike in sculpture and architectural 
ornament, and they applied it to gem sculpture, as in the case 
of " cameo." Similarly, the inverse treatment of relief — that 
is, sunk below the surface, in order that when ased for seals a 
true relief is obtained — was early brought to great completeness; 
this form of engraving is called " intaglio." The degree of 
projection in relief, broadly speaking, has varied greatly with 
the periods of art. Thus, in Byzantine and Romanesque art 
the relief was low. In Gothic it increased with the increased 
desire to render several planes one behind the other. With the 
advent of the Renaissance it became still more accentuated, 
the heads and figures projecting greatly; but such high relief 
is sometimes found in early work, especially in metal-work. 
Although we see a return to lower relief in the Henri II. period, 
it becomes stronger in the Louis XIII. style, very full in 
Louis XIV. and Louis XV., but in Louis XVI. is considerably 
reduced. (M. H. S.) 

RELIGION. The origin of the Latin word rlligio or relligio 
has been the subject of discussion since the time of Cicero. Two 
alternative derivations have been given, viz. from rSKgere, 
to gather together, and r&ligare, to bind back, fasten. Relegere 
meant to gather together, collect, hence to go over a subject 
again in thought, from re and legere, to collect together, hence to 
read, collect at a glance. This view is that given by Cicero 
(Nat. Deor. ii. 28, 72). He says: " Qui omnia quae ad cultum 
deorum pertinerent diligenter retractarent et tanquam relegerent, 
sunt dicti religiosi ex relegendo," " men were called 'religious ' 
from relegere, because they reconsidered carefully and, as it 
were, went over again in thought all that appertained to the 
worship of the gods." He compares elegantes from eligere, 
diligentes from diligere, and continues, " his enim in verbis 
omnibus inest vis legendi eadem quae in religioso." This view 
is supported by the form of the word in the verse quoted by 
Gellius (iv. 9), " religentem esse oportet, religiosum nefas," and 
by the use of the Greek AXeyetp, to pay heed to, frequently with 
a negative, in the sense of the Latin negligere (nec-legere), cf. 
Qe&v fariv obn HKkyovres (Homer, 77. xvi. 388), heeding not the 
visitation of the gods, or ov yhp KukXcottcs Aids . . . iXkyovcnv 
(Od. ix. 275). The alternative derivation, from religare, to 
fasten, bind, is that adopted by Lactantius (Inst. iv. 28), "Vinculo 
pietatis obstricti, Deo religati sumus unde ipsa religio nomen 
cepit. " He quotes in support the line from Lucretius (i. 931), 
" religionum nodis animos exsolvere." Servius (on Virgil, 
Aen. viii. 349) and St Augustine (Retract, i. 13) also take religare 
as the source of the word. It is one that has certainly coloured 
the meaning of the word, particularly in that use which restricts 



62 



RELIGION 



[PRIMITIVE 



it to the monastic life with its binding rules. It also has appealed 
to Christian thought. Liddon (Some Elements of Religion, 
Lecture I. 19) says: " Lactantius may be wrong in his etymology, 
but he has certainly seized the broad popular sense of the word 
when he connects it with the idea of an obligation by which man 
is bound to an invisible God." Archbishop Trench (Study of 
Words) supposed that when " religion " became equivalent to 
the monastic life, and " religious " to a monk, the words lost 
their original meaning, but the Ancren Riwle, ante 1225, and the 
Cursor Mundi use the words both in the general and the more 
particular sense (see quotations in the New English Dictionary), 
and both meanings can be found in the Imitatio Christi and in 
Erasmus's Colloquia. (X.) 

The study of the forms of belief and worship belonging to 
different tribes, nations or religious communities has only 
recently acquired a scientific foundation. The Greek historians 
early directed their attention to the ideas and customs of the 
peoples with whom they were brought into contact; and 
Herodotus has been called the " first anthropologist of reli- 
gion." Theopompus described the Persian dualism in the 4th 
century B.C., and when Megasthenes was ambassador to the 
court of Chandragupta, 302 B.C., he noted the religious usages 
of the middle Ganges valley. The early Christian Fathers 
recorded many a valuable observation of the Gentile faiths 
around them from varying points of view, sympathetic or 
hostile; and Eusebius and Epiphanius, in the 4th century 
a.d., attributed to the librarian of Ptolemy Philadelphus the 
design of collecting the sacred books of the Ethiopians, 
Indians, Persians, Elamites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Romans, 
Phoenicians, Syrians and Greeks. The Mahommedan Blruni 
(b. a.d. 973) compared the doctrines of the Greeks, Christians, 
Jews, Manichaeans and Sufis with the philosophies and reli- 
gions of India. Akbar (1 542-1605) gathered Brahmans and 
Zoroastrians, Jews, Christians and Mahommedans at his court, 
and endeavoured to get translations of their scriptures. In the 
next century the Persian author of the Dabistan exhibited the 
doctrines of no less than twelve religions and their various sects. 
Meanwhile the scholars of the West had begun to work. Thomas 
Hyde (1636-1703) studied the religion of the ancient Persians; 
John Spencer (1630-1693) analysed the laws of the Hebrews; 
and Lord Herbert of Cherbury (De Religione Gentilium, 1645) 
endeavoured to trace all religions back to five " truly Catholic 
truths " of primitive faith, the first being the existence of God. 
The doctrine of a primeval revelation survived in various forms 
for two centuries, and appeared as late as the Juventus Mundi 
of W. E. Gladstone (1868, p. 207 ff.). David Hume, on the other 
hand, based his essay on The Natural History of Religion (1757) 
on the conception of the development of human society from 
rude beginnings, and all modern study is frankly founded on the 
general idea of Evolution. 1 

The materials at Hume's command, however, were destined 
to vast and speedy expansion. The Jesuit missionaries had 
already been at work in India and China, and a brilliant band of 
English students, led by Sir William Jones and H. T. Colebrooke, 
began to make known the treasures of Sanskrit literature, 
which the great scholars of Germany and France proceeded to 
develop. In Egypt the discovery of the Rosetta stone placed 
the key to the hieroglyphics within Western reach; and the 
decipherment of the cuneiform character enabled the patient 
scholars of Europe to recover the clues to the contents of the 
ancient libraries of Babylonia and Assyria. With the aid of 
inscriptions the cults of Greece and Rome have been largely 
reconstructed. Travellers and missionaries reported the beliefs 
and usages of uncivilized tribes in every part of the world, 
with the result that " ethnography knows no race devoid of 
religion, but only differences in the degree to which religious 
ideas have developed " (Ratzel, History of Mankind, i. 40). 
Meanwhile philosophy was at work on the problem of the 
religious consciousness. The great series of German thinkers, 
Lessing, Herder, Kant, Hegel, Fichte, Schleiermacher and their 

1 This does not, of course, preclude the possibility of degeneration 
in particular instances. 



successors, sought to explain religion by means of the phenomena 
of mind, and to track it to its roots in the processes of thought 
and feeling. While ethnography was gathering up the facts 
from every part of the globe, psychology began to analyse the 
forms of belief, of action and emotion, to discover if possiole 
the key to the multitudinous variety which history revealed. 
From the historical and linguistic side attention was first fixed 
upon the myth, and the publication of the ancient hymns of the 
Rig Veda led Max Miiller to seek in the common elements of 
Aryan thought for the secrets of primitive religion (essay on 
Comparative Mythology, 1856). The phenomena of day and 
night, of sunshine and storm, and other aspects of nature, were 
invoked by different interpreters to explain the conceptions of 
the gods, their origins and their relations. Fresh materials 
were gathered at the same time out of European folk-lore; the 
work begun by the brothers Grimm was continued by J. W. E. 
Mannhardt, and a lower stratum of beliefs and rites began to 
emerge into view beneath the poetic forms of the more developed 
mythologies. By such preliminary labours the way was 
prepared for the new science of anthropology. 

Since the appearance of Dr E. B. Tylor's classical treatise 
on Primitive Culture (1871), the study of the origins of religion 
has been pursued with the utmost zeal. Comte had already 
described the primitive form of the religious consciousness as 
that in which man conceives of all external bodies as animated 
by a life analogous to his own (Philos. Positive, tome v., 1841, 
p. 30). This has been since designated as polyzoism or panthelism 
or panvilalism? and represents the obscure undifferentiated 
groundwork out of which Tylor's Animism arises. Many are 
the clues by which it has been sought to explain the secret of 
primitive religion. Hegel, before the anthropological stage, 
found it in magic. Max Miiller, building on philosophy and 
mythology, affirmed that " Religion consists in the perception 
of the infinite under such manifestations as are able to influence 
the moral character of man " (Natural Religion, 1899, p. 188). 
Herbert Spencer derived all religion from the worship of the dead 
(Principles of Sociology, i.), like Grant Allen, and Lippert in 
Germany. Mr Andrew Lang, on the other hand, supposes that 
belief in a supreme being came first in order of evolution, but 
was afterwards thrust into the background by belief in ghosts 
and lesser divinities (Magic and Religion, 1901, p. 224). 3 Dr' 
Jevons finds the primitive form in totemism (Introd. to the 
History of Religion, 1896, chap. ix.). Mr J. G. Frazer regards 
religion (see his definition quoted below) as superposed on an 
antecedent stage of magic. In The Tree of Life (1905), MrE. 
Crawley interprets it by the vital instinct, and connects its 
first manifestations with the processes of the organic life. The 
veteran Wilhelm Wundt (Mythus und Religion, ii. 1906, p. 177) 
recurs to the primitive conceptions of the soul as the source of 
all subsequent development. The origin of religion, however, 
can never be determined archaeologically or historically; it 
must be sought conjecturally through psychology. (J. E. C.) 

A. Primitive Religion 

There is a point at which the History of Religion becomes in 
its predominant aspect a History of Religions. The conditions 
that we describe by the comprehensive term " civilization " 
occasion a specification and corresponding differentiation of the 
life of societies; whence there result competing types of culture, 
each instinct with the spirit of propagandism and, one might 
almost say, of empire. It is an age of conscious selection as 
between ideal systems. Instead of necessitating a wasteful 
and precarious elimination of inadequate customs by the actual 
destruction of those who practise them — this being the method 
of natural selection, which, like some Spanish Inquisition, 
abolishes the heresy by wiping out the heretics one and all — 
progress now becomes possible along the more direct and less 

2 Comte's own term " fetishism " was most unfortunately mis- 
leading (see Fetishism). Marett proposed the term " Animatism," 
Folk Lore (1900), xi. p. 171. 

* See his treatise on The Making of Religion (1898), and Hartland's 
article on " The ' High Gods ' of Australia," Folk Lore (1898), ix. 
P- 290. 



PRIMITIVE] 



RELIGION 



63 



painful path of conversion. The heretic, having developed 
powers of rational choice, perceives his heresy, to wit, his want 
of adaptation to the moral environment, and turning round 
embraces the new faith that is the passport to survival. 

Far otherwise is it with man at the stage of savagery — the 
stage of petty groups pursuing a self-centred life of inveterate 
custom, in an isolation almost as complete as if they were 
marooned on separate atolls of the ocean. Progress, or at all 
events change, does indeed take place, though very slowly, 
since the most primitive savage we know of has his portion of 
human intelligence, looks after and before, nay, in regard to the 
pressing needs of every day shows a quite remarkable shrewdness 
and resource. Speaking generally, however, we must pronounce 
him unprogressive, since, on the whole, unreflective in regard to 
his ends. It is the price that must be paid for social discreteness 
and incoherency. And the consequence of this atomism is 
not what a careless thinker might be led to assume, extreme 
diversity, but, on the contrary, extreme homogeneity of culture. 
It has been found unworkable, for instance, to classify the 
religions of really primitive peoples under a plurality of heads, 
as becomes necessary the moment that the presence of a dis- 
tinctive basis of linked ideas testifies to the individuality of 
this or that type of higher creed. Primitive religions are like 
so many similar beads on a string; and the concern of the 
student of comparative religion is at this stage mainly with the 
nature of the string, to wit, the common conditions of soul and 
society that make, say, totemism, or taboo, very much the same 
thing all the savage world over, when we seek to penetrate to 
its essence. 

This fundamental homogeneity of primitive culture, however, 
must not be made the excuse for a treatment at the hands of 
psychology and sociology that dispenses with the study of details 
and trusts to an a priori method. By all means let universal 
characterization be attempted — we are about to attempt one 
here, though well aware of the difficulty in the present state 
of our knowledge — but they must at least model themselves 
on the composite photograph rather than the impressionist 
sketch. An enormous mass of material, mostly quite in the raw, 
awaits reduction to order on the part of anthropological theorists, 
as yet a small and ill-supported body of enthusiasts. Under 
these circumstances it would be premature to expect agreement 
as to results. In regard to method, however, there is little 
difference of opinion. Thus, whereas the popular writer abounds 
in wide generalizations on the subject of primitive humanity, 
the expert has hitherto for the most part deliberately restricted 
himself to departmental investigations. Religion, for example, 
seems altogether too vast a theme for him to embark on, and he 
usually prefers to deal with some single element or aspect. 
Again, origins attract the litterateur; he revels in describing 
the transition from the pre-religious to the religious era. But 
the expert, confining his attention to the known savage, finds 
him already religious, nay, encumbered with religious survivals 
of all kinds; for him, then, it suffices to describe things as they 
now are, or as they were in the comparatively recent fore-time. 
Lastly, there are many who, being competent in some other 
branch of science, but having small acquaintance with the 
scientific study of human culture, are inclined to explain 
primitive ideas and institutions from without, namely by 
reference to various external conditions of the mental life of 
peoples, such as race, climate, food-supply and so on. The 
anthropological expert, on the other hand, insists on making the 
primitive point of view itself the be-all and end-all of his investi- 
gations. The inwardness of savage religion — the meaning it 
has for those who practise it — constitutes its essence and 
meaning likewise for him, who after all is a man and a brother, 
not one who stands really outside. 

In what follows, then, we shall, indeed, venture to present a 
wholesale appreciation of the religious idea as it is for primitive 
man in general; but our account will respect the modern 
anthropological method that bids the student keep closely to 
the actualities of the religious experience of savages, as it can 
with reasonable accuracy be gathered from what they do and say. 



We have sought to render onlv the spirit of primitive religion, 
keeping clear both of technicalities and of departmental investi- 
gations. These are left to the separate articles bearing on the 
subject. There the reader will find the most solid results of 
recent anthropological research. Here is he merely offered a 
flimsy thread that, we hope, may guide him through the maze of 
facts, but alas! is only too likely to break off short in his hand. 
Definition of Primitive Religion.— In dealing with a develop- 
ment of culture that has no immutable essence, but is intrinsically 
fluid and changing, definition must consist either in a definition 
of type, which indicates prevalence of relevant resemblance as 
between specimens more or less divergent, or in exterior defini- 
tion, which delimits the field of inquiry by laying down within 
what extreme limits this divergence holds. Amongst the 
numberless definitions of religion that have been suggested, 
those that have been most frequently adopted for working 
purposes by anthropologists are Tylor's and Frazer's. Dr E. B. 
Tylor in Primitive Culture (1), i. 424, proposes as a " minimum 
definition" of religion " the belief in spiritual beings." Objec- 
tions to this definition on the score of incompleteness are, firstly, 
that, besides belief, practice must be reckoned with (since, as 
Dr W. Robertson Smith has made clear in his Lectures on the 
Religion of the Semites, 18 sqq., ritual is in fact primary for 
primitive religion, whilst dogma and myth are secondary); 
secondly, that the outlook of such belief and practice is not 
exclusively towards the spiritual, unless this term be widened 
until it mean next to nothing, but is likewise towards the quasi- 
material, as will be shown presently. The merit of this defini- 
tion, on the other hand, lies in its bilateral form, which calls 
attention to the need of characterizing both the religious 
attitude and the religious object to which the former has refer- 
ence. The same form appears in Dr J. G. Frazer's definition in 
The Golden Bough (2nd ed.), i. 63. He understands by religion 
" a propitiation or conciliation of powers superior to man which 
are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of 
human life." He goes on to explain that by " powers" he means 
" conscious or personal agents." It is also to be noted that he 
is here definitely opposing religion to magic, which he holds 
to be based on the (implicit) assumption " that the course of 
nature is determined, not by the passions or caprice of personal 
beings, but by the operation of immutable laws acting mechani- 
cally." His definition improves on Tylor's in so far as it makes 
worship integral to the religious attitude. By regarding the 
object of religion as necessarily personal, however, he is led to 
exclude much that the primitive man undoubtedly treats with 
awe and respect as exerting a mystic effect on his life. Further, 
in maintaining that the powers recognized by religion are always 
superior to man, he leaves unclassed a host of practices that 
display a bargaining, or even a hectoring, spirit on the part of 
those addressing them (see Prayer). Threatening or beating 
a fetish cannot be brought under the head of magic, even if 
we adopt Frazer's principle {op. cit. i. 64) that to constrain or 
coerce a personal being is to treat him as an inanimate agent; 
for such a principle is quite inapplicable to cases of mere terrorism, 
whilst it may be doubted if it even renders the sense of the 
savage magician's typical notion of his modus operandi, viz. 
as the bringing to bear of a greater mana or psychic influence 
(see below) on what has less, and must therefore do as it is 
bidden. Such definitions, then, are to be accepted, if at all, as 
definitions of type, selective designations of leading but not 
strictly universal features. An encyclopaedic account, however, 
should rest rather on an exterior definition which can serve as it 
were to pigeon-hole the whole mass of significant facts. Such 
an exterior definition is suggested by Mr E. Crawley in The 
Tree of Life, 209, where he points out that " neither the Greek 
nor the Latin language has any comprehensive term for religion, 
except in the one iepci, and in the other sacra, words which 
are equivalent to 'sacred.' No other term covers the whole 
of religious phenomena, and a survey of the complex details 
of various worships results in showing that no other conception 
will comprise the whole body of religious facts." It may be 
added that we have here no generalization imported from a 



6 4 



RELIGION 



[PRIMITIVE 



higher level of culture, but an idea or blend of ideas familiar to 
primitive thought. An important consequence of thus giving 
the study of primitive religion the wide scope of a comparative 
hierology is that magic is no longei divorced f 1 om religion, since 
the sacred will now be found to be coextensive with the magico- 
religious, that largely undifferentiated plasm out of which religion 
and magic slowly take separate shape as society comes more 
and more to contrast legitimate with illicit modes of dealing 
with the sacred.- We may define, then, the religious object as 
the sacred, and the corresponding religious attitude as con- 
sisting in such manifestation of feeling, thought and action in 
regard to the sacred as is held to conduce to the welfare of the 
community or to that of individuals considered as members 
of the community. 

Aspects of the Nature of the Sacred. — To exhibit the general 
character of the sacred as it exists for primitive religion it 
is simplest to take stock of various aspects recognized by 
primitive thought as expressed in language. If some, and 
not the least essential, of these aspects are quasi-negative, 
it must be remembered that negations — witness the Unseen, 
the Unknown, the Infinite of a more advanced theology — are 
well adapted to supply that mystery on which the religious 
consciousness feeds with the slight basis of conceptual support 
it needs, (i) The sacred as the forbidden. The primitive 
notion that perhaps comes nearest to our " s?.cred," whilst it 
immediately underlies the meanings of the Latin sacer and 
sanctus, is that of a taboo, a Polynesian term for which equiva- 
lents can be quoted from most savage vocabularies. The 
root idea seems to be that something is marked off as to be 
shunned, with the added hint of a mystic sanction or penalty 
enforcing the avoidance. Two derivative senses of a more 
positive import call for special notice. On the one hand, 
since that which is tabooed is held to punish the taboo-breaker 
by a sort of mystic infection, taboo comes to stand for un- 
cleanness and sin. On the other hand, since the isolation of 
the sacred, even when originally conceived in the interest of 
the profane, may be interpreted as self-protection on the part 
of the sacred as against defiling contact, taboo takes on the 
connotation of ascetic virtue, purity, devotion, dignity and 
blessedness. Primary and secondary senses of the term between 
them cover so much ground that it is not surprising to find 
taboo used in Polynesia as a name for the whole system of 
religion, founded as it largely is on prohibitions and abstin- 
ences. (2) The sacred as the mysterious. Another quasi- 
negative notion of more restricted distribution is that of the 
mysterious or strange, as we have it expressed, for example, in 
the Siouan wakan, though possibly this is a derivative meaning. 
Meanwhile, it is certain that what is strange, new or por- 
tentous is regularly treated by all savages as sacred. (3) The 
sacred as the 'secret. The literal sense of the term churinga, 
applied by the Central Australians to their sacred objects, 
and likewise used more abstractly to denote mystic power, 
as when a man is said to be " full, of churinga," is " secret," 
and is symptomatic of the esotericism that is a striking mark 
of Australian, and indeed of all primitive, religion, with its 
insistence on initiation, its exclusion of women, and its strictly 
enforced reticence concerning traditional lore and proceedings. 
(4) The sacred as the potent. Passing on to positive conceptions 
of the sacred, perhaps the most fundamental is that which 
identifies the efficacy of sacredness with such mystic or magical 
power as is signified by the mana of the Pacific or orenda of 
the Hurons, terms for which analogies are forthcoming on all 
sides. Of mana Dr R. H. Codrington in The Melanesians, 
119 «., writes: "It essentially belongs to personal beings to 
originate it, though it may act through the medium of water, 
or a stone, or a bone. All Melanesian religion consists . . . 
in getting this mana for oneself, or getting it used for one's 
benefit." E. Tregear's Maori- Polynesian Comparative Dic- 
tionary shows how the word and its derivatives are used to 
express thought, memory, emotion, desire, will — in short, 
psychic energy of all kinds. It also stands for the vehicle 
of the magician's energy — the spell; which would seem like- 



wise to be a meaning, perhaps the root-meaning, of orenda 
(cf. J. N. B. Hewitt, American Anthropologist, N.S., iv. 40). 
Whereas everything, perhaps, has some share of indwelling 
potency, whatever is sacred manifests this potency in an extra- 
ordinary degree, as typically the wonder-working leader of 
society, whose mana consists in his cunning and luck together. 
Altogether, in mana we have what is par excellence the primitive 
religious idea in its positive aspect, taboo representing its 
negative side, since whatever has mana is taboo, and what- 
ever, is taboo has mana. (5) The sacred as the animate. The 
term " animism," which embodies Tylor's classical theory 
of primitive religion, is unfortunately somewhat ambiguous. 
If we take it strictly to mean the belief in ghosts or spirits 
having the " vaporous materiality " proper to the objects 
of dream or hallucination, it is certain that the agency of such 
phantasms is not the sole cause to which all mystic happenings 
are referred (though ghosts and spirits are everywhere believed 
in, and appear to be endowed with greater predominance 
as religious synthesis advances amongst primitive peoples). 
Thus there is good evidence to show that many of the early 
gods, notably those that are held to be especially well disposed 
to man, are conceived rather in the shape of magnified non- 
natural men dwelling somewhere apart, such as the Mungan- 
ngaur of the Kurnai of S.E. Australia (cf. A. Lang, The 
Making of Religion 2 , x. sqq.). Such anthropomorphism is 
with difficulty reduced to the Tylorian animism. The term, 
however, will have to- be used still more vaguely, if it is to 
cover all attribution of personality, will or vitality. This 
can be more simply brought under the notion of mana. Mean- 
while, since quasi-mechanical means are freely resorted to 
in dealing with the sacred, as when a Maori chief snuffs up 
the sanctity his fingers have acquired by touching his own 
sacred head that he may restore the virtue to the part whence 
it was taken (R. Taylor, Te Ika a Maui, 165), or when un- 
cleanness is removed as if it were a physical secretion by washing, 
wiping and so forth, it is hard to say whether what we should 
now call a " material " nature is not ascribed to the sacred, 
more especially when its transmissibility after the manner of 
a contagion is the trait that holds the attention. It is possible, 
however, that the savage always distinguishes in a dim way 
between the material medium and the indwelling principle 
of vital energy, examples of a pure fetishism, in the sense of 
the cult of the purely material, recognized as such, being hard 
to find. (6) The sacred as the ancient. The prominence of 
the notion of the Alcheringa " dreamtime," or sacred past, 
in Central Australian religion illustrates the essential con- 
nexion perceived by the savage to lie between the sacred and 
the traditional. Ritualistic conservatism may be instanced as 
a practical outcome of this feeling. Another development is 
ancestor-worship, the organized cult of ancestors marking, 
however, a certain stage of advance beyond the very primitive, 
though the dead are always sacred and have mana which the 
living may exploit for their own advantage. 

The Activity of the Sacred. — The foregoing views of the sacred, 
though starting from distinct conceptions, converge in a single 
complex notion, as may be seen from the many-sided sense 
borne by such a term as wakan, which may stand not only for 
" mystery," but also for " power, sacred, ancient, grandeur, 
animate, immortal " (W J McGee, 15th Report of U. S. Bureau 
of Ethnology, 182). The reason for this convergence is that, 
whereas there is found great difficulty in characterizing the 
elusive nature of (the sacred, its mode of manifesting itself is 
recognized to be much the same in all its phases. Uniform 
characteristics are the fecundity, ambiguity, relativity and 
transmissibility of its activity. (1) Fecundity. The mystic 
potency of the sacred is no fixed quantity, but is big with 
possibilities of all sorts. The same sacred person, object, act, 
will suffice for a variety of purposes. Even where a piece of 
sympathetic magic appears to promise definite results, or when 
a departmental god is recognized, there would seem to be room 
left for a more or less indefinite expectancy. It must be re- 
membered that the meaning of a rite is for the most, part obscure 



PRIMITIVE] 



RELIGION 



65 



to the participants, being overlaid by its traditional character, 
which but guarantees a general efficacy. " Blessings come, 
evils go," may be said to be. the magico-religious formula 
implicit in all socially approved dealings with the sacred, 
however specialized in semblance. (2) Ambiguity. Mystic 
potency, however, because of the very indefiniteness of its 
action, is a two-edged sword. The sacred is not to be approached 
lightly. -It will heal or blast, according as it is handled with 
or without due circumspection. That which is taboo, for 
instance, the person of the king, or woman's blood, is poison or 
medicine according as it is manipulated, being inherently just 
a potentiality for wonder-working in any direction. Not but 
what primitive thought shows a tendency to mark off a certain 
kind of mystic power as wholly bad by a special name, e.g. the 
arungquiltha of Central Australia; and here, we may note, we 
come nearest to a conception of magic as something other than 
religion, the trafficker in arungquiltha being socially suspect, nay, 
liable to persecution, and even death (as amongst the Arunta 
tribe, see Spencer and Gillen, Native Tribes of C. Australia, 536), 
at the hands of his fellows. On the other hand, wholly beneficent 
powers seem hardly to be recognized, unless we find them in 
beings such as Mungan-ngaur (" father-our" ), who derive an 
ethical character from their association with the initiation cere- 
monies and the moral instruction given thereat (cf. Lang, I.e.). 
(3) Relativity. So far we have tended to represent the activity of 
the sacred as that of a universal force, somewhat in the style of 
our " electricity" or " mind. " It remains to add that this activity 
manifests itself at numberless independent centres. These 
differ amongst themselves in the degree of their energy. One 
spell is stronger than another, one taboo more inviolable than 
another. Dr W. H. R. Rivers (The Todas, 448) gives an interest- 
ing analysis of the grades of sanctity apparent in Toda religion. 
The gods of the hill-tops come first. The sacred buffaloes, 
their milk, their bells, the dairies and their vessels are on a 
lower plane; whilst we may note that there are several grades 
amongst the dairies, increase of sanctity going with elaboration 
of dairy ritual (cf. ibid. 232). Still lower is the dairyman, who 
is in no way divine, yet has sanctity as one who maintains 
a condition of ceremonial purity. (4) Transmissibility. If, 
however, this activity originates at certain centres, it tends to 
spread therefrom in all directions. Dr F. B. Jevons (in An 
Introduction to the History of Religion, vii.) distinguishes between 
" things taboo," which have the mystic contagion inherent in 
them, and " things tabooed," to which the taboo-infection has 
been transmitted. In the former class he places supernatural 
beings (including men with mana as well as ghosts and spirits), 
blood, new-born children with their mothers, and corpses; 
which list might be considerably extended, for instance, by the 
inclusion of natural portents, and animals and plants such as are 
strikingly odd, dangerous or useful. Any one of these can pass 
on its sacred quality to other persons and objects (as a corpse 
defiles the mourner and his- clothes), nay to actions, places and 
times as well (as a corpse will likewise cause work to be tabooed, 
ground to be set apart, a holy season to be observed). Such 
transmissibility is commonly explained by the association of 
ideas, that becoming sacred which as it were reminds one of 
the sacred; though it is important to add, firstly, that such 
association takes place under the influence of a selective interest 
generated by strong religious feeling, and, secondly, that this 
interest is primarily a collective product, being governed by a 
social tradition which causes certain possibilities of ideal com- 
bination alone to be realized, whilst it is the chief guarantee of 
the objectivity of what they suggest. 

The Exploitation of the Sacred. A. Methods. — It is hard to find 
terms general enough to cover dealings with the sacred that 
range from the manipulation of an almost inanimate type of 
power to intercourse modelled on that between man and man. 
Primitive religion, however, resorts to either way of approach 
so indifferently as to prove that there is little or no awareness 
of an inconsistency of attitude. The radical contrast between 
mechanical and spiritual religion, though fundamental for 
modern theology, is alien to the primitive point of view, and is 
xxni. 3 



therefore inappropriate to the purposes of anthropological 
description. (1) Acquisition. Mystic power may be regarded 
as innate so far as skill, luck or queerness are signs and con- 
ditions of its presence. On the whole, however, savage society 
tends to regard it as something acquired, the product of acts and 
abstinences having a traditional character for imparting magico- 
religious virtue. An external symbol in the shape of a ceremony 
or cult-object is of great assistance to the dim eye of primitive 
faith. Again, the savage universe is no preserve of man, but 
is an open field wherein human and non-human activities of 
all sorts compete on more or less equal terms, yet so that a 
certain measure of predominance may be secured by a judicious 
combination of forces. (2) Concentration. Hence the magico- 
religious society or individual practitioner piles ceremony on 
ceremony, name of power on name of power, relic on relic, to 
consolidate the forces within reach and assume direction thereof. 
The transmissibility of the sacred ensures the fusion of powers 
drawn from all sources, however disparate. (3) Induction. It 
is necessary, however, as it were to bring this force to a head. 
This would appear to be the essential significance of sacrifice, 
where a number of sacred operations and instruments are made 
to discharge their efficacy into the victim as into a vat, so that a 
blessing-yielding, evil-neutralizing force of highest attainable 
potency is obtained (see H. Hubert and M. Mauss, " Essai sur 
la nature et la fonction du sacrifice" in L'Annee sociologique, ii.). 
(4) Renovation. An important motif in magico-religious ritual, 
which may not have been without effect on the development of 
sacrifice, is, as Dr Frazer's main thesis in The Golden Bough 
asserts, the imparting of reproductive energy to animals, plants 
and man himself, its cessation being suggested by such phenomena 
as old age and the fall of the year. To concentrate, induce and 
renovate are, however, but aspects of one process of acquisition 
by the transfusion of a transmissible energy. (5) Demission. 
Hubert and Mauss show in their penetrating analysis of sacrifice 
that after the rite has been brought to its culminating point 
there follows as a pendant a ceremony of re-entry into ordinary 
life, the idea of which is preserved in the Christian formula 
Ite, missa est. (6) Insulation. Such deposition of sacredness 
is but an aspect of the wider method that causes a ring-fence to 
be erected round the sacred to ward off casual trespassers at 
once in their own interest and to prevent contamination. We 
see here a natural outcome of religious awe supported by the 
spirit of esotericism, and by a sense of the need for an expert 
handling of that which is so potent for good or ill. (7) Direction. 
This last consideration brings to notice the fact that throughout 
magico-religious practice of all kinds the human operator retains 
a certain control over the issue. In the numberless transitions 
that, whilst connecting, separate the spell and the prayer we 
observe as the accompaniment of every mood from extreme 
imperiousness to extreme humility an abiding will and desire 
to help the action out. Even " Thy will be done " preserves 
the echo of a direction, and, needless to say, this is hardly a 
form of primitive address. At the bottom is the vague feeling 
that it is man's own self-directed mysterious energy that is at 
work, however much it needs to be reinforced from without. 
Meanwhile, tradition strictly prescribes the ways and means of 
such reinforcement, so that religion becomes largely a matter 
of sacred lore; and the expert director of rites, who is likewise 
usually at this stage the leader of society, comes more and more 
to be needed as an intermediary between the lay portion of the 
community and the. sacred powers. 

B. Results. — Hitherto our account of primitive religion 
has had to move on somewhat abstract lines. ' His religion 
is, however, anything but an abstraction to the savage, and 
stands rather for the whole of his concrete life so far as it is 
penetrated by a spirit of earnest endeavour. The end and 
result of primitive religion is, in a word, the consecration of 
life, the stimulation of the will to live and to do. This 
bracing of the vital feeling takes place by means of imaginative 
appeal to the great forces man perceives stirring within him 
and about him, such appeal proving effective doubtless by 
reason of the psychological law that to conceive strongly is 



66 



RELIGION 



[PRIMITIVE 



to imitate. Meanwhile, that there shall be no clashing of 
conceptions to inhibit the tendency of the idea of an acquired 
" grace " to realize itself in action, is secured by the complete 
unanimity of public opinion, dominated as it is by an inveterate 
custom. To appreciate the consecrating effect of religion on 
primitive life we have only to look to the churinga-v/orship 
of the Central Australians (as described by Spencer and Gillen 
in The Native Tribes of Central Australia and The Northern 
Tribes of Central Australia). Contact with these repositories 
of mystic influence "makes them glad" (Nat. Tr. 165); it 
likewise makes them " good," so that they are no longer greedy 
or selfish (North. Tr. 266); it endows them with second sight 
(ibid.) ; it gives them confidence and success in war (Nat. Tr. 135) ; 
in fact, there is no end to its "strengthening" effects (ibid. «.). 
Or, again, we may note the earnestness and solemnity that 
characterize all their sacred ceremonies. The inwardness 
of primitive religion is, however, non-existent for those who 
observe it as uninitiated strangers; whilst, again, it evaporates 
as soon as native custom breaks down under pressure of 
civilization, when only fragments of meaningless superstition 
survive: wherefore do travesties of primitive religion abound. 

It remains to consider shortly the consecration of life in 
relation to particular categories and departments. (1) Educa- 
tion. Almost every tribe has its initiation ceremonies, and in 
many tribes adult life may almost be described as a continuous 
initiation. The object of these rites is primarily to impart 
mystic virtue to the novice, such virtue, in the eyes of the 
primitive man, being always something more than social use- 
fulness, amounting as it does to a share in the tribal luck by 
means of association with all it holds sacred. Incidentally 
the candidate is trained to perform his duties as a tribesman, 
but religion presides over the course, demanding earnest 
endeavour of an impressionable age. (2) Government. Where 
society is most primitive it is most democratic, as in Australia, 
and magico-religious powers are possessed by the whole body 
of fully initiated males, age, however, conferring increase of 
sacred lore and consequently of authority; whilst even at 
this stage the experts tend to form an inner circle of rulers. 
The man with man a is bound to come to the top, both because 
his gifts give him a start and because his success is taken as a 
sign that he has the gift. A decisive " moment " in the evolu- 
tion of chief ship is the recognition of hereditary mana, bound 
up as this is with the handing on of ceremonies and cult-objects. 
Invested, as society grows more complex, with a sanctity in- 
creasingly superior to that of the layman, the priest-king 
becomes the representative of the community as repository 
of its luck, whilst, as controller of all sacred forces that bear 
thereon, he is, as Dr Frazer puts it, " dynamical centre of the 
universe" (The Golden Bough (2nd ed.), i. 233). Only when the 
holy man's duty to preserve his holiness binds him hand and foot 
in a network of taboos does his temporal power tend to devolve 
on a deputy. (3) Food-supply. In accordance with the 
principle of Renovation (see above), the root-idea of the appli- 
cation of religion to economics is not the extorting of boons 
from an unwilling nature, but rather the stimulation of the 
sources of life, so that all beings alike may increase and multiply. 
(4) Food-taking. Meanwhile, the primitive meal is always more 
or less of a sacrament, and there are many food-taboos, the 
significance of which is, however, not so much that certain 
foods are unclean and poisonous as that they are of special 
virtue and must be partaken of solemnly and with circum- 
spection. (5) Kinship. It is hard to say whether the unit 
of primitive society is the tribe or the group of kinsmen. Both 
are forms of union that are consolidated by means of religious 
usages. Thus in Australia the initiation ceremonies, concerned 
as they partly are with marriage, always an affair between 
the kin-groups, are tribal, whilst the totemic rites are the prime 
concern of the members of the totem clans. The significance 
of a common name and a common blood is immensely enhanced 
by its association with mystic rights and duties, and the pulse 
of brotherhood beats faster. (6) The Family. Side by side 
with the kin there is always found the domestic group, but 



the latter institution develops fully only as the former weakens, 
so that the one comes largely to inherit the functions of the 
other, whilst the tribe too in its. turn hands over certain interests. 
Thus in process of time birth-rites, marriage-rites, funeral- 
rites, not to mention subordinate ceremonies such as those 
of name-giving and food-taking, become domestic sacraments. 
(7) Sex. Woman, for certain physiological reasons, is always 
for primitive peoples hedged round with sanctity, whilst man 
does all he can to inspire awe of his powers in woman by keep- 
ing religion largely in his own hands. The result, so far as 
woman is concerned, is that, in company with those males 
who are endowed with sacredness in a more than ordinary 
degree, she tends as a sex to lose in freedom as much as she 
gains in respect. (8) Personality. Every one has his modicum 
of innate mana, or at least may develop it in himself by com- 
municating with powers that can be brought into answering 
relation by the proper means. Nagualism, or the acquisition 
of a mystic guardian, is a widely distributed custom, the essence 
of which probably consists in the procuring of a personal name 
having potency. The exceptional man is recognized as having 
mana in a special degree, and a belief thus held at once by 
others and by himself is bound to stimulate his individuality. 
The primitive community is not so custom-bound that per- 
sonality has no chance to make itself felt, and the leader of 
men possessed of an inner fund of inspiration is the wonder- 
worker who encourages all forms of social advance. 

Psychology of the Primitive Attitude towards the Sacred. — We 
are on firmer ground when simply describing the phenomena of 
primitive religion than when seeking to account for these in 
terms of natural law — in whatever sense the conception of 
natural law be applicable to the facts of the mental life of man. 
One thing is certain, namely, that savages stand on virtually 
one footing with the civilized as regards the type of explanation 
appropriate to their beliefs and practices. We have no right to 
refer to "instincts" in the case of primitive man, any more 
at any rate than we have in our own case. A child of civilized 
parents brought up from the first amongst savages is a savage, 
neither more nor less. Though race may count for something 
in the matter of mental endowment — and at least it would seem 
to involve differences in weight of brain — it clearly counts for 
much less than does milieu, to wit, that social environment of 
ideas and institutions which depends so largely for its effectiveness 
on mechanical means of tradition, such as the art of writing. 
The outstanding feature of the mental life of savages known to 
psychologists as " primitive credulity " is doubtless chiefly due 
to sheer want of diversity of suggestiveness in their intellectual 
surroundings. Their notions stick fast because there are no 
competing notions to dislodge them. Society suffers a sort of 
perpetual obsession, and remains self-hypnotized as it were 
within a magic circle of traditional views. A rigid orthodoxy 
is sustained by means of purblind imitation assisted by no little 
persecution. Such changes as occur come about, not in conse- 
quence of a new direction taken by conscious policy, but rather 
in the way that fashions in dress alter amongst ourselves, by 
subconscious, hardly purposive drifting. The crowd rather 
than the individual is the thinking unit. A proof is the 
mysterious rapid extinction of savages the moment that their 
group-life is broken up; they are individually so many lost 
sheep, without self-reliance or initiative. And the thinking 
power of a crowd — that is, a mob, not a deliberative assembly — 
is of a very low order, emotion of a " panicky " type driving it 
hither and thither like a rudderless ship. However, as the 
students of mob-psychology have shown, every crowd tends to 
have its meneur, its mob-leader, the man who sets the cheering 
or starts the running-away. So too, then, with the primitive 
society. Grossly ignorant of all that fails outside " the daily 
round, the common task," they are full of panicky fears in regard 
to this unknown, and the primary attitude of society towards 
it is sheer avoidance, taboo. But the mysterious has another 
face. To the mob the mob-leader is mysterious in his power 
of bringing luck and salvation; to himself also he is a wonder, 
since he wills, and lo ! things happen accordingly. He has 



HIGHER RELIGIONS] 



RELIGION 



67 



mana, power, and by means of this mana, felt inwardly by 
himself, acknowledged by his fellows, he stems the social impulse 
to run away from a mystery. Not without nervous dread- 
witness the special taboo to which the leader of society is subject 
— he draws near and strives to constrain, conciliate or cajole 
the awful forces with which the life of the group is set about. 
He enters the Holy of Holies; the rest remain without, and are 
more than half afraid of their mediator. In short, from the 
standpoint of lay society, the manipulator of the sacred is 
himself sacred, and shares in all the associations of sacred- 
ness. An anthropomorphism which is specifically a " mago- 
morphism " renders the sacred powers increasingly one with the 
governing element in society, and religion assumes an ethico- 
political character, whilst correspondingly authority and law 
are invested with a deeper meaning. 

The Abuse of the Sacred. — Lest our picture of primitive 
religion appear too brightly coloured, a word must be said on 
the perversions to which the exploitation of the sacred is liable. 
Envy, malice and uncharitableness are found in primitive 
society, as elsewhere, and in their behoof the mystic forces are 
not unfrequently unloosed by those who know how to do so. 
To use the sacred to the detriment of the community, as does, 
for instance, the expert who casts a spell, or utters a prayer, 
to his neighbour's hurt, is what primitive society understands 
by magic (cf. arungquiltha, above), and anthropology has no 
business to attach any other meaning to the word if it under- 
takes to interpret the primitive point of view. On the other 
hand, if those in authority perpetrate in the name of what their 
society holds sacred, and therefore with its full approval, acts 
that to the modern mind are cruel, silly or revolting, it is bad 
science and bad ethics to speak of vice and degradation, unless 
it can be shown that the community in which these things 
occur is thereby brought nearer to elimination in the struggle 
for existence. As a matter of fact, the earlier and more demo- 
cratic types of primitive society, uncontaminated by our 
civilization, do not present many features to which the modern 
conscience can take exception, but display rather the edifying 
spectacle of religious brotherhoods encouraging themselves by 
mystical communion to common effort. With the evolution 
of rank, however, and the concentration of magico-religious 
power in the hands of certain orders, there is less solidarity 
and more individualism, or at all events more opportunity 
for sectional interests to be pursued at other than critical times; 
whereupon fraud and violence are apt to infect religion. Indeed, 
as the history of the higher religions shows, religion tends in the 
end to break away from secular government with its aristocratic 
traditions, and to revert to the more democratic spirit of the 
primitive age, having by now obtained a clearer consciousness 
of its purpose, yet nevertheless clinging to the inveterate forms 
of human ritual as still adequate to symbolize the consecration 
of life — the quickening of the will to face life earnestly. 

Bibliography. — The number of works dealing with primitive 
religion is endless. The English reader who is more or less new to 
the subject is recommended to begin with E. B. Tylor, Primitive 
Culture (4th ed., Lond. 1903), and then to proceed to J. G. Frazer, 
The Golden Bough (2nd ed., Lond. 1900). The latter author's 
Lectures on the Early History of the Kingship (Lond. 1905) may also 
be consulted. Only second in importance to the above are VV. 
Robertson Smith, Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (2nd ed., 
Lond. 1904); A. Lang, Myth, Ritual and Religion (2nd ed., Lond. 
1899), and Magic and Religion (Lond. 1902); E. S. Hartland, The 
Legend of Perseus (Lond. 1 894-1 896) ; F. B. Jevons, An Introduction to 
the History of Religion (2nd ed., 1902); E. Crawley, The Mystic Rose 
(Lond. 1902), and The Tree of Life (Lond. 1905). The two last- 
mentioned works perhaps most nearly represent the views taken in 
the text, which are also developed by the present writer in " Pre- 
Animistic Religion," Folk-Lore xi. (1900), " From Spell to Prayer," 
Folk-Lore, xv. (1904), and " Is Taboo a Negative Magic?" Anthropo- 
logical Essays presented to E. B. Tylor (1907); L. R. Farnell, The 
Evolution of Religion (1905), follows similar lines. The present writer 
owes something to Goblet d'Alviella, Ilibberl Lectures (Lond. 1891), 
and more to H. Hubert and M. Mauss, " Essai sur la nature et la 
fonction du sacrifice," L'Annee sociologique, ii. ; and " Esquisse d'une 
theone g£n6rale de la magie," ibid. vii. If the reader wish to keep 
pace with the output of literature on this vast subject, he will 
find L' Annie sociologique (1896 onwards) a wonderfully complete 
bibliographical guide. 



Side by side with works of general theory, first-hand authorities 
should be freely used. To make a selection from these is not easy, 
but the following at least are very important: R. H. Codrington, 
The Melanesians (Oxford, 1891); W. B. Spencer and F. J. Gillen, 
The Native Tribes of Central Australia (Lond. 1899); The Northern 
Tribes of Central Australia (Lond. 1904); A. W. Howitt, The Native 
Tribes of South-Eastern Australia (Lond. 19:34); A. C. Haddon, 
Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres 
Straits (Cambridge, 1904, vol. v.) ; A. B. Ellis, The Tshi-Speaking 
Peoples of the Gold Coast (Lond. 1897); The Ewe-Speaking Peoples 
cf the Slave Coast (Lond. 1890); The Yoruba-Speaking Peoples 
cf the Slave Coast (Lond. 1894) ; Miss M. H. Kingsley, Travels in 
West Africa (Lond. 1898), and West African Studies (Lond. 1899); 
A. C. Hollis, The Masai (1905); W. Crooke, The North-West Pro- 
vinces of India (Lond. 1897); W. H. R. Rivers, The Todas (1906). 
An immense amount of valuable evidence is to be obtained in the 
Reports of the Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Wash- 
ington. See Nos. 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, II, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 
and specially J. O. Dorsey, A Study of Siouan Cults, in No. 11 ; A. C. 
Fletcher, The Hako, in No. 22; and M. C. Stevenson, The ZuHi 
Indians, in No. 23. Though dealing primarily with a more advanced 
culture, J. J. M. de Groot, The Religious System of China (1892-1901), 
will be found to throw much light on primitive ideas. Finally let 
it be repeated that there is offered here no more than an introduc- 
tory course of standard authorities suitable for the English 
reader. (R. R. M.) 

B. The Higher Religions 

Various phenomena associated with the religions of the 
lower culture will be found discussed in the articles on Animism; 
Fetishism; Magic; Mythology; Prayer; Ritual; Sacrifice; 
and Totemism. In this article religions are treated 
from the point of view of morphology, and no attempt can be 
made in the allotted limits to connect them with the phases 
of ritual, sociological or ethical development. See the separate 
articles on each religious system, and the separate headings for 
different forms of ritual. 

1. Developments of Animism. — Animism is not, indeed, 
itself a religion; it is rather a primitive kind of philosophy 
which provides the intellectual form for the interpretation 
alike of Man and of Nature. It implies that the first great 
step has been taken for distinguishing between the material 
objects — whether the conscious body, or the rocks, trees and 
animals — and the powers that act in or through them. The 
Zufiis of New Mexico, U.S.A., supposed " the sun, moon and 
stars, the sky, earth and sea, in all their phenomena and elements, 
and all inanimate objects as well as plants, animals and men, 
to belong to one great system of all-conscious and interrelated 
life, in which the degrees of relationship seem to be deter- 
mined largely, if not wholly, by the degrees of resemblance." 1 
If the earliest conception is that of an obscure undifferentiated 
animation (panvitalism) , the analysis of the human person into 
body and spirit with the corresponding doctrine of " object- 
souls " (e.g. the tornait, or " invisible rulers " of every object 
among the Eskimo) 2 constitutes an' important development. 
Matter is no longer animated or self-acting; it is subject to 
the will of an agent which can enter or quit it, perhaps at its 
own pleasure, perhaps at the compulsion of another. The 
transition has usually been effected ages before the higher 
religions come into view; but it has left innumerable traces 
in language and custom. Thus the Vedic hymns, which ex- 
hibit the deposits of so many stages of thought, are founded 
ultimately on the conception of the animation of nature. The 
objects of the visible world are themselves mighty to hurt or 
help. The springs and rivers, the wind, the sun, fire, the 
Earth-Mother, the Sky-Father, are all active powers. The 
animals, domesticated or wild, like the horse or cow, the guardian 
dog, the bird of omen, naturally share the same life, and are 
approached with the same invocation. The sacred energy 
is also discerned in the ritual implements, in the stones for 
squeezing the soma-juice, and the sacrificial post to which 
animals were bound; nay, it was even recognized in fabricated 
products like the plough (the " tearer " or " divider "), the 

1 F. H. Cushing, on " Zuni Fetiches " in Second Annual Report 
of the Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, 1883, p. 9. 

* Dr. Franz Boas, in the Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of 
Ethnology, 1888, p. 591. 



68 



RELIGION 



(HIGHER RELIGIONS 



war-car, the drum, quiver, bow and axe. The Earth-Mother 
and Sky-Father are to be found again and again in religions, 
at various stages of development, as co-ordinating conceptions 
which comprehend the universe. 1 Sometimes one is more 
prominent, sometimes the other. In many cases the Sky has 
been already resolved into the visible firmament and its lord 
and owner, like the Yoruban Olorun or the Finnic Ukko. The 
consort of Ukko is Maan-emo, " mother of the earth," or maan 
emanta, " mistress of the earth." But the rare expression 
mdan-ema, " Mother-earth," still used in the ancient lays, 2 
points to the older type of belief in the animation of the pro- 
ductive soil. So the Peruvians designated the Earth as Pacha- 
mama, " mother of (all) things." In Egypt the relation was 
curiously reversed; the earth-god Keb was the husband of 
Nut, the sky, represented sometimes as a woman, overarching 
the earth and supported on hands and feet, sometimes as a 
gigantic cow, upheld on the outstretched hands of Shu, the 
atmosphere. 3 When earth and sky were still unseparated, 
Shu thrust himself between them and raised Nut to the heights. 
So in the New Zealand myth, Rangi and Papa, Sky and Earth,, 
who once clave together in the darkness, were rent asunder 
by the forest-god Tane-mahuta, who forced up the sky far 
above him. 4 The most elaborate presentment of this mode 
of thought is to be seen in the organized animism of the ancient 
state religion of China, where the supreme power is lodged 
in the living sky (Tien). 6 Tien was originally the actual firma- 
ment. In the Shi-King it is addressed in prayer as " great 
arfd wide," as " vast and distant "; it is even " blue " (Pt. II. 
v. 6, 5). So it is the ancestor of all things; and Heaven and 
Earth are the father and mother of the world. From the 
imperial point of view the sky bore the name of_ Ti, " ruler," 
or Shang Ti, "supreme ruler" (emperor); and later com- 
mentators readily took advantage of this to discriminate between 
the visible expanse and the indwelling spirit, producing a 
kind of Theism. But the older conception still holds its own. 
" Why " (says Edkins, Religion in China, 95), " they have been 
often asked, should you speak of those things which are dead 
matter, fashioned from nothing by the hand of God, as living 
beings? And why not? they have replied. The Sky pours 
down rain and sunshine; the Earth produces corn and grass. 
We see them in perpetual movement, and we therefore say 
that they are living." Tien Ti, Fu Mu, " Heaven and Earth, 
Father and Mother," are conjoined in common speech, and are 
the supreme objects of imperial worship. The great altar 
to Heaven, round in shape like the circuit of the sky, and 
white as the symbol of the light principle (Yang), stands in 
the southern suburb of Peking in the direction of light and 
heat. The altar to the Earth is dark and square, on the north 
side of the city, the region of yin, the principle of cold and 
gloom. Associated with the Sky are tablets to the sun and 
moon, the seven stars of the Great Bear, the five planets, 
the twenty-eight constellations, and all the stars of heaven; 
tablets to clouds, rain, wind and thunder being placed next 
to that of the moon. With the Earth are grouped the tablets 
to the five lofty Mountains, the three Hills of perpetual peace 
and the four Seas, the five celebrated Mountains and the four 
great Rivers. 6 The ancient ritual (Chow Li) carefully graded 
the right of sacrifice from the viceroys of provinces down to 
the humblest district-superintendent who offered to the spirits 
of his district, the hills, lakes and grains. With these spirits 
ranged in feudal order in two vast groups beneath Heaven and 
Earth is associated a third class, those of human beings. They 
are designated by the same name, shin; and they are in- 

1 The Japanese name is Ame-tsuchi, " heaven and earth," a trans- 
lation of the Chinese ten-chi, Aston, Shinto (1905), p. 35. 

2 Castr^n, Finnische Mythologie, p. 86. 

3 Erman, Handbook of Egyptian Religion (1907), pp. 8, 12. 
* Sir George Grey, Polynesian Mythology (1855), pp. 1-4. 

6 The English "Heaven" has acquired a quasi-personal mean- 
ing, and is usually employed as its equivalent, but, like the Jewish 
use (e.g. Luke xv. 18), tends to carry too definite religious associa- 
tions with it. 

6 Blodget, on " The Chinese Worship of Heaven and Earth," 
Journ. of the American Oriental Society, xx. p. 58 ff . 



extricably mingled with the operations of nature. So in the 
Vedic hymns the departed " Fathers " inhabit the three zones 
of earth, air and sky; they are invoked with the streams and 
mountains of this lower earth, as well as with the dawns and 
the sky itself; even cosmic functions are ascribed to them; 
and they adorn the heaven with stars. The Chinese concep- 
tion of the Shin under the name of Shin-to (Chinese tao) or 
" spirits'-way " profoundly influenced Japanese thought from 
the 6th century a.d. onwards; and the great Shinto revival of 
the 1 8th century brought the doctrine again into prominence. 
The Japanese Kami are the " higher " powers, the superi, 
conceived as acting through nature on the one hand and govern- 
ment on the other. Just as the emperor is kami, and provincial 
officers of rank, so also mountains, rivers, the sea, thunder, 
winds, and even animals like the tiger, wolf or fox, are ail kami. 1 
The spirits of the dead also become kami, of varying character 
and position; some reside in the temples built in their honour; 
some hover near their tombs; but they are constantly active, 
mingling in the vast multitude of agencies which makes every 
event in the universe, in the language of Motowori (1730-1801), 
the act of the Kami. They direct the changing seasons, the 
wind and the rain; and the good and bad fortunes of individuals, 
families and states are due to them. 8 Everywhere from birth 
to death the entire life of man is encompassed and guided 
by the Kami, which are sometimes reckoned at 8,000,000 in 
number. 

2. Transition to Polytheism. — In such ways does the Poly- 
daemonism of early faith survive in the modern practice of 
religion. The process of enrolling the spirits of the dead in the 
ranks of what may be more or less definitely called " gods " 
may be seen in the popular usages of India at the present day, 
or traced in the pages of the Peking Gazelle under the direction 
of the Board of Rites, one of the most ancient branches of 
Chinese administration. Whether the higher polytheisms were 
produced in this fashion out of the cultus of the dead, may, 
however, be doubted. Many influences have doubtless contri- 
buted, and different races have followed different lines of 
development. No definite succession like the series of ages 
marked by the use of stone, bronze and iron can be clearly 
marked. But there must always have been some correspondence 
between the stages of social advance (or, in certain cases, of 
degeneration) and the religious interpretation of the world. 
The formation of clans and tribes, the transitions from the 
hunting to the pastoral life, and from the pastoral to the 
agricultural — the struggle with forest and swamp, the clearings 
for settlement, the protection of the dwelling-place, the safety 
of flocks and herds, the production of corn, — the migration of 
peoples, the founding of colonies, the processes of conquest, 
fusion, and political union — have all reacted on the elaboration 
of the higher polytheisms, before bards and poets, priesthoods 
and theological speculators, began to systematize and regulate 
the relations of the gods. Certain phases of thought may be 
more or less clearly indicated ; certain elements of race, of 
local condition, of foreign contact, may be distinguished with 
more or less historic probability; but no single key can explain 
all the wide diversity of phenomena. Broadly speaking it 
may be said that a distinction may be drawn between " spirits " 
and " gods," but it is a distinction of degree rather than of kind, 
obvious enough at the upper end, yet shading off into manifold 
varieties of resemblance in the lower forms. Some writers 
only recognize friendly agencies as gods; but destructive 
powers like the volcano, or the lords of the underworld, cannot 
be regarded as the protectors of the life of man, yet they seem in 
many mythologies to attain the full personalised stature of 
gods with definite names. Early Greek religion recognized 
a class of gods of Aversion and Riddance, d-TOTp&iraioi and 
aTcnronvaioi. Neither the spirit nor the god is conceived as 

' So the epithet 'il might be applied in Hebrew to men of might, 
to lofty cedars, or mountains of unusual height, as well as to the 
Supreme Being. 

8 See E. M. Satow, " Revival of Pure Shinto," Trans. As. Soc. 
of Japan, vol. iii. pt. 1 (1875), Appendix, p. 26. 



HIGHER RELIGIONS] 



RELIGION 



6 9 



immaterial. They can take food, though the crudest form of 
this belief soon passes into the more refined notion that they 
consume the impalpable essence of the meals provided for them. 
The ancient Indian ritual for the sacrifice to the Fathers required 
the officiating priest to turn away with bated breath that he 
might not see the spirits engaged upon the rice-balls laid out 
for them. The elastic impalpable stuff of the spirit-body is 
apparently capable of compression or expansion, just as Athena 
can transform herself into a bird. The spirits can pass swiftly 
through the air or the water; they can enter the stone or the 
tree, the animal or the man. The spirit-land of the Ibo on the 
Lower Niger had its rivers, forests or hills, its towns and roads, 
as upon earth: 1 the spirits of the Mordvinian mythology, 
created by Chkal, not only resembled men, they even possessed 
the faculty of reproduction by multiplication. 2 The Finns 
ascribed a haltia or genius to each object, which could, how- 
ever, guard other individuals of the same species. This is the 
beginning of the species-god, and implies a step of thought 
comparable to the production in language of general terms. 
These protecting spirits were free beings, having form and 
shape, but not individualized; while above them rose the higher 
deities like the forest-god Tapio and his maiden Hillervo, 
protectress of herds, or Ahto the water-god who gradually took 
the place of Vesi, the actual element originally conceived as 
itself divine, and ruled over the spirits of lakes and rivers, wells 
and springs. 3 The Finns came to apply to the upper gods the 
term Yumala which originally denoted the living sky; the 
Samoyedes made the same use of Num, and the Mongols of 
Tengri. 4 Above the innumerable wongs of the Gold Coast rose 
Nyongmo, the Sky-god, giver of the sunshine and the rain. 
The Yoruba-speaking peoples generalized the spirits of mountain 
and hill into Oke, god of heights; and the multitude of local 
sea-gods on the western half of the slave coast was fused into 
one god of the Ocean, Olokun. 5 The Babylonian theology 
recognized a Zi or " spirit " in both men and gods, somewhat 
resembling the Egyptian " double " or ka; spirits are classed as 
spirits of heaven and spirits of earth; but the original identity 
of gods and spirits may be inferred from the fact that the same 
sign stands before the names of both. 6 Out of the vast mass of 
undifferentiated powers certain functional deities appear; and 
the Kami of Japan to-day who preside over the gilds and crafts 
of industry and agriculture, over the trees and grasses of the 
field, the operations of the household, and even the kitchen- 
range, the saucepan, the rice-pot, the well, the garden, the 
scarecrow and the privy, have their counterparts in the lists of 
ancient Rome, the Indigitamenta over whose contents Tertullian 
and Augustine made merry. The child was reared under the 
superintendence of Educa and Potina. Abcona and Adeona 
taught him to go out and in. Cuba guarded him when he was 
old enough to exchange a cradle for a bed. Ossipaga strengthened 
his bones; Levdna helped him to get up, and Stalina to stand. 7 
There were powers protecting the threshold, the door and the 
hinge: and the duties of the house, the farm, the mill, had each 
its appointed guardian. But such powers were hardly persons. 
The settler who went into the woods might know neither the 
name nor the sex of the indwelling numen; " si deus si dea," 
" sive mas sive femina," ran the old formulae. 8 So the Baals 

1 Leonard, The Lower Niger and its Tribes (1906), p. 186. 
5 Mainof, " Les Restes dc la mythologie mordvine," Journal tic la 
Soc. Finno-Ougrienne, v. (1889), p. 102. 

3 Castren, Finn. Mythol. pp. 92 ff., 72. 

4 Ibid. pp. 7, 14, 17, 24. 

' A. B. Ellis, The Yoruba-speaking Peoples (1894), P- 2 &9- 

'Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria (1898), p. 181. The 
Zunis applied the term a-hai " All-Life " or " the Beings " to all 
supernatural beings, men, animals, plants, and many objects in 
nature regarded as personal existences, as well as to the higher 
anthropomorphic powers known as " Finishers or Makers of the 
Paths of Life," Report of Bureau of Ethnol. (1883), p. 11. On the 
distinction between " gods " and " spirits," cf. Ed. Meyer, Gesch. 
desAlterthums, 2nd ed. Band i. crstc Ilaelfte (1907), p. 97 ff. 

7 Tert. De Anima, 39 Aug. De Civ. Dei, iv. 1 1, &c. 

•On the Dei Certi and the Dei Incerti, see von Domaszewski 
in the Archivfiir Religionswiss., x. (1907), pp. 1-17. 



of the Semitic peoples constituted a group of powers fertilizing 
the land with water-springs, the givers of corn and wine and oil, 
out of which under conditions of superior political development 
a high-god like the Tyrian Baal, the majestic City-King, might 
be evolved. The Celts who saw the world peopled with the 
spirits of trees and animals, rocks, mountains, springs and rivers, 
grouped them in classes like the Dervonnae (oak-spirits), the 
Niskai (water-spirits), the Proximae, the Matronae (earth- 
goddesses) 9 and the like. Below the small band of Teutonic 
divinities were the elves of forest and field, the water-elves or 
nixes and spirits of house and home. The Vedic deities of the 
nobler sort, the shining devas, the asuras (the " breathers " or. 
living, perhaps to be identified with the Scandinavian <zsir) 
rose above a vast multitude of demonic powers, many of them 
doubtless derived from the local customs and beliefs of the native 
races whom the immigrant Aryans subdued. In the earliest 
literary record of Greek religion Homer distinguishes between 
the deos and the Salficov, the personalized god and the numen 
or divine power. In Homer the element of time is definitely 
recognized. The gods are the "Immortals." They are born, and 
their parentage is known, but they do not die. Zeus is not 
self-existent in the sense in which the Indian Brahma is 
svayambhil, but certain questions have been by implication 
asked and answered, which the demonology of the savage has 
not yet raised. But behind Homer stretches the dim scene of 
pre-Hellenic religion, and the conflict of elements " Pelasgic," 
oriental and Hellenic, out of which the Homeric religion emerged; 
and beneath the Homeric religion how many features of the 
religion of ghosts and nature-spirits survived in popular usage 
and the lower cults! 10 When Herodotus (ii. 53) tried to trace 
the origin of the beliefs around him, he found his way back to 
an age before Hesiod or Homer, when the gods were nameless. 
To that age the traditions preserved at Dodona bore witness; 
and the designations of special groups like the 6eol 
likyuFTOi, deoi /j.ei\ixioi., deol ■Kpa&oina.i, or, possibly, the 
Venerable Goddesses (deal creixvai) of Athens, point to a mode 
of thought when the divine Powers were not definitely in- 
dividualized. They are just at the point of transition from the 
ranks of spirits to the higher classes of the gods. As they had 
no names, they had no relations. Nor had any images yet been 
made of them. They were associated with hallowed trees, 
with sacred stones and pillars, out of which came the square 
rough-hewn Hermae which were anointed with oil like the sacred 
stone attributed by legend to Jacob at Bethel. 11 By what 
processes the Hellenic immigration introduced new deities and 
the Greek pantheon was slowly formed, can only be conjecturally 
traced with the help of archaeology. But Herodotus and 
Aeschylus were well aware that the religion of Greece had not 
been uniformly the same; and the gods whom they knew had 
been developed out of intercourse with other peoples and the 
succession of races in the obscure and distant past. 

3. Polytheism. — The lower and unprogressive religions 
practically remain in the polydaemonistic stage, though not 
without occasionally feeling the stimulus of contact with higher 
faiths, like some of the West African peoples in the presence 
of the Mahommedan advance. Among the more progressive 
races, on the other hand, continual processes of elevation and 
decline may be observed, and the activities of the greater gods 
are constantly being enriched with new functions. Personal 
or social experiences of the satisfaction of some desire or escape 
from some danger are referred to some particular deity. Ele- 
ments of race-consciousness help to shape the outlook on nature 
or life: and slight differences of linguistic use in the coining of 
descriptive terms sometimes lead to the multiplication of divine 
forms. Exacter observation of nature; closer attention to its 
contrasts of life and death, or light and darkness, or male and 

9 Cf. the groups of " Mothers " in modern India, of various origins, 
Crooke, Popular Religion and Folklore (2), i. 1 1 1. 

10 Cf. Andrew Lang, Myth, Ritual and Religion; and Miss Harrison, 
Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion. 

11 Cf. A. J. Evans, on The Mycenean Tree and Pillar Cult (1901), 
and Sir W. M. Ramsay, " Religion of Greece and Asia Minor," in 
Hastings' Diet, of the Bible, extra vol. 



JO 



RELIGION 



[HIGHER RELIGIONS 



female; the distinction between its permanent objects, and its 
occasional or recurring operations; the recognition that behind 
sudden manifestations of power, like the thunder-storm, there 
are steady forces and continuous cosmic agencies at work — lead 
to the gradual rise of the higher deities. And from the social 
side the development of law, the influence of city life, the 
formation of priesthoods, the connexion of particular deities 
with the fortunes of dynasties or the vicissitudes of nations, 
the processes of migration, of conquest and political fusion, the 
deportations of vanquished peoples, even the sale of slaves t o 
distant lands and the growth of trade and travel, all contribute 
to the processes which expand and modify different pantheons, 
and determine the importance of particular deities. In the 
midst of the bewildering variety, where all types co-exist 
together and act and react on each other, it is impossible to do 
more than point out some obvious groups receiving their special 
forms chiefly from the side (i) of nature, (2) of human life, 
and (3) from moral or theological speculation. Divine persons, 
objects or powers, connected with ritual, are not here considered, 
such as the Brahman priests who claimed to be manushyadevdh 
(human-gods), or the sacred soma-juice which grew by strange 
analogies into a mysterious element, linking together heaven 
and earth. 

I. On the side of Nature the lowest rank (1) seems to belong 
to what Usener has designated " momentary " or " occasional " 
gods. 1 They embody for the time being a vague consciousness 
of the divine, which is concentrated for some single act into an 
outward object, like a warrior's spear or the thunderbolt, 2 or 
the last sheaf of corn into which the Corn-Mother has been 
driven. 3 (2) Above these, to use again Usener's nomenclature, 4 
are the " special " or " functional " gods, " departmental 
gods," as Mr Lang has called them. Such were some of the 
deities of the Indigitamenta already compared with the Japanese 
Kami. Among them, for example, were twelve deities of 
ploughing and harvest operations, who were invoked with 
Tellus and Ceres. (3) Another class may be seen in the species- 
deities previously named; the Samoan gods which could become 
incarnate as a heron or an owl, did not die with particular birds. 
A dead owl was not a dead god; he yet lived in all other owls. 5 

(4) The worship of trees, plants and animals is a particular 
phase of the wider series of nature-cults, only named here because 
of its frequency and its obvious survivals in some of the higher 
polytheisms, where, as in Egypt, the Apis bulls were worshipped; 
or where, as in Mesopotamia, the great gods are partly symbolized 
by animal forms; or where, as in Israel, Yahweh might be 
represented as a bull; or where, as in Greece, such epithets as 
Dendrites and Endendros preserved traces of the association 
of Dionysus and Zeus with vegetation; while sacred animals 
like the serpents of Aesculapius were preserved in the temples. 6 

(5) The higher elemental gods sometimes, like the sun, as the 
Indian Surya, the Egyptian Re, the Babylonian Shamash 
(Samas), the Greek Helios, retain their distinct connexion with 
the visible object. It was naturally more easy for a relatively 
spiritual worship to gather round a god whose name did not 
immediately suggest a familiar body. No one ever thought of 
confessing sin, for instance, to a river. But the daily survey 
of the sun (occasionally also the function of the moon as measurer 
of time), together with his importance for life, secured him a 
high moral rank; and Re, united with the Theban Ammon, 
became (under the New Empire) the leading god of Egypt for 
a thousand years, " He who hath made all, the sole One with 
many hands." Other deities, like Zeus, rise to the head of a 
monarchical polytheism, in which their physical base is almost, 

1 Gotternamen, Bonn, 1896, p. 279 ff. But cp. Dr Farncll's 
eseay " On the Place of the Sonder-Gotter in Greek Polytheism," in 
Anthropological Essays presented to Edward Burnett Tylor (1907), 
p. 81. 

5 Ibid. pp. 285, 286. 

1 Frazer, The Golden Bough (2), ii. 170-1. 

4 Gotternamen, p. 75. 

'Turner, Samoa, 1884, p. 21. 

' Cf. de Visser, Die nicht Menschen-Gestaltigen Gbtter der Griechen 
(Leidsn, 1903). 



if not quite, forgotten in cosmic and moral grandeur. The gods 
are often arranged in groups, three, seven and twelve being 
frequent numbers. Egyptian summaries recognized gods in 
the sky, on earth and in the water; gods of the north and 
south, the east and west, gods of the field and the cities. Indian 
theologians classified them in three zones, earth, air and sky. 
Babylonian speculation embraced the world in a triad of divine 
powers, Anu the god of heaven, Bel of earth and Ea of the deep; 
and these became the symbols of the order of nature, the divine 
embodiments of physical law. 7 Sometimes the number three is 
reached by the distribution of the universe into sky, earth and 
underworld, and the gods, of death claim their place as the 
rulers of the world to come. Among these deities all kinds of 
relationships are displayed; consorts must be provided for the 
unwedded, and the family conception, as distinct from the regal, 
presents a divine father, mother and child. The Ibani in 
Southern Nigeria recognized Adum the father-god, Okoba the 
mother-god and Ebercbo the son-god. 8 In Egypt, Osiris, 
Isis and Horus proved an influential type. Perhaps at a 
relatively earlier stage maternity alone is emphatically asserted, 
as in the figure of the Cretan Mother, productive without 
distinctly sexual character. 9 Or, again, maternity disappears, 
while parenthood survives, and causation is embodied in a 
universal " Father of all that are and are to be," like the Indian 
Brahma in the days of Gotama the Buddha." 10 

II. On the human side polytheism receives fresh groups in 
connexion with the development of social institutions and 
national feeling. (1) In the family the hearth-fire is the scene 
of the protecting care of deity; the gods of the household watch 
over its welfare. Each Roman householder had his Genius, the 
women their Junones. These stood at a higher level than the 
" occasional gods," having permanent functions of supervision. 
(2) From the household a series of steps embodied the divine 
power in higher forms for social and political ends. Hestia 
presided over cities; there was even a common Hestia for all 
Greece. The fravashi or ideal type, the genius of both men and 
gods in the Zend Avesta (possibly connected originally with the 
cultus of the dead u ) , rises in successive ranks from the worshipper's 
own person through the household, the village, the district and 
the province, up to the throne of Ahura himself. 12 The Chinese 
Shin were similarly organized; so (less elaborately) were the 
Japanese Kami'' 3 and the Roman lares, the old local land-gods, 
found their highest co-ordinating term in the Lares Augusti, 
just as the Genius was extended to the legion and the colony, 
and finally to Rome itself. (3) In the case of national deities 
the tie between god and people is peculiarly close, as when 
Yahweh of Israel is pitted against Chemosh of Amnion (Judges 
xi. 24). The great gods of Greece, in their functions as "saviours " 
and city-guardians, acquire new moral characters, and become 
really different gods, though they retain the old names. Ashur 
rises into majestic sovereignty as the " Ruler of all the gods," 
the supreme religious form of Assyrian sway: when the empire 
falls beneath the revived power of Babylon, he fades away and 
disappears. (4) The earthly counterpart of the heavenly 
monarch is the divine king, who may be traced back in Egypt, 
for example, to the remotest antiquity, 14 and who survives to-day 
among the civilized powers in the emperor of Japan (anciently 
Arahito-gami, "incarnate Kami"). "To the end of time," 

7 Jastrow, Rel. of Babylonia, p. 432. 

8 Leonard, The. Lower Niger and its Tribes, p. 354. 

9 Cf. Farnell, Cults of Greece, iii. 295. 

10 Digha Nikaya, i. 18. 

11 This is denied by Tiele, Religion im Alter turn, tr. Gehrich, ii. 
(1898), p. 259. 

12 Cf. Yasna, Ixxi. 18; S.B.E. xxxi. p. 331; and Soderblom's essay 
in the Rev. de I'hist. des religions, xxxix. (1899), pp. 229, 373. 

13 Hirata's morning prayer in the last century included 800 
myriads of celestial kami, 800 myriads of ancestral kami, the 150c 
myriads to whom are consecrated the great and small temples in 
all provinces, all islands, and all places of the great land of eight 
islands, &c. 

14 Moret, Du caractere religieux de la royaute pharaonique (1902). 
For instances in the lower culture see Frazer, Golden Bough (2), 
i. 140 ff. 



HIGHER RELIGIONS] 



RELIGION 



7i 



said Motowori (18th century), " the Mikado is the child of 
the Sun-goddess." (5) The dead hero (historical or 
mythic) signalizes his power by gracious saving acts; and 
Heracles, Asclepius, Amphiaraus, and others pass into the 
ranks of the gods, which are thus continually recruited from 
below. 

III. A third great group rises out of the sentiments and 
affections of man, or the moral energies which he sees working 
in human life. (1) The Vedic Craddhd, " faith," the Greek 
Melameleia, "repentance," 1 the Latin Spes, and a band of other 
figures, represent the dispositions of the heart; Nemesis and 
Nike and Concordia and their kin belong to a somewhat different 
sphere, the divine powers avenging, conquering, harmonizing 
the counterparts of the " departmental " gods in the field of 
moral agencies. (2) Over these theological speculation erects 
a few lofty and impressive forms; sometimes below the highest, 
like Vohu Mano, " the Good Mind " of Ahura Mazda; or the 
Bodhisattva Avalokitecvara, who vowed not to enter into final 
peace till every creature had received the saving truth; some- 
times supreme, like Brahma or Prajapati (" lord of creatures ") 
in the early Brahmanic theology; or Adi Buddha, or the 
Zervan Akarana, " boundless time," of a kind of Persian 
gnosticism; or the 0e6s wpioros whose worship appears among 
other syncretistic cults of the Roman empire. 

4. The Order of Nature. — Polytheism is here on the way to 
monotheism, and this tendency receives significant support 
from the recognition of an order in nature which is the ground 
and framework of social ethics. Not only does a sky-god like 
Varuna, or a sun-god like the Babylonian Shamash, survey all 
human things, and take cognizance of the evil-doer, but the daily 
course of the world is itself the expression of an intellectual and 
moral power. In the Chinese combination of Heaven and Earth 
as the parents and nourishers of all things, the energy and 
action lie with Tien, Earth being docile and receptive. Tien 
is intelligent and all-observing, and its " sincerity " or stead- 
fastness, displayed in the courses of the sun and moon and the 
succession of the seasons, becomes the basis of right human 
conduct, personal and social. The " way " of Heaven, the 
" course " of Heaven, the " lessons " of Heaven, the law or 
" decree " {ming) of Heaven, are constantly cited as the pattern 
for the emperor and his subjects. This conception is even 
reflected in human nature: " Heaven in giving birth to the 
multitude of the people, to every faculty and relationship affixed 
its laws " {Shi King, III. iii. 6; cf. IV. iii. 2, tr. Legge), and the 
" Grand Unity " forms the source of all moral order {Li Ki, in 
Sacred Books of the East, xxvii. p. 387). Indian thought pre- 
sented this Order in a semi-personal form. The great elemental 
gods imposed their laws {dhaman, dharman, vrata) on the 
visible objects of nature, the flow of rivers, the march of the 
Heavenly bodies across the sky. But the idea of Law was 
generalized in the figure of Rita (what is " fitted " or " fixed "; 
or the " course " or " path " which is traversed), whose Zend 
equivalent asha shows that the conception had been reached 
before the separation of the Eastern Aryans produced the 
migrations into India and Iran. 2 In the Rig Veda the gods 
(even those of storm) are again and again described as " born 
from the Rita," or born in it, according to it, or of it. Even 
Heaven and Earth rejoice in the womb or lap of the Rita. In 
virtue of the mystic identity between the cosmic phenomena 
and sacrifice, Rita may be also viewed as the principle of the 
cultus; and from that sphere it passes into conduct and 
acquires the meaning of morality and is equated with what is 
" true." The fundamental idea remains the same in the Zend 
Asha, its philological counterpart, but it is applied with a 
difference. Its form is more personal, for Asha is one of the six 
Holy Immortals round the throne of Ahura Mazda (Auramazda). 
In the primeval conflict between the powers of good and evil, 
the Bounteous Spirit chose Asha, the Righteous Order which 

1 Worshipped at Argos. Usener, Gotternamen, p. 366. 

2 Cf. Max Miiller, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion 
(Hibbert Lect., 1878), v., and the Vedic treatises of Ludwig, Ber- 
gaigne and Wallis. 



knit the world together and maintained the stars. 3 The im- 
mediacy of the relation between Ahura and Asha is implied 
in the statements that Ahura created Asha and that he dwells 
in the paths which proceed from Asha; and when he created 
the inspired word of Reason, Asha consented with him in his 
deed. In its ritual form Asha becomes the principle of sacrifice, 
and hence of holiness, first ritual and then moral. Like Rita, 
it rises into an object of worship, and in its most exalted aspect 
{Asha vahista, the " best " Asha, most excellent righteousness) 
it is identified with Ahura himself, being fourth among his 
sacred names {Ormazd Yasht, § 7; S.B.E. xxiii. p. 25). 
Egyptian speculation, in like manner, impersonated the con- 
ceptions of physical and moral order as two sides cf a funda- 
mental unity in the goddess Maat. Derived from the verb ma, 
" to stretch out," her name denoted the ideas of right and rule, 
and covered the notions of order, law, justice and truth, which 
remained steadfast and unalterable. Mythologically she was 
the daughter (or the eye) of the sun-god Re; but she became 
Lady of Heaven and Queen of Earth, and even Lady of the 
land of the West, the mysterious habitation of the dead. Each 
of the great gods was said to be lord or master of Maat; but 
from another point of view she " knew no lord or master," and 
the particular quality of deity was expressed in the phrase 
anx em maat, " living by Maat," which was applied to the gods 
of the physical world, the sun and moon, the days and hours, 
as well as to the divine king. She was solemnly offered by the 
sovereign to his god; and the deity replied by laying her within 
the heart of his worshipper "to manifest her everlastingly 
before the gods." So in the famous scene of the weighing of the 
soul, which first appears pictorially under the New Empire, she 
introduces the deceased before the forty-two assessors of the 
heavenly judge, Osiris, and presides over the scale in which his 
actions and life are weighed. From the zenith to the realm 
of the departed she is the "queen of all gods and goddesses."' 1 
The Hellenic polytheism of Homer and Hesiod is already at 
work upon similar ideas, and a whole group of mythic per- 
sonifications slowly rises into view representing different phases 
of the same fundamental conception. Themis (root 0e=Sanskr. 
dha, as in dhaman) appears in Homer as the embodiment of 
what is fit or right; 5 she convenes or dismisses assemblies, she 
even keeps order at the banquet of the gods. Next, Hesiod 
supplies a significant biography. She is the daughter of Ouranos 
and Gaia; and after Metis she becomes the bride of Zeus. 6 
Pindar describes her as born in a golden car from the primeval 
Oceanus, source of all things, to the sacred height of Olympus 
to be the consort of Zeus the saviour; and she bears the same 
august epithet, as the symbol of social justice and the refuge 
for the oppressed. 7 Law was thus the spouse of the sovereign 
of the sky, but Aeschylus identified her with the Earth 
(worshipped at Athens as Ge-Themis), not only the kindly 
Mother, but the goddess who bound herself by fixed rules or 
laws of nature and life. 8 For the cultus of the earth as the 
source of fertility was associated with the maintenance of the 
family, with the operations of agriculture and the social order 
of marriage. So Themis became the mother of the seasons; 
the regular sequence of blossom and fruit was her work; and 
Good Order, Justice and Peace were her offspring. 9 By such 
conceptions the Hellenic polytheism was moralized; the 
physical character of the greater gods fell into the background, 
and the sculptor's art came to the aid of the poet by completely 
enduing them with personality. 

8 Yasna, xxx. 5 ; Sacred Books of the East, xxxi. p. 30 ; cf . pp. 44, 
51, 248. 

4 Cf. Renouf, Hibbert Lectures, p. 119; Brugsch, Rel. und Mythol., 
p. 477; Wiedemann, Ann. du Mus£e Guimet, x. p. 561; Budge, 
Gods of Egypt, i. p. 416. 

5 Cf. Aids Bktuarts, Od. xvi. 403; cf. Apollo, Horn. Hymn. 394. 

6 Theog. 135, 901. 

7 Fr. 6, 7 ; 01. viii. 29. 

8 Farnell, however, supposes that Ge acquired the cult-appellative 
through her prophetic character {Cults of the Greek States, iii. p. 12). 
The union of Zeus and Themis is, then, a later equivalent of the 
marriage of Zeus and Earth (ibid. p. 14). 

• Paus. v. 17; Hes. Theog. 901 ; Pindar, 01. xiii. 6; fat. 26. 



72 



RELIGION 



[HIGHER RELIGIONS 



5. Transition to Monotheism. — From the higher Polytheism 
an easy step leads to some form of Monotheism. The transition 
may be effected in various ways. Max Muller observed the 
Vedic poets addressing themselves to the several objects of 
their devotion; as if each occupied the field alone. Varuna or 
Indra was for the time being the only god within the worshipper's 
view; and to this mode of thought he gave the name Heno- 
theism. 1 It obviously reappears elsewhere, as it is the natural 
attitude of prayer, and may be seen in the pious homage of 
the pilgrims to the Virgin of Loretto or Einsiedeln. Pfleiderer 
employed the word to denote a relative monotheism like that 
of the early religion of Israel, whose teachers demanded that 
the nation should worship but one god, Yahweh, but did not 
deny the existence of other gods for other peoples. Yet once 
again the term has been applied to characterize a whole group 
of religions, like the Indo-Germanic, which are ultimately 
founded on the unity of the divine nature in a plurality of 
divine persons. A designation of such doubtful meaning it 
seems better (with Chantepie de la Saussaye) to abandon. But 
the unifying process may advance along different lines. The 
deities of different local centres may be identified; many such 
combinations took place in Egypt, and Isis in late days served 
to her votaries as the unitary principle which appeared in one 
figure after another of whole pantheons. Again, the gods may 
be viewed as a collective totality, like the " All-gods " of the 
Vedic poets, or as at Olympia where there was a " common 
altar for all the gods " (cf. the frequent Roman dedication in 
later days, " Jovi optimo maximo caeterisque dis immortalibus ")• 
Or the relation between the inferior deities and the most exalted 
may be conceived politically and explained by Tertullian's 
formula, " Imperium penes unum, officia penes multos." One 
particular god may be eminent enough, like Zeus, to rise above 
all others, and supply cultivated thought with a name for the 
supreme power; and this may be strengthened by the national 
motive as in the case of Israel. Or philosophic theology may 
penetrate to an abstract conception of deity, like the Babylonian 
'iluth, or the Vedic devatva and asuratva; and some seer may 
have the courage and insight to formulate the principle that 
" the great asuratva of the devas is one " (R.V. iii. 55. 1). " The 
One with many names " was recognized alike in India and in 
Greece; " iroWQv bvonaruv fiop^rj fila," says Aeschylus, almost 
in the words of the Vedic poet. 2 Historians - have usually 
recognized only three monotheistic religions, Judaism", Chris- 
tianity and Islam. The Christian apologists of the 2nd 
century, however, found plenty of testimony to their doctrine 
of the unity of God in the writings of Greek poets and philo- 
sophers; it was a commonplace in the revival under the 
Empire; and among the group of religions embraced under the 
name Buddhism more than one form must be ranked as mono- 
theistic. The idealist philosophy of the Prajfia Paramita in the 
system of the " Great Vehicle " declared that " every pheno- 
menon is the manifestation of mind " (Beal, Catena, p. 303). 
In the " Lotus of the Good Law " {S.B.E. xxi.) the Buddha is 
the " Father of the World," " Self-born " or Uncreate (like the 
eternal Brahma of the Hindu theology), the protector of all 
creatures, the Healer (Saviour) of the sickness of their sins. 
These types have reappeared in Japan. Nichiren taught a 
philosophical monism in the 13th century which is the basis of 
a vigorous sect at the present day; and the " True Sect of the 
Pure Land," founded by his older contemporary Shin-ran, and 
now the most numerous, wealthy and powerful of the Buddhist 
denominations, has dropped the original Gotama altogether out 
of sight, and permits worship to Amida alone, the sublime 
figure of " Boundless Light," whose saving power is appro- 
priated by faith. Here is a monotheism of a definite and clear- 
cut type, arising apparently by spontaneous development apart 
from any external impulse. 3 On the other hand, the mono- 

1 Or Kathenotheism, a term which did not succeed in gaining 
permanent support, Hibbert Lect., p. 271. 

2 R.V. i. 164. 46, " Men call him Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Agni. . . . 
Poets name variously what is but one." 

3 Cf. Carpenter, " Japanese Buddhism," in Hibbert Journal, 
April 1906, p. 522. 



theism of Judaism was subject to serious qualifications. An 
exuberant demonology admitted all kinds of interfering causes 
in the field of human life. Above man on earth rose rank after 
rank of angels in the seven heavens. These were of course 
created, but they were in their turn the agents of the phenomena 
of nature, " the angels of the spirit of fire and the angels of the 
spirit of the winds, and the angels of the spirits of the clouds and 
of darkness and of snow and of hail and of hoarfrost, and the 
angels of the voices and of the thunder and of the lightning, and 
the angels of the spirits of cold and of heat, and of winter and of 
spring and of autumn and of summer " (Jubilees, tr. R. H. 
Charles, ii. i). These powers are of a well-marked animistic 
type, and correspond to the Chinese Shin, save that they were 
not incorporated in the cultus. Higher in rank came various 
med ating forms, like Wisdom, Memra (the Word) or Shekinah 
(the Presence), more or less definitely personalized. Mahom- 
medanism still recognizes innumerableyiraw peopling the solitudes 
of the desert, and over the grave of the deceased saint a little 
mosque is built, and prayers are offered and miracles performed. 4 
Christianity has, in like manner, in the course of its long and 
eventful history, admitted numerous agencies within the sphere 
of superhuman causation. The Virgin, the angelic hierarchy, 
the saints, have received the believer's homage, and answered 
his petitions. Theology might draw subtle distinctions between 
different forms of devotion; but, tried by the comparisons ol 
the anthropologist, the monotheism even of historical Chris- 
tianity cannot be strictly maintained. 

6. Classification. — In the panorama of religious development 
thus briefly sketched, the different stages constantly appear to 
shade off into one another, and any one of the higher seems to 
contain elements of all the rest. This is the great difficulty 
of classification. All religions, even the most conservative and 
traditional, are in constant flux, they either advance or decay. 
In these processes, which do not take place at equal rates 
in different cases, all kinds of survivals remain lodged, and 
embarrass every attempt to fix the place of specific religions 
in any general course of development. The theologian, the 
philosopher, the historian, have all tried their hands at dis- 
tribution, (i.) The 18th-century divine who divided religions 
into True and False grimly remarked that the second chapter 
was much the longer of the two. 6 The corresponding distinction 
into Natural and Revealed breaks down in view of the fact that 
revelation by dream and oracle, by inspired seer or divine 
teacher and law-giver, is a practically universal phenomenon 
in more or less distinctly defined forms, (ii.) Philosophy, in 
the person of Hegel, classified religion in a threefold form : (a) the 
religion of Nature, (b) the religion of Spiritual Individuality, 
(c) the Absolute Religion (Christianity). 6 The subdivisions of 
this scheme have been long since abandoned, as the progress of 
knowledge rendered them untenable. K. F. A. Wuttke, however, 
adopted its fundamental idea 7 and distinguished three periods 
or phases: (1) the objective, producing the religions of nature; 

(2) the subjective, God as comprehended in the individual mind; 

(3) God as Absolute Spirit. In the same way Dr Edward Caird 8 
recognizes three similar stages: (1) objective consciousness, 
the divine in nature; (2) self-consciousness, the divine in man 
(e.g. Judaism, Stoicism, and modern philosophy of the type of 
Kant); (3) God-consciousness, where God is above the contrast 
of subject and object, yet is revealed in both (Christianity), 
(iii.) On the historical side numerous bases have been suggested. 
(1) Max Muller proposed to group religions ethnologically by 
tests of language. This had the obvious advantage of lifting 
two great families into prominence, the Semitic and the Indo- 
Germanic. The Semitic peoples were closely bound together 
by common types of thought and civilization, and produced 
three of the leading religions of the world, Judaism, Christianity 
and Islam. But a glance at the table of Indo-Germanic religions 

4 Cf . Goldziher, Rev. de I'Hist. des Rel. ii. 257 ; Weir, The Shaikhs 
of Morocco (1904). 

6 Broughton, Diet, of all Religions (1745), preface. 

6 Philosophy of Religion (Eng. trans.), i. p. 266. 

7 Geschichte des Heidenthums (1852), i. p. 95. 

8 Evolution of Religion (1893), lect. vii. 



HIGHER RELIGIONS] 



RELIGION 



73 



drawn up by Tiele (Ency. Brit., oth ed., vol. xx. p. 360) will 
show what diversified products are blended together. Why 
should philosophical Brahmanism, or the Buddhism which 
reacted against it, be associated with so undeveloped a form as 
• the religion of the ancient Latin settlers in mid-Italy? And 
why, on the other hand, should the religions of the lower culture, 
which are practically of a common type, be separated genea- 
logically into numerous independent families? (2) Whitney 1 
found the most important distinction to lie between religions 
which were the collective product of the wisdom of the com- 
munity, race-religions as they might be called, and those which 
proceeded from individual founders. But, as Tiele pointed 
out, the "individual" element cannot be eliminated from the 
" race-religion," where each myth has been first uttered, each 
rite first performed, by some single person. And the founder 
who enters history with an impressive personality can only do 
his work through the response made to him by the insight and 
feeling of his time. (3) Kuenen disengaged another character- 
istic, the scope and aim of any given religion; was it limited to 
a particular people, or could it be thrown open to the world? 
On this foundation the higher religions were classed as national 
or universal, the latter group being formerly supposed to include 
Buddhism, Christianity and Mahommedanism. Here, once 
more, the student is confronted with many qualifications. A 
missionary religion like Mithraism, which established itself all 
the way from Western Asia to the borders of Scotland, was 
certainly not " national." Judaism and Brahmanism both 
passed beyond the confines of race. The Confucian morality 
could be adopted without difficulty in Japan. In other 
words, there was either a definite tendency to expansion, or the r e 
was no impediment in the religion itself when circumstances 
promoted its transplantation. Further, there are elements of 
Islam, like the usages of the hajj (or pilgrimage to the sacred 
places at Mecca), the dryness of its official doctrine and the 
limitations of its real character as indicated in the Wahhabi 
revival, which so impair its apparent universalism that Kuenen 
found himself obliged to withdraw it from the highest rank 
of religions. 2 (4) Professor M. Jastrow, jun., starting from the 
relation of religion to life, distinguishes four groups, the religions 
of savages, the religions of primitive culture, the religions of 
.advanced culture and the religions which emphasize as an ideal 
the coextensiveness of religion with life. It may, however, be 
doubted whether the fundamental assumption of such a scheme, 
viz. that in the life of the savage religion plays a comparatively 
small part, can be satisfactorily established. The evidence 
rather implies that, so far as the sanctions of religion affect the 
savage at all, they affect him with unusual force. In the absence 
of other competing interests his religious beliefs and duties 
occupy a much larger share of his attention than the votaries 
of many higher faiths bestow on theirs; and though his ethical 
range may be very limited, yet the total influence of his religion 
in determining for him what he may do and what he may not, 
brings the greater part of conduct under its control. The savage 
who finds himself encompassed by taboos which he dare not 
break, lives up to his religion with a faithfulness which many 
professing Christians fail to reach. (5) There remains a broad 
distinction between religions that are in the main founded on 
the relation of man to the powers of Nature, and those based 
on ethical ideas, which partly corresponds to the philosophical 
division already cited. This enabled Professor Tiele to arrange 
the chief religions in certain groups, starting from the primitive 
conception of the common life of the objects of the surrounding 
scene: — * 

1 Princeton Review, May 1881, quoted by Tiele, Elements of the 
Science of Religion (1897), i. p. 42. 

* National Religions and Universal Religions (Hibbert Lectures, 
1882). 

3 Ency. Brit., 9th ed., art. " Religions " ; Elements of the Science of 
Religion, vol. i. (1897), with some corrections communicated by letter 
to Professor Chantepie de la Saussaye, Religionsgesch. (3rd ed., 1905), 
vol. i. p. 11. 

4 For a long series of suggested bases of classification see Raoul de 
la Grasserie, Des Religions Comparers au Point de Vue Sociologique 
(1899), chap. xii. ; cf. further E. von Hartmann, Religionsphilosophie 



I. Nature Religions — 

1. Polyzoic Naturalism (hypothetical). 

2. Polydemonistic-magical religions under the control of 

Animism (religions of savages). 

3. Purified or organized magical religions. Therianthropic 

Polytheism. 

(a) Unorganized (religions of the Japanese, Dravidians, 

Finns, Esths, the ancient Arabs, the ancient 
Pelasgi, the Oid-Italian peoples, the Etruscans (?), 
the Old-Slavs). 

(b) Organized (religions of the half-civilized peoples of 

America, ancient Chinese state-religion, religion 
of the Egyptians). 

4. Worship of beings in human form, but of superhuman 

power and half-ethical nature. Anthropomorphic poly- 
theism (religions of the Vedic Indians.the ancient Persians, 
the later Babylonians and Assyrians,the advanced Semites, 
the Kelts, Germans, Hellenes, Greeks and Romans). 
II. Ethical Religions (spiritualistic ethical religions of Revelation)— 

1. National Nomistic (nomothetic) Religious Communions 

(Taoism and Confucianism, Brahmanism, Jainism.Mazde- 
ism, Mosaism and Judaism, the two last already passing 
into 2). 

2. Universalistic Religious Communions(Buddhism, Christian- 

ity: Islam with its particularistic and nomistic elements 
only partially belongs to this group). 4 

7. Revelation. — The second group in this division practically 
corresponds to the second stage recognized by Caird; but it 
rests upon a somewhat different basis, the conception of revela- 
tion addressed to the conscience in the form of religious law. 
Neither Taoism nor Confucianism, indeed, makes this claim. 
The Tao-teh-king, or book of aphorisms on " the Tao and virtue " 
ascribed to Lao Tsze, is wholly unlike such a composition as 
Deuteronomy; and the disciples of Confucius carefully refrained 
from attributing to him any kind of supernatural inspiration 
in his conversations about social and personal morality. The 
sacred literatures of India and Israel, however, present many 
analogies, and emerge out of a wide range of phenomena which 
have their roots in the practices of the lower culture. The 
belief that the Powers controlling man's life are willing upon 
occasion to disclose something of their purpose, has led to 
widespread rites of divination, which Plato described as the 
" art of fellowship between gods and men," and the Stoics 
defended on grounds of a priori religious expectation as well as 
of universal experience. Through the dream the living was put 
into communication with the dead, which sometimes embodied 
itself in peculiar and pathetic literary forms, such as the 
Icelandic dream-verses imparted by the spirits of those who had 
been lost at sea or overwhelmed by the snow; and a whole 
series of steps leads up from necromancy to prophecy and oracle, 
as the higher gods become the teachers of men. The gods of 
revelation are naturally not the highest, since they appear as the 
interpreters of one superior to themselves. The revealing 
agency may be only a voice like Aius Locutius, to which the 
Romans raised a temple; or, like Hermes, he may be the 
messenger of the gods; or, like Marduk, pre-eminently the god 
of oracles in Babylonia, he may be the son of Ea, the mighty 
deep encompassing the earth, source of all wisdom and culture. 
To Marduk the prophet-god Nabu in his turn became son, and 
his consort Tashmlt (" causing to hear ") was the personification 
of Revelation. Egyptian thought ascribed this function to 
Thoth, who played somewhat different parts in different systems, 
but emerges as the representative of the immanent intelligence 

(1888); Siebeck, Lehrbuch der Religionsphilosophie (1893); Dorner, 
Grundriss der Religionsphilosophie (1903). Siebeck proposed to 
distribute religions in three grades: (1) Nature-Religions, i.e. those 
of the lower culture; (2) Morality-Religions in various grades and 
stages, e.g. Mexicans and Peruvians, Arcadians, Chinese, Egyptians, 
Hindus, Persians, Germans, Romans, with the Creek religion in the 
highest rank; (3) Religions of Redemption (Judaism forming the 
transition from the second group), Buddhism in the sense of world- 
negation, and, positively, Christianity. Bousset, What is Religion? 
(1907) reckons Platonism along with Buddhism. For criticism of 
Siebeck's scheme see Tiele, Elements of the Science of Religion, vol. i. 
(1897), pp. 62, 65. Pfleiderer, Religion and Historic Faiths (1907), p. 88, 
recognizes more clearly the difficulty of carrying almost any division 
through the whole field, without frequent breach of historical 
connexions. 



74 



RELIGION 



(HIGHER RELIGIONS 



of the world, brother of Maat and the giver of laws and culture 
to man. 1 Thoth " the thrice-great " passed into Hermes 
Trismegistus whom Christian fathers could recognize, 2 when the 
supremely beautiful figure of Greek theology, Apollo, had lost 
his dignity and ceased to be desired. Thoth was a voluminous 
author, and the collection of forty-two books which bore his 
name was a kind of primitive cyclopaedia of theology, astronomy, 
geography and physiology. Apollo proclaims at his birth that 
he will declare the counsel of Father Zeus to men. 3 But his 
utterances have been only casually preserved. A special 
literature of oracles did indeed arise; the divine words were 
collected and the circumstances which produced them were 
recorded; and had Delphi become in fact the centre of Greece, 
as Piato conceived it, here might have been the nucleus of 
a scripture. Theories of inspiration lurk behind the rich 
vocabulary of Greek prophecy; the seer is tvdtos, deo\iprTo$, 
BtiyKvtvcTos, deofoprjTOS, and Bakis and Musaeus give their 
names to sacred verses. The story of the Sibylline books 
in Rome, on the other hand, shows the growth of the idea 
of authority. They are deposited in a temple, in charge of 
a small sacred college; new deities and rites are introduced 
under their sanction; when they are accidentally destroyed, 
envoys are sent to the East and fresh collections are made; 
these are in their turn purged, the false are discarded and the 
true reverently preserved. By what method the books were 
consulted is not known; but they exhibit the idea of a sacred 
canon in process of formation. The theologians of India 
guarded their ancient hymns with the utmost care. A vast 
literary apparatus was devised for their protection. The famous 
Purusha-hymn (R. V. x. 90) already claimed a divine origin for 
the three Vedas, the Rik, the Saman and the Yajush. The 
" triple knowledge " was sometimes derived from the " Lord of 
Creatures " Prajapati — one of the unifying forms of Brahmanical 
theology — through Vac or " speech." The Veda, that is to say, 
had existed in the divine mind ere it was made known to men, 
and as such it belonged to the realm of the deathless and the 
infinite. The tribal poets were supposed to have " seen " the 
heavenly originals; elaborate arguments were devised to explain 
how the names of particular objects like rivers and mountains 
could have existed in the Eternal; while the grounds of belief 
in the infallibility of the sacred verses were enforced with the 
double weight of philosophy and tradition. Buddhism repudi- 
ated the authority of the Veda, but found it needful to supply 
its place; and the word of the omniscient Teacher, faithfully 
reported by his disciples and guaranteed by concurrent tradi- 
tions, became the rule of belief for the new Order. Nor were 
the authors of the scriptures whose fragments are preserved in 
the Zend Avesta less conscious of their divine value. The 
ancient Gathas, which were supposed to be the composition of 
Zarathustra himself, received the homage of later worshippers. 4 
Daena, the ideal personification of law and religion, is the object 
of praise and sacrifice. She dwells on high in the Heavenly 
Home, the radiant' " Abode of song," but Zarathustra summons 
her thence, begs for her fellowship, and prays her for righteous- 
ness of thought, speech and deed. 6 She is produced by Vohu 
Mano, the " Good Thought " of Ahura, one of the six Holy 
Immortals; she thus belongs to the ideal creation before the 
earth and its inhabitants; 6 but how the heavenly Daena was 
wrought by Zarathustra into written form is nowhere stated. 
This conception of pre-existent spiritual counterparts was not 
without influence on the later theology of Israel. The sacred 
law (Torah) was the earthly reproduction of a heavenly Torah 
which had no origin in time, and constituted the sum of ideal 
wisdom into which God looked when he would create the world. 7 

1 Cf. Maspero, Dawn of Civilization, p. 204; Wiedemann, Religion 
of the Ancient Egyptians, p. 227 ; Budge, Gods of Egypt, i. p. 415. 

s Aug. De Civ. Dei, xviii. 39, attributes the origin of philosophy to 
his era. 

3 Horn. Hymn. i. 

* Yasna, lv. ; S.B.E. xxxi. p. 294. 

6 S.B.E. xxiii. p. 264. 

* Bundahis, i. 25; S.B.E. v. p. 9. 

7 Midrash Bereshith Rabba, tr. Wunsche, I. i. ver. i. 



Even Mahommedanism felt the spell of the same modes of 
thought. The idea of revelation was expressed by " sending 
down " (from nazala, to descend) ; that which passed from 
heaven to earth was a pre-existent word, eternal as God Himself. 
Allusions in particular passages of the Koran to the " mother 
of the scripture," the invisible originals of the prophet's speech, 
led to the doctrine of its uncreated being. The whole history 
of religion presents perhaps no more singular spectacle than the 
mosques of Bagdad in the middle of the 9th century filled with 
vast crowds of twenty and thirty thousand of the faithful, 
assembled to discuss the dogmas of the created and the un- 
created Koran. 8 

8. Ethics and Eschatology. — The second distinguishing mark 
in Tiele's higher group is implied in the term " Ethical." By 
this it is not intended to assert that moral ideas are wanting in 
the so-called " naturist " religions. Anthropologists have, it 
is true, taken widely different views of the relation of ethics 
and religion, and the stage at which an effective alliance between 
them might be recognized. Like all problems oi origins, the 
question is necessarily extremely obscure, and cannot be definitely 
settled by historical evidence. Broadly speaking, however, it 
may be said that the attempt to show that certain savages are 
destitute of moral feeling cannot be sustained; 3 and evidence 
has been already cited above (in the section on Primitive 
Religion) proving the varied and immediate effects of religion 
on the life of the lowest tribes. Continuous interaction marks 
the slow courses of advance. At a very early period in social 
development the rules of conduct are referred to some higher 
source. Thus among the tribes of south-eastern Australia 
described by Mr Howitt, 10 the native rites and laws handed 
dc wn from generation to generation were supposed to have beeh 
first imparted by some higher being such as Nurrundere, who 
made all things on the earth; or Nurelli, who created the whole 
country, with the rivers, trees and animals; or Daramulun, 
who (like Nurrundere) bestowed weapons on the men, and 
instituted the rites and ceremonies connected with life and death. 
As religion advances with improved social organization, a series 
of figures, partly human, partly divine, embodies the idea that 
the command of nature implied in the progress of the arts is 
due to some kind of instruction from above, and that the obli- 
gations of law are of more than human origin. The Algonquin. 
Manibozho and Quetzalcoatl of Mexico stand for a whole group 
of typical personalities in North and Central America. The 
mysterious fish-man Oannes,who taught the primitive inhabitants 
of Babylonia, according to Alexander Polyhistor, has been 
identified with Ea, god of the deep, the source of wisdom, culture 
and social order. Zeus gave laws to Minos; Apollo revealed 
the Spartan constitution to Lycurgus; Zaleucus received the 
laws for the Locrians from Athena in a dream; Vishnu and 
Manu condescended to draw up law-books in India. The 
worship of ancestors has again and again gathered around it 
powerful and ethical influences, emphasizing the parental and 
filial relations, and strengthening the mutual obligations of 
communal life. Hirata answered by anticipation the modern 
reproach against Shinto, founded on the absence of any definite 
morality connected with it, by laying down the simple rule, 
" Act so that you need not be ashamed before the Kami of the 
unseen." u The mythological embodiments of the connexion 
of law in nature with the social and moral order have already 
been briefly noted: a few words may be said in conclusion on 
another product of the union of religion and ethics, viz. the 
doctrine of judgment after death. That this doctrine is not 
essential to a highly moralized religion is clear from the fact that 
it formed no part of the earlier Hebrew prophecy. Judgment, 
indeed, was an inevitable outcome of the sovereignty of Yahweh, 
but it would be passed upon the nation in the immediate scene 
of its misdoings; and even when the scope of the divine doom 

8 Von Kremer, Die Herrschenden Ideen des Islams, p. 233 ff. 

' See Westermarck, Origin and Development of Moral Ideas, /ol.i. 
(1906), p. 125, on Lord Avebury's conclusions. 

10 Native Tribes of S.E. Australia (1904), pp. 488, 489, 495, 543. 

11 Satow, " Revival of Pure Shinto," Trans. As. Soc. Japan, vol. iii. 
Appendix, p. 87. 



HIGHER RELIGIONS] 



RELIGION 



75 



was extended to include the nations of the world, it was still 
upon the living that it would alight. The seers of Israel were 
content to dismiss their dead to a land of silence and darkness, 
the vast hollow gloom of the subterranean Sheol. 1 A far ruder 
outlook on life, however, which has again and again appealed 
to some form of the divine cognizance by means of the ordeal 
and the oath, frequently supplements the moral issues of this 
world by the judicial award of the next. Assuming the proper 
fulfilment of the ritual of death, ethics gradually extends its 
control over the future. At first the social distinctions of this 
life are simply continued hereafter: the chief remains a chief, 
the slave a slave; and the conditions of the future only prolong 
those of the present. In so far as tribal eminence depends on 
superior skill or courage or wisdom, the germs of ethical differ- 
entiation may be discovered even here. The process is carried 
further (i) in individual cases of retribution, when (as among 
the Kaupuis) crime within the tribe was punished, and a 
murderer becomes in the next life his victim's slave; 2 or 
(2) when service to the community received special reward, 
and warriors who had fallen in battle, women who had died in 
childbirth and merchants who had perished on a journey were 
sent in Mexico to the house of the sun. 3 As the social order 
acquires more definiteness and stability, the control of life by 
the gods tends to become more clearly moralized. This brings 
with it new standards independent of clan-customs or tribe- 
usage. Only the worst offences, however, at first draw down 
post-mortem punishment. The Homeric Erinyes chastise 
outrages on the poor, injuries to guests, failure to show the 
respect due to parents or to recognize the rights of age, in this 
life; only on perjury does the divine doom extend to the next. 4 
On the other hand, the Egyptian version of " the whole duty of 
man " in the famous 125th chapter of the Book of the Dead 
embraces a singular complex of ritual, social and personal 
sins, in which the inward states of lying, anger and ill-will are 
condemned along with murder, theft and adultery, beside 
violation of the times of offerings to the gods, or interference 
with the food of the blessed dead. The great judgment of 
Osiris formulates with the utmost precision the alliance between 
morals and religion. The doctrine established itself in Greek 
theology under the influence of Orphism, and supplied Plato 
with mythic forms for his " criticism of life." In India the 
union of morality and religion was effected in another manner. 
True, Yama, first of men to enter the world beyond, became the 
" King of Righteousness " before whose tribunal the dead must 
appear. But a new agency began to engage the speculations 
of thinkers, the moral values of action embodied in the Deed. 
" The deed does not perish," ran an early formula. 6 " A man is 
born into the world that he has made," said another: 6 and 
what was laid down first as a ritual principle survived as an 
ethical. Buddhism conceived men as constantly making their 
own world for good and ill; it took over from Brahmanism a 
whole series of heavens and hells to provide an exact adjustment 
in the future for the virtue or vice of the present; and its 
eschatologic confidence was one of the potent instruments 
of its success in countries which, like China and Japan, had 
developed no theories of retribution or reward beyond the grave. 
Along, a different line of thought the Iranian teachers, beholding 
the world divided between hostile powers, demanded, as the 
fundamental postulate of religion, the victory of the good. The 
conflict must end with the triumph of light, truth and right. 
The details of this remarkable scheme must be studied elsewhere 
(see Zoroaster). The award of the angel-judges at the Bridge 
of Assembly, soon after death, despatched the individual to his 
appropriate lot in the homes of Good or Evil Thought, Word 

1 Cf . Ezek. xxxii. 17-32; Ps. lxxxviii 3-4, 10, 11; Job x. 21-22, 

and many other passages. 

2 Watt, Journ. Anthrop. Institute, xvi p. 356. Cf. Codrington, 
The Melanesians (1 891), p. 274. 

3 Bancroft, Native Races of tlie Pacific States of N. America, iiL 

P- 532. 

4 II. 111. 278-79; xix. 258-60. 

6 S.B.E. ii. p. 271 ; xiv. pp. 116, 310. 
6 Ibid. xli. p. 181. 



and Deed. But at length the long struggle would draw to an 
end. The great " divine event," the frasho-kereli, the renova- 
tion, would set in. A new heaven and a new earth would be 
created: a general resurrection should take place; the powers 
of evil should be overthrown and extinguished; and hell should 
be brought back for the enlargement of the world. Eschatology 
has again and again expressed the alliance between ethics and 
religion. It remains for the future to show how long that 
alliance will require its support. 

Bibliography. — (For primitive religion see preceding section.) 
Only a selection of the copious and ever-increasing literature can 
here be named. Monographs on the separate religions are named 
in their respective articles. 

" 1. After Hume's Natural Hist, of Religions (1757) earlier surveys 
will be found in Meiners, Allgem. Krit. Gesch. der Religionen (2 vols., 
1806-7); Constant, De la religion (5 vols., 1824-31); Baur, 
Symbolik und Mythologie (3 vols., 1825); Creuzer, Symbolik und 
Mythol. der alien Volker s (1837); F. D. Maurice, The Religions of 
the World (1846) ; Hardwick, Christ and other Masters (4 vols., 1855- 
59); Dollinger, The Gentile and the Jew (2 vols., 1863). On Myth- 
ology and Religion English study was chiefly influenced by F. Max 
Muller, Essay on Comparative Mythology (1856); Chips from a 
German Workshop (1867 onwards); Lectures on the Science of 
Language (2 vols., 1861-64) ; Contributions to the Science of Mythology 
(2 vols., 1897); cf. A. Lang, Modern Mythology (1897). Earlier 
Anthropology, Bastian, Der Mensch in der Gesch. (3 vols., Leipzig, 
i860); Waitz-Gerland, Anthropologic* (6 vols., Leipzig, 1877). 

2. Translations from the Scriptures of various religions. — Sacred 
Books of the East (49 vols., 1879 and onwards); Annates du Musee 
Guimet (1880 and onwards). 

3. Manuals, treatises and series in single or collective authorship. — 
C. P. Tiele, Outlines of the History of Religion, tr. Carpenter (London, 
1877); Gesch. der Religion im Alterthum, tr. Gehrich (2 vols., Gotha, 
1 895-98) ; Kompendium der Religions gesch., tr. Weber (Breslau, 1903) ; 
G. Rawlinson, Religions of the Ancient World (London, 1882); 
Religious Systems of the World, by various authors (London, 1890); 
Menzies, Hist, of Religion (1895); Orelli, Allgemeine Religionsgesch. 
(Bonn, 1899); Great Religions of the World, by various authors 
(1901); Bousset, Das Wesen der Religion (Halle, 1903); Eng. trans., 
What is Religion? (London, 1907) ; Chantepie de la Saussaye, 
Religionsgesch. 3 (2 vols., 1905); Achelis, Abriss der Vergleichenden 
Religionswissenschaft (Sammlung Goschen) ; " Die Orientalischen Re- 
ligionen " (in Die Kultur der Gegenwart), by various authors (1906) ; 
Pfleiderer, Religion und Religionen (Berlin, 1906) ; Eng. trans., Religion 
and Historic Faiths (London, 1907) ; Haarlem Series, Die Voornaamste 
Godsdiensten, beginning with Islam, by Dozy (1863 onwards); Soc. 
for Promotion of Christian Knowledge, Non-Christian Religions; 
Hibbert Lectures on The Origin and Growth of Religion (15 vols., 
beginning with F. Max Muller, 1878); Aschendorff's series, Darslel- 
lungen aus dem Gebiete der Nichtchristl. Religionsgesch. (14 vols., 
Munster i.w., beginning 1890); Handbooks on the History of 
Religions, ed. Jastrow, beginning with Hopkins on India (1895); 
American Lectures on the History of Religions, beginning with Rhys 
Davids on Buddhism (1896); Constable's series, Religions, Ancient 
and Modern (London, beginning 1905), brief and popular; J. 
Freeman Clarke, Ten Great Religions (Boston, 1871); S. Johnson, 
Oriental Religions, &c. (3 vols.); India* (London, 1873); China 
(Boston, 1877); Persia (1885); Lippert, Die Religionen der Euro- 
paischen Cultur-Volker (Berlin, 1881); A. Reville, ProUgom. de 
I'hist. des rel. (Paris, 1881 ; Engl, trans., 1884); Les Rel. des peuples 
non-civilisis (2 vols., Paris, 1883); Rel. du Mexique (1885); Rel. 
chinoise (1889); Letourneau, L' Evolution religieuse* (Paris, 1898); 
Publications of the Hcole des hautes etudes, section des sciences 
religieuses ; and Annates du Musee Guimet, " Bibliotheque de 
Vulgarisation." 

4. Works bearing on history. — Fustel de Coulanges, La CM 
antique (Paris, 1864); Lubbock, Origin of Civilization (1870); 
Whitney, Oriental and Linguistic Studies (New York, 1872 and 1874) ; 
Brinton, The Religious Sentiment (1876); Myths of the New World* 
(New York, 1876); Essays of an Americanist (1890); Religions of 
Primitive Peoples (1897); Keary, Outlines of Primitive Belief 
(London, 1882); Leblois, Les Bibles et les iniiiateurs de I'humanile 
(4 vols, in 7 parts, Paris, 1883); Goblet d'Alviella, Introd. & Vhist. 
genSrale des religions (Brussels, 1887); La Migration des symboles 
(Paris, 1891); Hartland, The Legend of Perseus (3 vols., London, 
1894); Ratzel, The History of Mankind, tr. Butler (3 vols., London, 
1896); Usener, Gotternamen (Bonn, 1896); Grant Allen, The 
Evolution of the Idea of God (London, 1897); Forlong, Short Studies 
in the Science of Comp. Religions (London, 1897) ; Lang, The Making 
of Religion (1898); Lyall, Asiatic Studies* (2 vols., London, 1809); 
Baissac, Les Origines de la religion* (Paris, 1899); Marillier, 
" Religion," Grande Encyclop. xxviii. (Paris, 1900) ; Maculloch, 
Comparative Theol. (1902); Dieterich, Mutter Erde (Leipzig, 1905); 
S. Reinach, Cultes, mythes et religions (2 vols., Paris, 1905-6); 
Frazer, Adonis, Attis and Osiris (1906); Ed. Meyer, Gesch. des 
Alterthums*, I. i. " Einleitung:Elementeder Anthropologic " (1907). 

5. Psychology, Philosophy and History.— Hegel, Philosophy of 



7 6 



REMAGEN— REMAINDER 



Religion (Eng. trans., 3 vols., 1895) ; Pfleiderer, Die Religion (2 vols., 
Berlin, 1869J ; Philos. of Religion, vol. iii. (Engl, trans., London, 
1888); Religionsphilosophie 3 (Berlin, 1896); F. Max Miiller, Introd. 
to the Science of Religion (1873); Hibbert Lectures (1878); Gifford 
Lectures (4 vols., 1889---93) ; Spencer, Principles of Sociology, i. (1876) ; 
Fairbairn, Studies in the Philosophy of Religion and History (1876); 
E. von Hartmann, Das Relig. Bewusstsein der Menschheit (Berlin, 
1882); Rauwenhoff, Weisbegeerte van den Godsdienst (Leiden, 1887); 
E. Caird, The Evolution of Religion (2 vols., 1893) ; Siebeck, Lehrbuch 
der Religionsphilosophie (Freiburg i. B., 1893); Tiele, Elements of 
the Science of Religion (2 vols., 1897); Raoul de la Grasserie, Des 
religions comparies an point de vue sociologique, and De la psycholo- 
gie des religions (Paris, 1899) ; Starbuck, Psychology of Religion 
(London, 1900); Jastrow, The Study of Religion (London, 1901); 
W. James, The Varieties of Religious Experience (1903) ; Dorner, 
Grundriss der Religionsphilosophie (Leipzig, 1903); Girgensohn, 
Die Religion, ihre Psychischen Formen und ihre Zentralidee (Leipzig, 
1903) ; Wundt, V 'olket psychologie, Bd. ii. Mythus und Religion 
(1905-6); Ladd, The Philosophy of Religion (2 vols., London, 1906); 
Hoffding, The Philosophy of Religion (Engl, trans., 1906) ; Wester- 
maarck, The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas, i. (London, 
1906) ; Hobhouse, Morals in Evolution (2 vols., London, 1906). 

6. Periodicals, &c. — Revue de I' hist, des religions (Paris, 1880 on- 
wards); Folk-Lore. (London, 1890 onwards); Archiv. fiir Religions- 
wissenschaft (Freiburg i. B., 1898 onwards); L' Annie sociologique 
(Paris, 1898 onwards); Actes du premier congris international 
d'histoire des religions (Paris, 1900); Verhandlungen des II. Inter- 
nationalen Kongr esses fiir Allgemeine Religions geschichte in Basel 
(1904). . 

Much information on the growth and present condition of the 
study has been collected by Jordan, Comparative Religion, its 
Genesis and Growth (Edinburgh, 1905). (J. E. C.) 

REMAGEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine 
Province, on the left bank of the Rhine, 12 m. above Bonn, by 
the railway from Cologne to Coblenz, and at the junction of the 
Ahr valley railway to Adenau. Pop. (1900) 3534. The (Roman 
Catholic) parish church is remarkable for a gate (Romertor) 
with grotesque sculptures of animals, dating from the 12th 
century. Archaeologists have variously interpreted its original 
purpose, whether as church door, city gate or palace gate. The 
industry of the place is almost wholly concerned with the 
preparation of wine, in which a large export trade is done. 
Just below the town, on a height overlooking the Rhine, stands 
the Apollinaris church, built 1839-53 on the site of a chapel 
formerly dedicated to St Martin, and containing the relics of 
St Apollinaris. It is a frequent place of "pilgrimage from all 
parts of the lower Rhine. According to legend, the ship con- 
veying the relics of the three kings and of Bishop Apollinaris 
from Milan to Cologne in 1164 could not be got to move away 
from the spot until the bones of St Apollinaris had been interred 
in St Martin's chapel. 

Remagen (the Rigomagus of the Romans) originally belonged 
to the duchy of Jiilich. Many Roman antiquities have been 
discovered here. In 1857 a votive altar dedicated to Jupiter, 
Mars and Mercury was unearthed, and is now in the Provincial 
Museum at Bonn. 

See Kinkel, Der Fuhrer durch das Ahrthal nebst Beschreibung der 
Stadt Remagen (2nd ed., Bonn, 1854). 

REMAINDER, REVERSION. In the view of English 
law a remainder or reversion is classed either as an incorporeal 
hereditament or, with greater correctness, as an estate in 
expectancy. That is to say, it is a present interest subject to 
an existing estate in possession called the particular estate, 
which must determine before the estate in expectancy can 
become an estate in possession. A remainder or reversion is 
in strictness confined to real estate, whether legal or equitable, 
though a similar interest may exist in personalty. The par- 
ticular estate and the remainder or reversion together make up 
the whole estate over which the grantor has power of disposition. 1 
Accordingly a remainder or reversion limited on an estate in fee 
simple is void. The difference between a remainder and a 
reversion, stated as simply as possible, is that the latter is that 
undisposed-of part of the estate which after the determination 
of the particular estate will fall into the possession of the original 
grantor or his representative, while a remainder is that part of 
the estate which under the same circumstances will fall into the 
possession of a person other than the original grantor or his 
1 Compare the life-rent and fee of Scots law. 



representative. A reversion, in fact, is a special instance of a 
remainder, distinguishable from it in two important respects: 
(1) a reversion arises by operation of law on every grant of an 
estate where the whole interest is not parted with, whereas 
a remainder is created by express words; (2) tenure exists 
between the reversioner and the tenant of the particular estate, 
but not between the latter and the remainderman. Accordingly 
rent service is said to be an incident of a reversion but not of a 
remainder, and a reversioner could distrain for it at common 
law. A reversion may be limited upon any number of remainders, 
each of them as it falls into possession becoming itself a particular 
estate. A remainder or reversion may be alienated either by 
deed or by will. A conveyance by the tenant of a particular 
estate to the remainderman or reversioner is called a surrender; 
a conveyance by the remainderman or reversioner to the tenant 
is a release. 

Remainder. — Remainders are either vested or contingent. " An 
estate is vested in interest when there is a present fixed right of 
future enjoyment. An estate is contingent when a right of enjoy- 
ment is to accrue on an event which is dubious and uncertain. A 
contingent remainder is a remainder limited so as to depend on an 
event or condition which may never happen or be performed, or 
which may not happen or be performed till after the determination 
of the preceding estate " (Fearne, Contingent Remainders, 2, 3). 
Contingent remainders are of two kinds, those limited to uncertain 
persons and those limited on uncertain events. A grant by A to B 
for life, followed by a remainder in fee to the heir of C is an example 
of a contingent remainder. 2 Until the death of C he can have no 
heir. If C die during the lifetime of B, the contingent remainder 
of his heir becomes vested; if C survive B, the remainder is at 
common law destroyed owing to the determination of the par- 
ticular estate, for every remainder must have a particular estate 
to support it. In the case of a contingent remainder, it must become 
vested during the continuance of the particular estate or at the 
instant of its determination. This rule of law no doubt arose 
from the disfavour shown by the law to contingent remainders 
on their first introduction. They were not firmly established even 
when Littleton wrote in the reign of Edward IV. (see Williams, 
Real Property). The inconveniences resulting from this liability 
of contingent remainders to destruction were formerly overcome by 
the device of appointing trustees to preserve contingent remainders, 
at law. Equitable contingent remainders, it should be noticed, 
were indestructible, for they were supported by the legal estate. 
In modern times the matter has been dealt with by act of Parlia- 
ment. By the Real Property Act 1845, § 8, a contingent remainder 
is rendered capable of taking effect notwithstanding the deter- 
mination by forfeiture, surrender or merger of any preceding 
estate of freehold in the same manner as if such determination had 
not happened. The case of determination by any other means 
is met by the Contingent Remainders Act 1877. The act provides 
that a contingent remainder which would have been valid as a 
springing or shifting use or executory devise or other limitation 
had it not had a sufficient estate to support it as a contingent re- 
mainder is, in the event of the particular estate determining before the 
contingent remainder vests, to be capable of taking effect as though 
the contingent remainder had originally been created as a springing 
or shifting use or executory devise or other executory limitation. 
It will accordingly only be good if the springing use, &c. (for which 
see Trust), would be good. If the springing use be void as a breach 
of the rule against perpetuities (see Perpetuity), the remainder 
will likewise be void. Apart from this act, there is some un- 
certainty as to the application of the rule against perpetuities to 
remainders. The better opinion is that it applies to equitable 
remainders and to legal remainders expectant upon an estate for 
life limited to an unborn person. In the latter case the rule as 
applied to contingent remainders is somewhat different from that 
affecting executory interests. The period is different, the remainder 
allowing the tying up of property for a longer time than the execu- 
tory interest. There is also the further difference that the rule 
does not affect a contingent remainder if it become vested before 
the determination of the particular estate. An executory interest 
is void if it may transgress the rule, even though it do not actually 
do so. For the rule in Shelley's case, important, in connexion 
with remainders, see that title. 

The state laws of the United States affecting remainders will 
be found_ in Washburn, Real Property, ii. bk. ii. As a general 
rule contingent remainders have been rendered of little practical 
importance by enactments that they shall take effect as executory 
devises or shall not determine on determination of the particular 
estate. 

Reversion. — Unlike remainders, all reversions are present or 
vested estates. The law of reversion, like that of remainder, has 
been considerably modified by statute. It was formerly considered 



_ * A contingent remainder amounting to a freehold cannot be 
limited on a particular estate less than a freehold. 



REMAND— REMBRANDT 



77 



that on the grant of the reversion the tenant should have the 
opportunity of objecting to the substitution of a new landlord. 
It was therefore necessary that he should attorn tenant to the 
purchaser. Without such attornment the grant was void, unless 
mdeed attornment were compelled by levying a fine. The neces- 
sity of attornment was abolished by 4 & 5 Anne c. 16. Its only 
use at present seems to be in the case of mortgage. A mortgagor 
in possession sometimes attorns tenant to the mortgagee in order 
that the latter may treat him as his tenant and distrain for his 
interest as rent. The legal view that rent was incident to the 
reversion led at common law to a destruction of the rent by de- 
struction of the reversion. This would chiefly happen in the case 
of an under-tenant and his immediate reversioner, if the inter- 
mediate became merged in the superior reversion. To obviate 
this difficulty it was provided by the Real Property Act 1845, § 9, 
that, on surrender or merger of a reversion expectant on a lease, 
the rights under it should subsist to the reversion conferring the 
next vested right. The question as to what covenants run with the 
reversion is one of the most difficult in law. The rule of common 
law seems to have been that covenants ran with the land but not 
with the reversion, that is to say, the benefit of them survived to 
a new tenant but not to a new landlord. The effect of the act 
of 32 Hen. VIII. c. 34, and of the Conveyancing Act 1881, has been 
to annex to the reversion as a general rule the benefitof the rent 
and the lessee's covenants and the burden of the lessor's covenant. 
Merely collateral covenants, however, do not run with the reversion, 
but are regarded as personal contracts between lessor and lessee. 
At common law on the severance of a reversion a grantee of part 
of the reversion could not take advantage of any condition for 
re-entry, on the ground that the condition was entire and not 
severable. This doctrine was abolished by one of Lord St Leonard's 
Acts in 1859. The Conveyancing Act 1881, § 12, now provides 
in wider terms than those of the act of 1859 that on severance of 
the reversion every condition capable of apportionment is to be 
apportioned. In order to guard against fraudulent concealment 
of the death of a cestui que vie, or person for whose life any lands are 
held by another, it was provided by 6 Anne c. 18 that on applica- 
tion to the court of chancery by the person entitled in remainder, 
reversion or expectancy, the cestui que vie should be produced to 
the court or its commissioners, or in default should be taken tobe 
dead. In Scotland reversion is generally used in a sense approaching 
that of the equity of redemption of English law. A reversion is 
either legal, as in an adjudication, or conventional, as in a wadset. 
Reversions are registered under the system established by the Act 
1617 c. 16. ,,.,,, 

In the United States the act of 32 Hen. VIII. c. 34 is held to 
be in force in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Connecti- 
cut, but was never in force in New York till re-enacted " (Wash- 
burn, Real Property, i.). 

REMAND (Lat. remandare), a term of English law meaning 
the return of a prisoner by order of a court to the custody from 
which he came to the court. Thus where an application for 
release is unsuccessfully made by means of habeas corpus, the 
applicant is remanded to the custody which he has challenged 
as illegal. Where trials or indictments are not concluded at a 
single sitting the cotirt of trial has power to remand the accused 
into proper custody during any necessary adjournment. Where 
a preliminary inquiry into an indictable offence is not completed 
at a single sitting, the prisoner, if not released on bail, may be 
remanded to prison or some other lawful place of custody for 
a period not exceeding eight days, and so on by further remands 
till the inquiry is completed and the accused is discharged, or 
committed to prison to await his trial, or released on bail to 
take his trial. If the remand is for more than three days the 
order must be in writing (Indictable Offences Act 1848, 11 & 12 
Vict. c. 42, s. 21). Similar powers of remand or committal to 
prison during adjournments are given to justices in the exercise 
of their summary criminal jurisdiction, whether as to offences 
punishable only on summary conviction, or as to indictable 
offences with which it is proposed to deal summarily (Summary 
Jurisdiction Acts 1848, s. 16, and 1879, s. 24). 

In the case of charges against children or young persons, 
where the justices commit for trial or order a remand pending 
inquiry, or with a view to sending a child to an industrial school 
or a reformatory, they may remand to the workhouse or to some 
fit custody instead of remanding to prison (Youthful Offenders 
Act 1901, s. 4). For this purpose remand homes have been 
established. 

REMBRANDT (1606-1669). Rembrandt Harmens van 
Rijn, Dutch painter, was born in Leiden on the 15th of July 
1606. It is only within the past fifty years that we have come 



to know anything of his real history. A tissue of fables formerly 
represented him as ignorant, boorish and avaricious. These 
fictions, resting on the loose assertions of Houbraken (De Grooie 
Schouburgh, 1718), have been cleared away by the untiring 
researches of Scheltema and other Dutchmen, notably by C. 
Vosmaer, whose elaborate work (Rembrandt, sa vie el ses ceuvres, 
1868, 2nd ed., 1877) is the basis of our knowledge of the man and 
of the chronological development of the artist. 1 Rembrandt's 
high position in European art rests on the originality of his 
mind, the power of his imagination, his profound sympathy 
with his subjects, the boldness of his system of light and shade, 
the thoroughness of his modelling, his subtle colour, and above 
all on his intense humanity. He was great in conception 
and in execution, a poet as well as a painter, an idealist and 
also a realist; and this rare union is the secret of his power. 
From his dramatic action and mastery of expression Rembrandt 
has been well called "the Shakespeare of Holland." 

In the beginning of the 17th century Holland had entered on 
her grand career of national enterprise. Science and literature 
flourished in her universities, poetry and the stage were favoured 
by her citizens, and art found a home not only in the capital 
but in the provincial towns. It was a time also of new ideas. 
Old Conventional forms in religion, philosophy and art had 
fallen away, and liberty was inspiring new conceptions. There 
were no church influences at work to fetter the painter in the 
choice and treatment of his subject, no academies to prescribe 
rules. Left to himself, therefore, the artist painted the life of 
the people among whom he lived and the subjects which inter- 
ested them. It was thus a living history that he painted — 
scenes from the everyday life and amusements of the people, 
as well as the civic rulers, the " regents " or governors of the 
hospitals and the heads of the guilds, and the civic guards who 
defended their towns. So also with religious pictures. The 
dogmas and legends of the Church of Rome were no longer of 
interest to such a nation; but the Bible was read and studied 
with avidity, and from its page the artist drew directly the scenes 
of the simple narrative. Perhaps the earliest trace of this new 
aspect of Bible story is to be found in the pictures painted 
in Rome about the beginning of the 17th century by Adam 
Elsheimer of Frankfort, who had undoubtedly a great influence 
on the Dutch painters studying in Italy. These in their turn 
carried back to Holland the simplicity and the picturesque 
effect which they found in Elsheimer's work. Among these, 
the precursors of Rembrandt, may be mentioned Moeyaert, 
Ravesteyn, Lastman, Pinas, Honthorst and Bramer. Influenced 
doubtless by these painters, Rembrandt determined to work Out 
his own ideas of art on Dutch soil, resisting apparently every 
inducement to visit Italy. Though an admirer of the great 
Italian masters, he yet maintained his own individuality. 

Rembrandt was born at No. 3 Weddesteg, on the rampart 
at Leiden overlooking the Rhine. He was the fourth son of 
Gerrit Harmens van Rijn, a well-to-do miller. As the older 
boys had been sent to trade, his parents resolved that he should 
enter a learned profession. With this view he was sent to the 
High School at Leiden; but the boy soon manifested his dislike 
of the prospect, and determined to be a painter. Accordingly 
he was placed for three years under Swanenburch, a painter of 
no great merit, who enjoyed some reputation from his having 
studied in Italy. His next master was Lastman of Amsterdam, 
a painter of very considerable power. In Lastman's works we 
can trace the germs of the colour and sentiment of his greater 
pupil, though his direct influence cannot have been great, as 
it is said by Orlers that Rembrandt remained with him only six 
months, after which time he returned to Leiden, about 1623. 
During the early years of his life at Leiden Rembrandt seems 
to have devoted himself entirely to studies, painting and etching 
the people around him, the beggars and cripples, every pic- 
turesque face and form he could get hold of. Life, character, 

1 Vosmaer's first volume, on the precursors and apprenticeship of 
Rembrandt, was published in 1863. New light has since been thrown 
on important points by Dr Bode (Hollandische Malerei t 1883), De 
Roever, De Vries and others. 



78 



REMBRANDT 



and above all light were the aims of these studies. His mother 
was a frequent model, and we can trace in her features the strong 
likeness to her son, especially in the portraits of himself at an 
advanced age. In the collection of Rembrandt's works at 
Amsterdam in 1898 were shown three portraits of his father, who 
died about 1632; nine are catalogued altogether. The last 
portrait of his mother is that of the Vienna Museum, painted the 
year before her death in 1640. One of his sisters also frequently 
sat to him, and Bode suggests that she must have accompanied 
him to Amsterdam and kept house for him till he married. 
This conjecture rests on the number of portraits of the same 
young woman painted in the early years of his stay in Amsterdam 
and before he met his bride. Then, again, in the many portraits 
of himself painted in his early life we can see with what zeal he 
set himself to master every form of expression, now grave, now 
gay — how thoroughly he learned to model the human face not 
from the outside but from the inner man. Dr Bode gives fifty 
as the number of the portraits of himself (perhaps sixty is nearer 
the actual number), most of them painted in youth and in old 
age, the times when he had leisure for such work. 

Rembrandt's earliest pictures were painted at Leiden, from 
1627 to 1631. Bode mentions about nine pictures as known to 
belong to these years, chiefly paintings of single figurts, as 
"St Paul in Prison" and "St Jerome"; but now and then 
compositions of several, as " Samson in Prison " and " Presenta- 
tion in the Temple." The prevailing tone of all these pictures 
is a greenish grey, the effect being somewhat cold and heavy. 
The gallery at Cassel gives us a typical example of his studies 
of the heads of old men, firm and hard in workmanship and full 
of detail, the effects of light and shade being carefully thought 
out. His work was now attracting the attention of lovers of 
art in the great city of Amsterdam; and, urged by their calls, 
he removed about 163 1 to live and die there. At one bound 
he leaped into the position of the first portrait painter of the 
city, and received numerous commissions. During the early 
years of his residence there are at least forty known portraits 
from his hand, firm and solid in manner and staid in expression. 
It has been remarked that the fantasy in which he indulged 
through life was reserved only for the portraits of himself and 
his immediate connexions. The excellent painter Thomas de 
Keyser was then in the height of his power, and his influence 
is to be traced in some of Rembrandt's smaller portraits. Pupils 
also now flocked to his house in the Bloemgracht, among them 
Gerard Douw, who was nearly of his own age. The first 
important work executed by Rembrandt in Amsterdam is 
" Simeon in the Temple," of the Hague Museum, a fine early 
example of his treatment of light and shade and of his subtle 
colour. The concentrated light falls on the principal figure, 
while the background is full of mystery. The surface is smooth 
and enamel-like, and all the details are carefully wrought out, 
while the action of light on the mantle of Simeon shows how 
soon he had felt the magical effect of the play of colour. In the 
life-sized " Lesson in Anatomy " of 1632 we have the first of 
the great portrait subjects — Tulp the anatomist, the early 
friend of Rembrandt, discoursing to his seven associates, who 
are ranged with eager heads round the foreshortened body. 
The subject had been treated in former years by the Mierevelts, 
A. Pietersen and others, for the Hall of the Surgeons. But it 
was reserved for Rembrandt to make it a great picture by the 
grouping of the expressive portraits and by the completeness 
of the conception. The colour is quiet and the handling of the 
brush timid and precise, while the light and shade are somewhat 
harsh and abrupt. But it is a marvellous picture for a young 
min of twenty-five, and it is generally accepted as marking a 
new departure in the career of the painter. 

About 700 pictures are known to have come from Rembrandt's 
own hand. It is impossible to notice more than the prominent 
works. Besides the Pellicorne family portraits of 1632 now in the 
Wallace Collection, we have the calis*raphist Coppenol of the 
Cassel Gallery, interesting in the first place as an early example of 
Rembrandt's method of pivinp permanent interest to a portrait by 
converting it into a picture. He invests it with a sense of life by 
a momentary expression as Coppenol raises his head towards the 



spectator while he is mending a quill. The same motive is to bt 
found in the " Shipbuilder," 1633 (Buckingham Palace), who looks 
up from his work with a sense of interruption at the approach of 
his wife. Coppenol was painted thrice and etched twice by the 
artist, the last of whose portrait etchings (1661) was the Coppenol 
of large size. The two small pictures of " The Philosopher " of the 
Louvre date from 1633, delicate in execution and full of mysterious 
effect. ^ 

The year 1634 is especially remarkable as that of Rembrandt's 
marriage with Saskia van Uylenborch, a beautiful, fair-haired 
Frisian maiden of good connexions. Till her death in 1642 she 
was the centre of his life and art, and lives for us in many a canvas 
as well as in her own portraits. On her the painter lavished his 
magical power, painting her as the Queen Artemisia or Bath* 
sheba, and as the wife of Samson — always proud of her long fair 
locks, and covering her with pearls and gold as precious in their 
play of colour as those of the Indies. A joyous pair we see them 
in the Dresden Gallery, Saskia sitting on his knee while he 
laughs gaily, or promenading together in a fine picture of 1636, or 
putting the last touches of ornament to her toilette, for thus Bode 
interprets the so-called " Burgomaster Pancras and his Wife." 
These were his happy days when he painted himself in his 
exuberant fantasy, and adorned himself, at least in his portraits, 
in scarfs and feathers and gold chains. Saskia brought him a 
marriage portion of forty thousand guilders, a large sum for 
those times, and she brought him also a large circle of good 
friends in Amsterdam. She bore him four children, Rumbartus 
and two girls, successively named Cornelia after his beloved 
mother, all of whom died in infancy, and Titus, named after 
Titia a sister of Saskia. We have several noble portraits of 
Saskia, a good type of the beauty of Holland, all painted with 
the utmost love and care, at Cassel (1633), at Dresden (1641), 
and a posthumous one (1643) at Berlin. But the greatest in 
workmanship and most pathetic in expression seems to us, 
though it is decried by Bode, that of Antwerp (1641), in which 
it is impossible not to trace declining health and to find a melan- 
choly presage of her death. 

One of Rembrandt's greatest portraits of 1634 is the superb full- 
length of Martin Daey, which, with that of Madame Daey, painted 
according to Vosmaer some years later, formed one of the ornaments 
of the Van Loon collection at Amsterdam. Both now belong to 
Baron Gustave de Rothschild. From the firm detailed execution 
of this portrait one turns with wonder to the broader handling of the 
" Old Woman " (Frangoise van Wasserhoven) , aged eighty-three, 
in the National Gallery, of the same year, remarkable for the effect 
of reflected light and still more for the sympathetic rendering of 
character. 

The life of Samson supplied many subjects in these early days. 
The so-called " Count of Gueldres threatening his Father-in-law " 
of the Berlin Gallery has been restored to its proper signification 
by M. Kolloff, who finds it to be Samson. It is forced and violent 
in its action. The greatest of this series, and one of the pro- 
minent pictures of Rembrandt's work, is the " Marriage of Samson," 
of the Dresden Gallery, painted in 1638. Here Rembrandt gives 
the rein to his imagination and makes the scene live before us. 
Except the bride (Saskia), who sits calm and grand on a dais in the 
centre of the feast, with the full light again playing on her flowing 
locks and wealth of jewels, all is animated and full of bustle. Sam- 
son, evidently a Rembrandt of fantasy, leans over a chair pro- 
pounding his riddle to the Philistine lords. In execution it is a 
great advance on former subject pictures; it is bolder in manner, 
and we have here signs of his approaching love of warmer tones of 
red and yellow. 

The story of Susannah also occupied him in these early years, 
and he returned to the subject in 1641 and 1653. " The Bather " 
of the National Gallery may be another interpretation of the same 
theme. In all of these pictures the woman is coarse in type and 
lumpy in form, though the modelling is soft and round, the effect 
which Rembrandt always strove to gain. Beauty of form was 
outside his art. But the so-called " Danae " (1636) at St Peters- 
burg is a sufficient reply to those who deny his ability ever to ap- 
preciate the beauty of the nude female form. It glows with colour 
and life, and the blood seems to pulsate under the warm skin. In 
the picturesque story of Tobit Rembrandt found much to interest 
him, as we see in the beautiful small picture of the d'Arenberg 
Collection at Brussels: Sight is being restored to the aged Tobias, 
while with infinite tenderness his wife holds the old man's hand 
caressingly. The momentary action is complete, and the picture 
goes straight to the heart. In the Berlin Gallery he paints the 
anxiety of the parents as they wait the return of their son. In 
1637 he painted the fine picture now in the Louvre of the " Flight 
of the Angel "; and the same subject is grandly treated by him. 



REMBRANDT 



79 



apparently about 1645, ' n the picture exhibited in the winter exhibi- 
tion at Burlington House in 1885. Reverence and awe are shown 
in every attitude of the Tobit family. A similar lofty treatment is 
to be found in the " Christ as the Gardener," appearing to Mary, of 
1638 (Buckingham Palace). 

We have now arrived at the year 1640, the threshold of 
his second manner, which extended to 1654, the middle age of 
Rembrandt. During the latter part of the previous decade we 
find the shadows more transparent and the blending of light 
and shade more perfect. There is a growing power in every 
part of his art. The coldness of his first manner had disappeared, 
and the tones were gradually changing into golden-brown. He 
had passed through what Bode calls his " Sturm-und-Drang " 
period of exaggerated expression, as in the Berlin Samson, and 
had attained to a truer, calmer form of dramatic expression, of 
which the " Manoah " of Dresden is a good example (1641). 
The portraits painted " to order " became more rare about this 
time, and those which we have are chiefly friends of his circle, 
such as the " Mennonite Preacher " (C. C. Ansloo) and tie 
" Gilder," a fine example of his golden tone, formerly in the 
Morny collection and now in America. His own splendid 
portrait (1640) in the National Gallery illustrates the change in 
his work. It describes the man well — strong and robust, with 
powerful head, firm and compressed lips and determined chin, 
with heavy eyebrows, separated by a deep vertical furrow, and 
with eyes of keen penetrating glance — altogether a self-reliant 
man that would carry out his own ideas, careless whether his 
popularity waxed or waned. The fantastic rendering of himself 
has disappeared; he seems more conscious of his dignity and 
position. He has now many friends and pupils, and numerous 
commissions, even from the stadtholder; he has bought a large 
house in the Breedstraat, in which during the next sixteen years 
of his life he gathers his large collection of paintings, engravings, 
armour and costume which figure afterwards in his inventory. 
His taste was wide and his purchases large, for he was joint 
owner with picture-dealers of paintings by Giorgione and Palma 
Vecchio, while for a high-priced Marcantonio Raimondi print 
he gave in exchange a fine impression of his " Christ Healing 
the Sick," which has since been known as the " Hundred Guilder 
Print." The stadtholder was not a prompt payer, and an 
interesting correspondence took place between Rembrandt and 
Constantin Huygens, the poet and secretary of the prince. The 
Rembrandt letters which have come down to us are few, and 
these are therefore of importance. Rembrandt puts a high 
value on the picture, which he says had been painted " with 
much care and zeal," but he is willing to take what the prince 
thinks proper; while to Huygens he sends a large picture as a 
present for his trouble in carrying through the business. There 
is here no sign of the grasping greed with which he has been 
charged, while his unselfish conduct is seen in the settlement of 
the family affairs at the death of his mother in 1640. 

The year 1642 is remarkable for the great picture formerly known 
as the " Night Watch," but now more correctly as the " Sortie 
of the Banning Cock Company," another of the landmarks of Rem- 
brandt's career, in which twenty-nine life-sized civic guards are 
introduced issuing pell-mell from their club house. Such gilds 
of arquebusiers had been painted admirably before by Ravesteyn 
and notably by Frans Hals, but Rembrandt determined to throw 
life and animation into the scene, which is full of bustle and move- 
ment. The dominant colour is the citron yellow uniform of the 
lieutenant, wearing a blue .sash, while a Titian-like red dress of a 
musketeer, the black velvet dress of the captain, and the varied 
green of the girl and drummer, all produce a rich and harmonious 
effect. The background has become dark and heavy by accidmt 
or neglect, and the scutcheon on whi-h the names are painted is 
scarcely to be seen. It is to be observed that, as proved by the 
copy by Gerrit Lundens in the National Gallery, it represents not a 
" night watch," except in name, but a day watch. 

But this year of great achievement was also the year of his great 
loss, for Saskia died in 1642, leaving Rembrandt her sole trustee 
for her son Titus, but with full use of the money till he should 
marry again or till the marriage of Titus. The words of the will 
express her love for her husband and her confidence in him. With 
her death his life was changed. Bode has remarked that there 
is a pathetic sadness in his pictures of the Holy Family — a favourite 
subject at this period of his life. All of these he treats^with the 
naive simplicity of Reformed Holland, giving us the real carpenter's 



shop and the mother watching over the Infant reverently and 
lovingly, with a fine union of realism and idealism. 

The street in which he lived was full of Dutch and Portuguese 
Jews, and many a Jewish rabbi sat to him. He accepted or invented 
their turbans and local dress as characteristic of the people. But 
in his religious pictures it is not the costume we look at; what 
strikes us is the profound perception of the sentiment of the story, 
making them true to all time and independent of local circumstance. 
A notable example of this feeling is to be found in the " Woman 
Taken in Adultery " of the National Gallery, painted in 1644 in 
the manner of the " Simeon " of the Hague. Beyond the ordinary 
claims of art, it commands our attention from the grand conception 
of the painter who here, as in other pictures and etchings, has invested 
Christ with a majestic dignity which recalls Lionardo and no other. 
A similar lofty ideal is to be found in his various renderings of the 
" Pilgrims at Emmaus," notably in the Louvre picture of 1648, 
in which, as Mrs Jameson says, " he returns to those first spiritual 
principles which were always the dowry of ancient art." From the 
same year we have the " Good Samaritan " of the Louvre, the story 
of which is told with intense pathos. The helpless suffering of the 
wounded man, the curiosity of the boy on tiptoe, the excited faces 
at the upper window, are all conveyed with masterly skill. In these 
last two pictures we find a broader touch and freer handling, while 
the tones pass into a dull yellow and brown with a marked pre- 
dilection for deep rich red. Whether it was that this scheme of 
colour found no favour with the Amsterdamers, who, as Hoog- 
straten tells us, could not understand the " Sortie," it seems certain 
that Rembrandt was not invited to take any leading part in the 
celebration of the congress of Westphalia (1648). 

Rembrandt touched no side of art without setting his mark on it, 
whether in still life, as in his dead birds or the " Slaughtered Ox " 
of the Louvre (with its repetitions at Glasgow and Budapest), or 
in his drawings of elephants and lions, all of which are instinct with 
life. But at_ this period of his career we come upon a branch of 
his art on which he left, both in etching and in painting, the stamp 
of his genius, viz. landscape. Roeland Roghman, but ten years 
his senior, evidently influenced his style, for the resemblance between 
their works is so great that, as at Cassel, there has been confusion 
of authorship. Hercules Seghers also was much appreciated by 
Rembrandt, for at his sale eight pictures by this master figure in 
the inventory, and Vosmaer discovered that Rembrandt had worked 
on a plate by Seghers and had added figures to an etched " Flight 
into Egypt." The earliest pure landscape known to us from Rem- 
brandt s hand is that at the Ryks Museum (1637-38), followed in 
the latter year by those at Brunswick, Cracow and Boston (U.S.A.), 
and that dated 1638 and belonging to Mr G. Rath in Budapest. 
Better known is the '' Winter Scene " of Cassel (1646), silvery and 
delicate. As a rule in his painted landscape he aims at grandeur 
and poetical effect, as in the " Repose of the Holy Family " of 
1647 (formerly called the " Gipsies "), a moonlight effect, clear 
even in the shadows. The " Canal " of Lord Lansdowne, and the 
" Mountain Landscape with Approaching Storm," the sun shining 
out behind the heavy clouds, are both conceived and executed in 
this spirit. A similar poetical vein runs through the " Castle 
on the Hill " of Cassel, in which the beams of the setting sun strike 
on the castle while the valley is sunk in the shades of approaching 
night. More powerful still is the weird effect of Lord Lansdowne's 
" Windmill," with its glow of light and darkening shadows. In 
all these pictures light with its magical influences is the theme of 
the poet-painter. From the number of landscapes by himself in 
the inventory of his sale, it would appear that these grand works 
were not appreciated by his contemporaries. The last of the 
landscape series dates from 1655 or 1656, the close of the middle 
age or manhood of Rembrandt, a period of splendid power. In the 
" Joseph Accused by Potiphar's Wife " of 1654 we have great 
dramatic vigour and perfect mastery of expression, while the 
brilliant colour and glowing effect of light and shade attest hi* 
strength. To this period also belongs the great portrait of himself 
in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge. 

But evil days were at hand. The long-continued wars and 
civil troubles had worn out the country, and money was scarce. 
Rembrandt's and doubtless Saskia's means were tied up in his 
house and in his large collection of valuable pictures, and we find 
Rembrandt borrowing considerable sums of money on the security 
of his house to keep things going. Perhaps, as Bode suggests, 
this was the reason of his extraordinary activity at this time. 
Then, unfortunately, in this year of 1654, we find Rembrandt 
involved in the scandal of having a child by his servant Hendrickje 
Jaghers or Stoffels, as appears by the books of the Reformed 
Church at Amsterdam. He recognized the child and gave it the 
name of Cornelia, after his much-loved mother, but there is no 
proof that he married the mother, and the probability is against 
such a marriage, as the provisions of Saskia's will would in that 
case have come into force, and her fortune would have passed 
at once to her son Titus. Hendrickje seems to have continued 



8-o 



REMBRANDT 



to live with him, for we find her claiming a chest as her property 
at his sale in 1658. Doubtless she is the peasant girl of Rasdorf 
to whom Houbraken says Rembrandt was married. Sad as the 
story is, Hendrickje has an interest for us. Bode asserts that in 
his art there was always a woman in close relationship to Rem- 
brandt and appearing in his work — his mother, his sister and 
then Saskia. 

He also suggests that the beautiful portrait of the " Lady " 
in the Salon Carre of the Louvre and the " Venus and Cupid " of 
the same gallery may represent Hendrickje and her child. Both 
pictures belong to this date, and by their treatment are removed 
from the category of Rembrandt's usual portraits. But if this 
is conjecture, we get nearer to fact when we look at the picture 
exhibited at Burlington House in 1883 to which tradition has 
attached the name of " Rembrandt's Mistress," now in the 
Edinburgh National Gallery. At a glance one can see that it is 
not the mere head of a model, as she lies in bed raising herself 
to put aside a curtain as if she heard a well-known footstep. It 
is clearly a woman in whom Rembrandt had a personal interest. 
The date is clearly 165 — the fourth figure being illegible; but 
the brilliant carnations and masterly touch connect it with 
the " Potiphar's Wife " of 1654 and the Jaghers period. In 1656 
Rembrandt's financial affairs became more involved, and the 
Orphans' Chamber transferred the house and ground to Titus, 
though Rembrandt was still allowed to take charge of Saskia's 
estate. Nothing, however, could avert the ruin of the painter, 
who was declared bankrupt in July 1656, an inventory of all his 
property being ordered by the Insolvency Chamber. The first 
sale took place in 1657 in the Keizerskroon hotel; and the second 
in 1658, when the larger part of the etchings and drawings were 
disposed of — " collected by Rembrandt himself with much love 
and care," says the catalogue. The sum realized, under 5000 
guilders, was but a fraction of their value. The time was 
unfavourable over the whole of Europe for such sales, the 
renowned collection of Charles I. of England having brought but 
a comparatively small sum in 1653. Driven thus from his house, 
stripped of everything he possessed, even to his table linen, 
Rembrandt took a modest lodging in the same Keizerskroon 
hostelry (the amounts of his bills are on record), apparently 
without friends and thrown entirely on himself. 

But this dark year of 1656 stands out prominently as one in which 
some of his greatest works were produced, as, for example, " John 
the Baptist preaching in the Wilderness," of the Berlin Gallery, and 
"Jacob blessing the Sons of Joseph," of the Cassel Gallery. It 
is impossible not to respect the man who, amid the utter ruin of his 
affairs, could calmly conceive and carry out such noble work. Yet 
even in his art one can see that the tone of his mind was sombre. 
Instead of the brilliancy of 1654 we have for two or three years a 
preference for dull yellows, reds and greys, with a certain uni- 
formity of tone. The handling is broad and rapid, as if to give 
utterance to the ideas which crowded on his mind. There is less 
caressing of colour for its own sake, even less straining after 
vigorous effect of light and shade. Still the two pictures just named 
are among the greatest works of the master. To the same year 
belongs the " Lesson in Anatomy of Johann Deyman." The sub- 
ject is similar to the great Tulp of 1632, but his manner and power 
6( colour had advanced so much that Sir Joshua Reynolds, in his 
visit to Holland in 1781, was reminded by it of Michelangelo and 
Titian. 1 Vosmaer ascribes to the same year, though Bode places 
it later, the famous " Portrait of Jan Six," the future burgo- 
master, consummate in its ease and character, as Six descends the 
steps of his house drawing on his glove. The connexion between 
Rembrandt and the great family of Six was long and close. In 
1641, the mother of Six, Anna Wymer, had been painted with con- 
summate skill by Rembrandt, who also executed in 1647 the beauti- 
ful etching of Six standing by a window reading his tragedy of 
Medea, afterwards illustrated by his friend. Now he paints his 
portrait in the prime of manhood, and in the same year of gloom 
paints for him the masterly " John the Baptist." Six, if he could 
not avert the disaster of Rembrandt's life, at least stood by him in 
the darkest hour, when certainly the creative energy of Rembrandt 

1 This picture has had a strange history. It had suffered by fire 
and was sold to a Mr Chaplin of London in 1841, was exhibited in 
Leeds in 1868, and again disappeared, ultimately to be found in the 
storeroom of the South Kensington Museum as a doubtful Rem- 
brandt. The patriotism of some Dutch lovers of art restored it to 
its native country; and it now hangs, a magnificent fragment, in 
the museum of Amsterdam. 



was in full playv The same period gives us the " Master of the 
Vineyard," and the " Adoration of the Magi " of Buckingham 
Palace. 

After the sale of the house in the Breedstraat, Rembrandt retired 
to the Rosengracht, an obscure quarter at the west end of the city. 
We are now drawing to the splendid close of his career in his third 
manner, in which his touch became broader, his impasto more solid 
and his knowledge more complete. We may mention the " Old 
Man with the Grey Beard " of the National Gallery (1657) and the 
" Bruyningh, the Secretary of the Insolvents' Chamber," of Cassel 
(1658), both leading up to the great portraits of the "Syndics of 
the Cloth Hall " of 1661. Nearly thirty years separate us from.the 
" Lesson in Anatomy," years of long-continued observation and 
labour. The knowledge thus gathered, the problems solved, the 
mastery attained, are shown here in abundance. Rembrandt 
returns to the simplest gamut of colour, but shows his skill in the 
use of it, leaving on the spectator an impression of absolute enjoy- 
ment of the result, unconscious of the means. The plain burghers 
dealing with the simple concerns of their gild arrest our attention 
as if they were the makers of history. They live for ever; and we 
close our eyes to the strange perspective of the table. 

In his old age Rembrandt continued to paint his own portrait 
as assiduously as in his youthful and happy days. About 
twenty of these portraits are known; a typical one is to be found 
in the National Gallery. All show the same self-reliant expres- 
sion, though broken down indeed by age and the cares of a hard 
life. 

About the year 1663 Rembrandt painted the (so-called) 
" Jewish Bride " of the Ryks Museum in Amsterdam, and the 
" Family Group " of Brunswick, the last and perhaps the most 
brilliant works of his life, bold and rapid in execution and 
marvellous in the subtle mixture and play of colours in which 
he seems to revel. The woman and children are painted with 
such love that the impression is conveyed that they represent a 
fancy family group of the painter in his old age. This idea 
received some confirmation from the supposed discovery that 
he left a widow Catherine Van Wyck and two children, but this 
theory falls to the ground, for de Roever has shown {Oud 
Holland, 1883) that Catherine was the widow of a marine painter 
Theunisz Blanckerhoff, who died about the same time as Rem- 
brandt. The mistake arose from a miscopying of the register. 
The subject of these pictures is thus more mysterious than ever. 

In 1668 Titus, the only son of Rembrandt, died, leaving one 
child, and on the 8th of October 1669 the great painter himsel/ 
passed away, leaving two children, and was buried in the Westei 
Kerk. He had outlived his popularity, for his manner of paint- 
ing, as we know from contemporaries, was no longer in favour 
with a people who preferred the smooth trivialities of Van der 
Werff and the younger Mieris, the leaders of an expiring school. 

We must give but a short notice of Rembrandt's achievements in 
etching. Here he stands out by universal confession as first, excel- 
ling by his unrivalled technical skill, his mastery of expression and 
the lofty conceptions of many of his great pieces, as in the " Death 
of the Virgin," the " Christ Preaching," the " Christ Healing the 
Sick" (the " Hundred Guilder Print ), the " Presentation to the 
People," the " Crucifixion " and others. So great is his skill simply 
as an etcher that one is apt to overlook the nobleness of the etcher s 
ideas and the depth of his nature, and this tendency has been doubt- 
less confirmed by the enormous difference in money value between 
" states " of the same plate, rarity giving in many cases a factitious 
worth in the eyes of collectors. A single impression of one of his 
etchings — " Rembrandt with a Sabre "—realized £2000 at the 
Holford sale in 1893, when " Ephraim Bonus, with black ring " 
fetched £1050, and the " Hundred Guilder Print," £1750. The 
points of difference between these states arise from the additions 
and changes, made by Rembrandt on .the plate ; and the prints 
taken off by him have been subjected to the closest inspection by 
Bartsch, Gersaint, Wilson, Daulby, De Claussin, C. Blanc, Willshire, 
Seymour Haden, Middleton and others, who have described them 
at great length, and to whom the reader is referred. The classifica- 
tion of Rembrandt's etchings adopted till lately was according to 
the subject, as Biblical, portrait, landscape, and so on; until 
Vosmaer attempted the more scientific and interesting line of 
chronology. This method has been developed by Sir F. Seymour 
Haden and Middleton. But even in 1873 C. Blanc, in his fine work 
L'CEuvre complet de Rembrandt, still adheres to the older and less 
intelligent arrangement, resting his preference on the frequent 
absence of dates on the etchings and more strangely still on the 
equality of the work. Sir Seymour Haden's reply is " that the more 
important etchings which may be taken as types are dated, and 
that, the style of the etchings at different periods of Rembrandt's 
career being fully as marked as that of his paintings, no more 



REMEDIOS— REMIREMONT 



81 



difficulty attends the classification of one than of the other." In- 
deed Vosmaer points out in his Life of Rembrandt that there is a 
marked parallelism between Rembrandt's painted and etched work, 
his early work in both cases being timid and tentative, while he 
gradually gains strength and character both with the brush and the 
graver's tools. 

In his L'CEuvre complet de Rembrandt (Paris, 1885), Eugene Dutuit 
rejects the classification of C. Blanc as dubious and unwarranted, 
dismisses the chronological arrangement proposed by Vosmaer and 
adopted by Seymour Haden and Middleton as open to discussion 
and lacking in possibility of proof, and reverts to the order estab- 
lished by Gersaint, ranging his materials under twelve heads: 
Portraits (real and supposed), Old Testament and New Testament 
subjects, histories, landscapes, &c. Sir Seymour Haden originated 
the theory that many of the etchings ascribed to Rembrandt up to 
1640 were the work of his pupils, and seems to make out his case, 
though it may be carried too far. He argues (in his monograph on 
the Etched Work of Rembrandt, 1877) that Rembrandt's real work in 
etching began after Saskia's death, when he assumes that Rembrandt 
betook himself to Elsbroek, the country house of his " powerful 
friend " Jan Six. But it must be remembered that the future 
burgomaster was then but a student of twenty-four, a member of a 
great family it is true, but unmarried and taking as yet no share in 
public life. That Rembrandt was a frequent visitor at Elsbroek, 
and that the " Three Trees " and other etchings may have been pro- 
duced there, may be admitted without requiring us to believe that 
he had left Amsterdam as his place of abode. The great period of 
his etching lies between 1639 and 1661, after which the old painter 
seems to have renounced the needle. In these twenty years were 
produced his greatest works in portraiture, landscape and Bible 
story. They bear the impress of the genius of the man. 

In addition to the authors named, the reader is referred to 
W. Burger, (the nom de plume of T. Thor6), Musees de la Hollande 
(1858-60), E. Fromentin, Matlres d'aulrefois; H. Havard, L'£cole 
Hollandaise ; Scheltema, Rembrandt, discours sur sa vie (1866); Ath. 
Cocquerel fils, Rembrandt, son individualisme dans I' art (Paris, 1869) ; 
Dr Langbehn, Rembrandt als Erzieher (Leipzig, 1890); Emile 
Michel, Rembrandt, sa vie, son ceuvre, el son temps (Paris, 1893); 
P. G. Hamerton, Rembrandt's Etchings (London, 1894); Malcolm 
Bell, Rembrandt van Rijn and his Work (London, 1899); Adolf 
Rosenberg, Rembrandt, des Meisters Gemdlde (Stuttgart and Leipzig, 
1906), a useful work, admirably reproducing 565 of the artist s 
pictures, and its companion volume, Hans Wolfgang Singer, Rem- 
brandt, des Meisters Radierungen (Stuttgart and Leipzig, 1906), 
reproducing 402 etchings. The chronological, geographical and 
classifying indexes in both books are of particular utility. 

(J. F. W.; P. G. K.) 

REMEDIOS, or San Juan de Los Remedios, town of Santa 
Clara province, Cuba, in the municipality of San Juan de Los 
Remedios. Pop. of the town (1907), 6988; of the munici- 
pality, 21,573. The town is served by a branch of the Cuban 
Central railway, extending from Caibarien to Camajuani, where 
it connects with the main line. The site is low and flat, and 
unhealthily wet in the rainy season. The port of Remedios 
is Caibarien (pop. in 1907, 8333), on the N. coast, about 5 m. E. 
Both are in the sugar country, and sugar is the base of their 
economic interests. The first settlement on the site of the 
present town was made in 1515-16, and in 1545 Remedios was 
created a villa with an ayuntamiento (council). 

REMEMBRANCER, the name originally of certain subordinate 
officers of the English Exchequer. The office itself is of great 
antiquity, the holder having been termed remembrancer, 
memorator, rememorator, registrar, keeper of the register, 
despatcher of business (Maddox, History of the Exchequer). 
There were at one time three clerks of the remembrance, styled 
king's remembrancer, lord treasurer's remembrancer and re- 
membrancer of first-fruits. The latter two offices have become 
extinct, that of remembrancer of first-fruits by the diversion 
of the fund (Queen Anne's Bounty Act 1838), and that of lord 
treasurer's remembrancer on being merged in the office of king's 
remembrancer (1833). By the Queen's Remembrancer Act 
1859 the office ceased to exist separately, and the queen's 
remembrancer was required to be a master of the court of 
exchequer. The Judicature Act 1873, s. 77, attached the office 
tp the Supreme Court, and the Supreme Court of Judicature 
(Officers) Act 1879 transferred it to the central office of the 
Supreme Court. By s. 8 the king's remembrancer is a master 
of the Supreme Court, and the office is usually filled by the 
senior master. The king's remembrancer department of the 
central office is now amalgamated with the judgments and 
married women's acknowledgments department. The king's 



remembrancer still assists at certain ceremonial functions — 
relics of the former importance of the office — such as the nomina- 
tion of sheriffs, the swearing-in of the lord mayor of London, 
the trial of the pyx and the acknowledgments of homage for 
crown lands. Other duties are set out in the Second Report q1 
the Legal Departments Commission, 1874. 

" Remembrancer " is also the title of an official of the cor- 
poration of the city of London, whose principal duty is to 
represent that body before parliamentary committees and at 
council and treasury boards. 

REMIGIUS, ST (c. 437-533), bishop of Reims and the friend 
of Clovis, whom he converted to Christianity. According to 
Gregory of Tours, 3000 Franks were baptized with Clovis by 
Remigius on Christmas Day, 496, after the defeat of the Ala- 
manni. With the growing power of the papacy a good many 
fictions grew up around his name, e.g. that he anointed Clovis 
with oil from the sacred ampulla, and that Pope Hormisdas had 
recognized him as primate of France. The Commentary on the 
Pauline Epistles (ed. Villalpandus, 1699) is not his work, but that 
of Remigius of Auxerre. 

For authorities see H. Jadart, Bibliographie des ouvrages cone, 
la vie el le culte de S. Remi . . . (Reims, 1891), which contains 126 
references. 

REMINGTON, FREDERICK (1861-1909), American artist, 
was born at Canton, New York, on the 4th of October 1861. 
He was a pupil of the Yale Art School, and of the Art Students' 
League, New York, and became known as an illustrator, 
painter and sculptor. Having spent much time in the West, 
whither he went for his health, and having been with the 
United States troops in actual warfare, he made a specialty of 
rendering the North American Indian and the United States 
soldier as seen on the western plains. In the Spanish-American 
War he was with the army under General Shafter as war corre- 
spondent. He died on the 26th of December 1909, near Ridge- 
field, Connecticut. His statuettes of soldiers, Indians, cowboys 
and trappers are full of character, while his paintings have been 
largely reproduced. He wrote several volumes of stories, 
including Pony Tracks (1895), Crooked Trails (1898), Sundown 
Leflare (1899), and John Ermine of the Yellowstone (1902). 

REMINISCENCE (from Lat. reminisci, to remember), the 
recognized translation of the Greek avh^vqais, which is used 
technically by Plato in his doctrine that the soul recovers 
knowledge of which it had direct intuition in a former incorporeal 
existence. The doctrine may be regarded as the poetical 
precursor of modern a priori theories of knowledge and of 
" race-memory " and the like. In common language " remi- 
niscence " is synonymous with " recollection." 

REMIREMONT, a town of eastern France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Vosges, 17 m. S.S.E. of 
Epinal by rail, on the Moselle, a mile below its confluence with 
the Moselotte. Pop. town, 8782; commune, 10,548. Remire- 
mont is surrounded by forest-clad mountains, and commanded 
by Fort Parmont, one of the Moselle line of defensive works. 
The abbey church, consecrated in io5i,has a crypt of the nth 
century in which are the tombs of some of the abbesses, but as a 
whole belongs to the late 13th century. The abbatial residence 
(which now contains the mairie, the court-house and the public 
library) has been twice rebuilt in modern times (in 1750 and 
again after a fire in 1871), but the original plan and style have 
been preserved in the imposing front, the vestibule and the 
grand staircase. Some of the houses of the canonesses dating 
from the 17th and 18th centuries also remain. Remiremont 
is the seat of a sub-prefect and has a tribunal of first instance, 
a communal college, a board of trade-arbitration and a chamber 
of arts and manufactures. Its industries include cotton-spinning 
and weaving, the manufacture of hosiery and embroidery, iron 
and copper founding and the manufacture of boots and shoes 
and brushes. 

Remiremont (Romarici Mons) derives its name from St 
Romaric, one of the companions of St Columban of Luxeuil, 
who in the 7th century founded a monastery and a convent 
on the hills above the present town. In 910 the nuns, menaced 



82 



REMONSTRANTS— REMUSAT, COMTE DE 



by the invasion of the Hungarians, took refuge at Remiremont, 
which had grown up round a villa of the Frankish kings, and in 
the nth century they permanently settled there. Enriched 
by dukes of Lorraine, kings of France and emperors of Germany, 
the ladies of Remiremont attained great power. The abbess was 
a princess of the empire, and received consecration at the hands 
of the pope. The fifty canonesses were selected from those 
who could give proof of noble descent. On Whit-Monday the 
neighbouring parishes paid homage to the chapter in a ceremony 
called the "Kyrioles"; and on their accession the dukes of 
Lorraine, the immediate suzerains of the abbey, had to come to 
Remiremont to swear to continue their protection. The " War 
of the Scutcheons " (Panonceaux) in 1566 between the duke and 
the abbess ended in favour of the duke; and the abbess never 
recovered her former position. In the 17th century the ladies 
of Remiremont fell away so much from the original monastic 
rule as to take the title of countesses, renounce their vows and 
marry. The town was attacked by the French in 1638 and 
ruined by the earthquake of 1682. With the rest of Lorraine 
it was joined to France in 1766. The monastery on the hill 
and the nunnery in the town were both suppressed in the 
Revolution. 

REMONSTRANTS, the name given to those Dutch Protestants 
who, after the death of Arminius (g.v.), maintained the views 
associated with his name, and in 1610 presented to the states of 
Holland and Friesland a " remonstrance " in five articles 
formulating their points of departure from stricter Calvinism. 
These were: (1) that the divine decree of predestination is 
conditional, not absolute; (2) that the Atonement is in intention 
universal; (3) that man cannot of himself exercise a saving 
faith; (4) that though the grace of God is a necessary condition 
of human effort it does not act irresistibly in man; (5) that 
believers are able to resist sin but are not beyond the possibility 
of falling from grace. Their adversaries (the Gomarists) met 
them with a " counter-remonstrance," and so were known as the 
Counter-Remonstrants. Although the states-general issued an 
edict tolerating both parties and forbidding further dispute, the 
conflict continued, and the Remonstrants were assailed both 
by personal enemies and by the political weapons of Maurice 
of Orange, who executed and imprisoned their leaders for holding 
republican views. In 1618-19 the synod of Dort (see Dort ; 
Synod or), the thirteen Arminian pastors headed by Simon 
Episcopius (q.v.) being shut out, established the victory of the 
Calvinist school, drew up ninety-three canonical rules, and 
confirmed the authority of the Belgic Confession and the 
Heidelberg Catechism. The judgment of the synod was enforced 
by the deposition and in some cases the banishment of Remon- 
strant ministers; but the government soon became convinced 
that their party was not dangerous to the state, and in 1630 they 
were formally allowed liberty to reside in all parts of Holland 
and build churches and schools. In 16 21 they had already 
received liberty to make a settlement in Schleswig, where they 
built the town of Friedrichstadt. This colony still exists. The 
doctrine of the Remonstrants was embodied in 162 1 in a confessio 
written by Episcopius, their great theologian, while J. Uyten- 
bogaert gave them a catechism and regulated their churchly 
order. The Remonstrants adopted a simple synodical constitu- 
tion; but their importance was henceforth more theological 
than ecclesiastical. Their seminary in Amsterdam has boasted 
of many distinguished names — Curcellaeus, Limborch, Wetstein, 
Le Clerc; and their liberal school of theology, which naturally 
grew more liberal and even rationalistic, reacted powerfully 
on the state church and on other Christian denominations. 
The Remonstrants first received official recognition in 1795. As 
a church they now number 27 communities with about 12,500. 
members, in a flourishing condition and respected for their 
traditions of scholarship and liberal thought. Their chief 
congregation is in Rotterdam. 

REMPHAN, the Authorized Version's rendering of the Greek 
word variously appearing in Acts vii. 48 as 'T?on<t>&, 'Vefufrbv, 
'YtuQafi, 'Fai<f>dv, Te^dc. It is part of a quotation from 
Amos v. 26, where the Septuagint 'Pot^ac or 'Petpav stands 



for the Hebrew P*? Chuin or Kewan. The Greek forms are 
probably simple mistakes for the Hebrew, k ( D ) having been 
replaced by r C 1 ) and ph (<£) substituted for v 0). Kewan 
is probably the old Babylonian Ka(v)awanu, the planet Saturn, 
another (the Akkadian) name for which is Sakkut, which appears 
as Siccuth in the earlier part of the verse. 

REMSCHEID, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine 
Province, situated on an elevated plateau, 1100 ft. above sea- 
level, 6 m. by rail S. of Barmen and 20 m. N.E. of Cologne. 
Pop. (1905) 64,340. Remscheid is a centre of the hardware 
industry, and large quantities of tools, scythes, skates and 
other small articles in iron, steel and brass are made for export 
to all parts of Europe, the East, and North and South America. 
The name of Remscheid occurs in a document of 1132, and 
the town received the first impulse to its industrial importance 
through the immigration of Protestant refugees from France 
and Holland. 

REMUSAT, CHARLES FRANCOIS MARIE, Comte de (1797- 
1875), French politician and man of letters, was born in Paris 
on the 13th of March 1797. His father, Auguste Laurent, 
Comte de Remusat, of a good family of Toulouse, was chamber- 
lain to Napoleon, but acquiesced in the restoration and became 
prefect first of Haute Garonne, and then of Nord. His mother's 
maiden name was Claire Elisabeth Jeanne Gravier de Ver- 
gennes, born in 1780. She married at sixteen, and was attached 
to Josephine as dame du palais in 1802. Talleyrand was among 
her admirers, and she was generally recognized as a woman of 
great intellectual capacity and personal grace. After her 
death (1824) an Essai sur I'educalion des femmes was published 
and received an academic couronne. But it was not until her 
grandson Paul de Remusat published her Memoires (3 vols., 
Paris, 1 8 70-80) ; which have since been followed by some corre- 
spondence with her son (2 vols., 1881), that justice could be 
done to her literary talent. Much light was thrown on the 
Napoleonic court by this book, and on the youth and education 
of her son Charles. He early developed political views more 
liberal than those of his parents, and, being bred to the bar, 
published in 1820 a pamphlet on trial by jury. He was an 
active journalist, showing in philosophy and literature the 
influence of Cousin, and is said to have furnished to no small 
extent the original of Balzac's brilliant egoist Henri de Marsay. 
He signed the journalists' protest against the Ordinances of 
July 1830, and in the following October was elected deputy 
for Haute Garonne. He then ranked himself with the doctrin- 
aires, and supported most of those measures of restriction on 
popular liberty which made the July monarchy unpopular with 
French Radicals. In 1836 he became for a short time under- 
secretary of state for the interior. He then became an ally of 
Thiers, and in 1840 held the ministry of the interior for a brief 
period. In the same year he became an Academician. For 
the rest of Louis Philippe's reign he was in opposition till he 
joined Thiers in his attempt at a ministry in the spring of 1848. 
During this time Remusat constantly spoke in the chamber, 
but was still more active in literature, especially on philosophical 
subjects, the most remarkable of his works being his book on 
Abtlard (2 vols., 1845). In 1848 he was elected, and in 1840 
re-elected, for Haute Garonne, and voted with the Conservative 
side. He had to leave France after the coup d'Uat; nor did he 
re-enter political life during the Second Empire until 1869, when 
he founded a moderate opposition journal at Toulouse. In 1871 
he refused the Vienna embassy offered him by Thiers, but in 
August he was appointed minister of foreign affairs in succession 
to M. Jules Favre. Although minister he was not a deputy, and 
on standing for Paris in September 1873 he was beaten by Desir6 
Barodet. A month later he was elected (having already 
resigned with Thiers) for Haute Garonne by a great majority. 
He died in Paris on the 6th of January 1875. 

During his abstention from politics Bemusat continued to 
write on philosophical history, especially English. Saint 
Anselme de Cantorbiry appeared in 1854; V Angleterre au 
XVIIIeme siecle in 1856 (2nd ed. enlarged, 1865); Bacon, sa vie, 



REMUSAT, J. P. A.— RENAISSANCE 



83 



son temps, &c, in 1858; Charming, sa vie et ses ceuvres, in 1862; 
John Wesley in 1870; Lord Herbert de Cherbury in 1874; His- 
toire de la philosophie en Angleterre depuis Bacon jusqu' a Locke 
in 1875; besides other and minor works. He wrote well, was 
a forcible speaker and an acute critic; but his adoption of the 
indeterminate eclecticism of Cousin in philosophy and of the 
somewhat similarly indeterminate liberalism of Thiers in politics 
probably limited his powers, though both no doubt accorded 
with his critical and unenthusiastic turn of mind. 

His son Paul de Remusat (1831-1897) became a distin- 
guished journalist and writer. He was for many years a regular 
contributor to the Revue des deux mondes. He stood for election 
in Haute-Garonne in 1869 in opposition to the imperial policy 
and failed, but was elected to the National Assembly in 187 1 
and later. In 1890 he entered the Academie des sciences 
morales et politiques. 

REMUSAT, JEAN PIERRE ABEL (1788-1832), French 
Chinese scholar, was born in Paris on the 5th of September 1788. 
He was educated for the medical profession, but a Chinese 
herbal in the collection of the Abbe Tersan attracted his atten- 
tion, and he taught himself to read it by great perseverance 
and with imperfect help. At the end of five years' study he 
produced in 181 1 an Essai sur la langue et la litttrature chinoises, 
and a paper on foreign languages among the Chinese, which 
procured him the patronage of Silvestre de Sacy. In 1814 a 
chair of Chinese was founded at the College de France, and 
Remusat was placed in it. From this time he gave himself 
wholly to the languages of the Far East, and published a series 
of useful works, among which his contributions from Chinese 
sources to the history of the Tatar nations claim special notice. 
Remusat became an editor of the Journal de savants in 1818, 
and founder and first secretary of the Paris Asiatic Society in 
1822; he also held various Government appointments. He 
died at Paris on the 4th of June 1832. A list of his works is 
given in Querard's France litteraire s.v. Remusat. 

RENAISSANCE, THE.— The " Renaissance " or " Renascence " 
is a term used to indicate a well-known but indefinite space 
of time and a certain phase in the development of Europe. 1 On 
the one hand it denotes the transition from that period of his- 
tory which we call the middle ages (q.v.) to that which we call 
modern. On the other hand it implies those changes in the 
intellectual and moral attitude of the Western nations by which 
the transition was characterized. If we insist upon the literal 
and etymological meaning of the word, the Renaissance was a 
re-birth; and it is needful to inquire of what it was the re-birth. 
The metaphor of Renaissance may signify the entrance of the 
European nations upon a fresh stage of vital energy in general, 
implying a fuller consciousness and a freer exercise of faculties 
than had belonged to the medieval period. Or it may mean the 
resuscitation of simply intellectual activities, stimulated by the 
revival of antique learning and its application to the arts and 
literatures of modern peoples. Upon our choice between these 
two interpretations of the word depend important differences in 
any treatment of the subject. The former has the disadvantage 
of making it difficult to separate the Renaissance from other 
historical phases — the Reformation, for example — with which 
it ought not to be confounded. The latter has the merit of 
assigning a specific name to a limited seres of events and group 
of facts, which can be distinguished for the purpose of analysis 
from other events and facts with which they are intimately but 
not indissolubly connected. In other words, the one definition 
of Renaissance makes it denote the whole change which came 
over Europe at the close of the middle ages. The other confines 
it to what was known by our ancestors as the Revival of Learning. 
Yet, when we concentrate attention on the recovery of antique 
culture, we become aware that this was only one phenomenon 
or symptom of a far wider and more comprehensive alteration 
in the conditions of the European races. We find it needful to 
retain both terms, Renaissance and Revival of Learning, and 

1 For a somewhat different view of the parcelling out into such 
periods, see the article Middle Ages. 



to show the relations between the series of events and facts which 
they severally imply. The Revival of Learning must be regarded 
as a function of that vital energy, an organ of that mental 
evolution, which brought into existence the modern world, with 
its new conceptions of philosophy and religion, its reawakened 
arts and sciences, its firmer grasp on the realities of human nature 
and the world, its manifold inventions and discoveries, its altered 
political systems, its expansive and progressive forces. Im- 
portant as the Revival of Learning undoubtedly was, there are 
essential factors in the complex called the Renaissance with 
which it can but remotely be connected. When we analyse the 
whole group of phenomena which have to be considered, we 
perceive that some of the most essential have nothing or little 
to do with the recovery of the classics. These are, briefly 
speaking, the decay of those great fabrics, church and empire, 
which ruled the middle ages both as ideas and as realities; the 
development of nationalities and languages; the enfeeblement 
of the feudal system throughout Europe; the invention and 
application of paper, the mariner's compass, gunpowder, and 
printing; the exploration of continents beyond the ocean; and 
the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of 
astronomy. Europe in fact had been prepared for a thorough- 
going metamorphosis before that new ideal of human life and 
culture which the Revival of Learning brought to light had 
been made manifest. It had recovered from the confusion conse- 
quent upon the dissolution of the ancient Roman empire. The 
Teutonic tribes had been Christianized, civilized and assimilated 
to the previously Latinized races over whom they exercised the 
authority of conquerors. Comparative tranquillity and material 
comfort had succeeded to discord and rough living. Modern 
nationalities, defined as separate factors in a common system, 
were ready to co-operate upon the basis of European federation. 
The ideas of universal monarchy and of indivisible Christendom, 
incorporated in the Holy Roman Empire and the Roman 
Church, had so far lost their hold that scope was offered for the 
introduction of new theories both of state and church which would 
have seemed visionary or impious to the medieval mind. It is 
therefore obvious that some term, wider than Revival of Learn- 
ing, descriptive of the change which began to pass over Europe 
in the 14th and 15th centuries, has to be adopted. That of 
Renaissance, Rinascimento, or Renascence is sufficient for the 
purpose, though we have to guard against the tyranny of what is 
after all a metaphor. We must not suffer it to lead us into rhetoric 
about the deadness and the darkness of the middle ages, or hamper 
our inquiry with preconceived assumptions that the re-birth in 
question was in any true sense a return to the irrecoverable pagan 
past. Nor must we imagine that there was any abrupt break 
with the middle ages. On the contrary, the Renaissance was 
rather the last stage of the middle ages, emerging frcm ecclesi- 
astical and feudal despotism, developing what was original in 
medieval ideas by the light of classic arts and letters, holding 
in itself the promise of the modern world. It was therefore a 
period and a process of transition, fusion, preparation, tentative 
endeavour. And just at this point the real importance of the 
Revival of Learning may be indicated. That rediscovery of the 
classic past restored the confidence in their own faculties to men 
striving after spiritual freedom; revealed the continuity of 
history and the identity of human nature in spite of diverse 
creeds and different customs; held up for emulation master- 
works of literature, philosophy and art; provoked inquiry; 
encouraged criticism; shattered the narrow mental barriers 
imposed by medieval orthodoxy. Humanism, a word which 
will often recur in the ensuing paragraphs, denotes a specific 
b'as which the forces liberated in the Renaissance took from 
contact with the ancient world, — the particular form assumed 
by human self-esteem at that epoch,— the ideal of life and 
civilization evolved by the modern nations. It indicates the 
endeavour of man to reconstitute himself as a free being, not as 
the thrall of theological despotism, and the peculiar assistance 
he derived in th : s effort from Greek and Roman literature, the 
litterae humaniores, letters leaning rather to the side of man than 
of divinity. 



8 4 



'RENAISSANCE 



In this article the Renaissance will be considered as implying 
a comprehensive movement of the European intellect and will 
Method toward self-emancipation, toward reassertion of the 
of treat- natural rights of the reason and the senses, toward 
menU the conquest of this planet as a place of human occu- 

pation, and toward the formation of regulative theories 
both for states and individuals differing from those of medieval 
times. The Revival of Learning will be treated as a decisive 
factor in this process of evolution on a new plan. To exclude 
the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation wholly from the 
survey is impossible. These terms indicate moments in the 
whole process of modern history which were opposed, each to 
the other, and both to the Renaissance; and it is needful to 
bear in mind that they have, scientifically speaking, a quite 
separate existence. Yet if the history of Europe in the 16th 
century of our era came to be written with the brevity with 
which we write the history of Europe in the 6th century B.C., 
it would be difficult at the distance of time implied by that 
supposition to distinguish the Italian movement of the 
Renaissance in its origin from the German movement of the 
Reformation. Both would be seen to have a common starting- 
point in the reaction against long dominant ideas which were 
becoming obsolete, and also in the excitation of faculties which 
had during the same period been accumulating energy. 

The Renaissance, if we try to regard it as a period, was essentially 
the transition from one historical stage to another. It cannot 
therefore be confined within strict chronological limits. 
Chroao- There is one date, however, which may be remembered 
logical w ; tll a d van tage as the starting-point in time of the Rc- 
limlts. naissance, after the departure from the middle ages had 

been definitely and consciously made by the Italians. This is the 
vear US1, when Constantinople, chosen for his capital by the first 
Christian emperor of Rome, fell into the hands of the Turk One of 
the survivals of the old world, the shadow of what had been the 
Eastern Empire, now passed suddenly away. Almost at the same 
date that visionary revival of the Western Empire, which had im- 
posed for six centuries upon the imagination of medieval Europe, 
hampering Italy and impeding the consolidation of Germany, 
ceased to reckon among political actualities; while its more robust 
rival the Roman Church, seemed likely to sink into the rank of a 
petty Italian principality. It was demonstrated by the destruction 
of the Eastern and the dotage of the Western Empire, and by the 
new papal policy which Nicholas V. inaugurated, that the old order 
of society was about to be superseded. Nothing remained to check 
those centrifugal forces in state and churcl. which substituted 
a confederation of rival European powers for the earlier ideal 
of universal monarchy, and separate religious constitutions lor 
the previous Catholic unity. At the same time the new learning 
introduced by the earlier humanists awakened free thought, encour- 
aged curiosity, and prepared the best minds of Europe for specula- 
tive audacities from which the schoolmen would have shrunk, and 
which soon expressed themselves in acts of cosmopolitan importance. 
If we look a little forward to the years 1492-1500, we obtain a 
second date of great importance. In these years the expedition of 
Charles VIII. to Naples opened Italy to French, Spanish and 
German interference. The leading nations of Europe began to 
compete for the prize of the peninsula, and learned meanwhile that 
culture which the Italians had perfected. In these years the secular- 
ization of the papacy was carried to its final point by Alexander VI., 
and the Reformation became inevitable. The same period was 
marked by the discovery of America, the exploration of the Indian 
seas, and the consolidation of the Spanish nationality. It also 
witnessed the application of printing to the diffusion of knowledge. 
Thus, speaking roughly, the half-century between 1450 and 1500 
mav be termed the culminating point of the Renaissance, the 
transition from the medieval to the modern order was now secured 
if not accomplished, and a Rubicon had been crossed from which no 
retrogression to the past was possible. Looking yet a little farther, 
to the years 1527 and 1530, a third decisive date is reached. In the 
first of these years happened the sack of Rome, in the second the 
pacification of Italy by Charles V. under a Spanish hegemony. The 
asre of the Renaissance was now closed for the land which gave it 
birth The Reformation had taken firm hold on northern Europe. 
The Counter-Reformation was already imminent. 

It must not be imagined that so great a change as that implied 
by the Renaissance was accomplished without premonitory 
Pncur. symptoms and previous endeavours. In the main 
sors ot we mean by it the recovery of freedom for the human 
the Re- sp j r i t after a long period of bondage to oppressive 
nalssaace. eccles j astica i an d political orthodoxy— a return to 
the liberal and practical conceptions of the world which 



the nations of antiquity had enjoyed, but upon a new and 
enlarged platform. This being so, it was inevitable that the 
finally successful efforts after self-emancipation should^ have 
been anticipated from time to time by strivings within the 
ages that are known as dark and medieval. It is therefore 
part of the present inquiry to pass in review some of the 
claimants to be considered precursors of the Renaissance. 

First of all must be named the Frank in whose lifetime the dual 
conception of universal empire and universal church, divinely ap- 
pointed, sacred and inviolable, began to control the order of Euro- 
pean society. Charles the Great (Charlemagne) lent his forces to 
the plan of resuscitating the Roman empire at a moment when his 
own power made him the arbiter of western Europe, when the papacy 
needed his alliance, and when the Eastern Empire had passed under 
the usurped regency of a female. He modelled an empire, Roman 
in name but essentially. Teutonic, since it owed such substance as 
its fabric possessed to Frankish armies and the sinews of the German 
people. As a structure composed of divers ill-connected parts it 
fell to pieces at its builder's death, leaving little but the incubus 
of a memory, the fascination of a mighty name, to dominate the 
mind of medieval Europe. As an idea, the empire grew in visionary 
power,- and remained one of the chief obstacles in the way of both 
Italian and German national coherence. Real force was not in it, 
but rather in that counterpart to its unlimited pretensions, the 
church, which had evolved it from barbarian night, and which used 
her own more vital energies for undermining the rival of her creation. 
Charles the Great, having proclaimed himself successor of the Caesars, 
was obscurely ambitious of imitating the Augusti also in the sphere 
of letters. He caused a scheme of humanistic education to be 
formulated, and gave employment at his court to rhetoricians, of 
whom Alcuin was the most considerable. But very little came of 
the revival of learning which Charles is supposed to have encouraged ; 
and the empire he restored was accepted by the medieval intellect 
in a crudely theological and vaguely mystical spirit. We should, 
however, here remember that the study of Roman law, which was 
one important precursory symptom of the Renaissance, owed much 
to medieval respect for the empire as a divine institution. This, 
together with the municipal Italian intolerance of the Lombard and 
Frankish codes, kept alive the practice and revived the science of 
Latin jurisprudence at an early period. 

Philosophy had attempted to free itself from the trammels of 
theological orthodoxy in the hardy speculations of some schoolmen, 
notably of Scotus Erigena and Abelard. These innovators _. 
found, however, small support, and were defeated by t f oaand 
opponents who used the same logical weapons with auth- her ln 
ority to back them. Nor were the rationalistic opinions mi ddle 
of the Averroists without their value, though the church & 
condemned these deviators from her discipline as heretics. 
Such medieval materialists, moreover, had but feeble hold upon the 
substance of real knowledge. Imperfect acquaintance with authors 
whom they studied in Latin translations made by Jews from Arabic 
commentaries on Greek texts, together with almost total ignorance 
of natural laws, condemned them to sterility. Like the other 
schiomachists of their epoch, they fought with phantoms m a 
visionary realm. A similar judgment may be passed upon those 
Paulician, Albigensian, Patenne and Epicurean dissenters from the 
Catholic creed who opposed the phalanxes of orthodoxy with frail 
imaginative weapons, and alarmed established orders in the state 
by the audacity of their communistic opinions. Physical science 
struggled into feeble life in the cells of Gerbert and Roger Bacon. 
But these men were accounted magicians by the vulgar; and, 
while the one eventually assumed the tiara, the other was incarcer- 
ated in a dungeon. The schools meanwhile resounded still to the 
interminable dispute upon abstractions. Are only umversals real, 
or has each name a corresponding entity? From the midst of the 
Franciscans who had persecuted Roger Bacon because he presumed 
to know more than was consistent with human humility arose John 
of Parma, adopting and popularizing the mystic prophecy of 
Joachim of Flora. The reign of the Father is past; the reign of the 
Son is passing; the reign of the Spirit is at hand. Such was the 
formula of the Eternal Gospel, which, as an unconscious forecast^ 
the Renaissance, has attracted retrospective students by its felicity 
of adaptation to their historical method. Yet we must remember 
that this bold intuition of the abbot Joachim indicated a monastic 
reaction against the tyrannies and corruptions of the church, rather 
than a fertile philosophical conception. The Fraticelli spiritualists, 
and similar sects who fed their imagination with his doctrine, ex- 
pired in the flames to which Fra Dolcino Longino and Marghanta 
were consigned. To what extent the accusations of profligate 
morals brought against these reforming sectarians were justified 
remains doubtful; and the same uncertainty rests upon the alleged 
iniquities of the Templars. It is only certain that at this epoch the 
fabric of Catholic faith was threatened with various forms of pro- 
phetic and Oriental mysticism, symptomatic of a widespread desire 
to grasp at something simpler, purer and less rigid than Latin 
theology afforded. Devoid of criticism, devoid of sound learning, 
devoid of a firm hold on the realities of life, these heresies passed 
away without solid results and were forgotten. 



RENAISSANCE 



85 



We are too apt to take for granted that the men of the middle 
ages were immersed in meditations on the other world, and that their 
Natural- intellectual exercises were confined to abstractions of the 
ism la schools, hallucinations of the fancy, allegories, visions. 

... This assumption applies indeed in a broad sense to that 
life and Period which was dominated by intolerant theology and 
literature deprived °f positive knowledge. Yet there are abundant 
signs that the native human instincts, the natural human 
appetites, remained unaltered and alive beneath the crust of ortho- 
doxy. In the person of a pope like Boniface VIII. those ineradicable 
forces of the natural man assumed, if we may trust the depositions 
of ecclesiastics well acquainted with his life, a form of brutal 
atheistic cynicism. In the person of an emperor, Frederick II., 
they emerged under the more agreeable garb of liberal culture and 
Epicurean scepticism. Frederick dreamed of remodelling society 
upon a mundane type, which anticipated the large toleration and 
cosmopolitan enlightenment of the actual Renaissance. But his 
efforts were defeated by the unrelenting hostility of the church, 
and by the incapacity of his contemporaries to understand his aims. 
After being forced in his lifetime to submit to authority, he was 
consigned by Dante to hell. Frederick's ideal of civilization was 
derived in a large measure from Provence, where a beautiful culture 
had prematurely bloomed, filling southern Europe with the perfume 
of poetry and gentle living. Here, if anywhere, it seemed as though 
the ecclesiastical and feudal fetters of the middle ages might be 
broken, and humanity might enter on a new stage of joyous unim- 
peded evolution. This was, however, not to be. The church 
preached Simon de Montfort's crusade, and organized Dominic's 
Inquisition; what Quinet calls the " Renaissance sociale par 
l'Amour " was extirpated by sword, fire, famine and pestilence. 
Meanwhile the Provencal poets had developed their modern language 
with incomparable richness and dexterity, creating forms of verse 
and modes of emotional expression which determined the latest 
medieval phase of literature in Europe. The naturalism of which 
we have been speaking found free utterance now in the fabliaux of 
jongleurs, lyrics of minnesingers, tales of trouveres, romances of 
Arthur and his knights — compositions varied in type and tone, but 
in all of which sincere passion and real enjoyment of life pierce 
through the thin veil of chivalrous mysticism or of allegory with 
which they were sometimes conventionally draped. The tales of 
Lancelot and Tristram, the lives of the troubadours and the Wacht- 
lieder of the minnesingers, sufficiently prove with what sensual 
freedom a knight loved the lady whom custom and art made him 
profess to worship as a saint. We do not need to be reminded that 
Beatrice's adorer had a wife and children, or that Laura's poet 
owned a son and daughter by a concubine, in order to perceive that 
the mystic passion of chivalry was compatible in the middle ages 
with commonplace matrimony or vulgar illegitimate connexions. 
But perhaps the most convincing testimony to the presence of this 
ineradicable naturalism is afforded ^by the Latin songs of wandering 
students, known as Carmina Burana, written by the self-styled 
QollanUc Goliardi. In these compositions, remarkable for their 
poetry l ac '' e handling of medieval Latin rhymes and rhythms, 
" # the allegorizing mysticism which envelops chivalrous 
poetry is discarded. Love is treated from a frankly carnal point of 
view. Bacchus and Venus go hand in hand, as in the ancient ante- 
Christian age. The open-air enjoyments of the wood, the field, the 
dance upon the village green, are sung with juvenile lighthearted- 
ness. No grave note, warning us that the pleasures of this earth 
are fleeting, that the visible world is but a symbol of the invisible, 
that human life is a probation for the life beyond, interrupts the 
tinkling music as of castanets and tripping feet which gives a novel 
charm to these unique relics of the 13th century. Gohardic poetry 
is further curious as showing how the classics even at that early 
period were a fountain-head of pagan inspiration. In the taverns 
and low places of amusement haunted by those lettered songsters, 
on the open road and in the forests trodden by their vagrant feet, 
the deities of Greece and Rome were not in exile, but at home 
within the hearts of living men. Thus, while Christendom was still 
preoccupied with the Crusades, two main forces of the Renaissance, 
naturalism and enthusiasm for antique modes of feeling, already 
brought their latent potency to light, prematurely indeed and 
precociously, yet with a promise that was destined to be kept. 

When due regard is paid to these miscellaneous evidences of 
intellectual and sensual freedom during the middle ages, it will be 
M dl al seen t ' lat tnere were by no means lacking elements of 
attitude nat i ye vigour ready to burst forth. What was wanting 
otmiud was not v ' ta '' t X an ^ licence, not audacity of speculation, 
not lawless instinct or rebellious impulse. It was rather 
the right touch on life, the right feeling for human independence, 
the right way of approaching the materials of philosophy, religion, 
scholarship and literature, that failed. The courage that is born of 
knowledge, the calm strength begotten by a positive attitude of mind, 
face to face with the dominant over-shadowing Sphinx of theology, 
were lacking. We may fairly say that natural and untaught people 
had more of the just intuition that was needed than learned folk 
trained in the schools. But these people were rendered licentious 
in revolt or impotent for salutary action by ignorance, by terror, 
by uneasy dread of the doom declared for heretics and rebels. The 



massive vengeance of the church hung over them, like a heavy 
sword suspended in the cloudy air. Superstition and stupidity 
hedged them in on every side, so that sorcery and magic seemed the 
only means of winning power over nature or insight into mysteries 
surrounding human life. The path from darkness to light was lost; 
thought was involved in allegory; the study of nature had been 
perverted into an inept system of grotesque and pious parable- 
mongering; the pursuit of truth had become a game of wordy 
dialectics. The other world, with its imagined heaven and hell, 
haunted the conscience like a nightmare. However sweet this 
world seemed, however fair the flesh, both world and flesh were 
theoretically given over to the devil. It was not worth while to 
master and economize the resources of this earth, to utilize the good 
and ameliorate the evils of this life, while every one agreed, in theory 
at any rate, that the present was but a bad prelude to an infinitely 
worse or infinitely better future. To escape from these preoccupa- 
tions and prejudices except upon the path of conscious and deliber- 
ate sin was impossible for all but minds of rarest quality and 
courage; and these were too often reduced to the recantation of 
their supposed errors no less by some secret clinging sense of guilt 
than by the church's iron hand. Man and the actual universe kept 
on reasserting their rights and claims, announcing their goodliness 
and delightfulness, in one way or another; but they were always 
being thrust back again into Cimmerian regions of abstractions, 
fictions, visions, spectral hopes and fears, in the midst of which the 
intellect somnambulistically moved upon an unknown way. 

At this point the Revival of Learning intervened to determine 
the course of the Renaissance. Medieval students possessed 
a considerable portion of the Latin classics, though Italy— the 
Greek had become in the fullest sense of the phrase Revival ol 
a dead language. But what they retained of ancient Learning. 
literature they could not comprehend in the right spirit. 
Between them and the text of poet or historian hung a 
veil of mysticism, a vapour of misapprehension. The odour 
of unsanctity clung around those relics of the pagan past. Men 
bred in the cloister and the lecture-room of the logicians, trained 
in scholastic disputations, versed in allegorical interpretations 
of the plainest words and most apparent facts, could not find 
the key which might unlock those stores of wisdom and of 
beauty. Petrarch first opened a new method in scholarship, 
and revealed what we denote as humanism. In his teaching 
lay the twofold discovery of man and of the world. For 
humanism, which was the vital element in the Revival of 
Learning, consists mainly of a just perception of the dignity of 
man as a rational, volitional and sentient being, born upon 
this earth with a right to use it and enjoy it. Humanism 
implied the rejection of those visions of a future and imagined 
state of souls as the only absolute reality, which had fascinated 
the imagination of the middle ages. It involved a vivid 
recognition of the goodliness of man and nature, displayed in 
the great monuments of human power recovered from the past. 
It stimulated the curiosity of latent sensibilities, provoked fresh 
inquisition into the groundwork of existence, and strengthened 
man's self-esteem by knowledge of what men had thought and 
felt and done in ages when Christianity was not. It roused 
a desire to reappropriate the whole abandoned provinces of 
mundane energy, and a hope to emulate antiquity in works 
of living loveliness and vigour. The Italians of the 14th century, 
more precocious than the other European races, were ripe for 
this emancipation of enslaved intelligence. In the classics 
they found the food which was required to nourish the new spirit; 
and a variety of circumstances, among which must be reckoned 
the pride of a nation boasting of its descent from the Populus 
Romanus, rendered them apt to fling aside the obstacles that 
had impeded the free action of the mind through many centuries. 
Petrarch not only set his countrymen upon the right method 
of studying the Latin classics, but he also divined the importance 
of recovering a knowledge of Greek literature. To this task 
Boccaccio addressed himself; and he was followed by numerous 
Italian enthusiasts, who visited Byzantium before its fall as the 
sacred city of a new revelation. The next step was to collect 
MSS., to hunt out, copy and preserve the precious relics of the 
past. In this work of accumulation Guarino and Filelfo, 
Aurispa and Poggio, took the chief part, aided by the wealth 
of Italian patricians, merchant-princes and despots, who were 
inspired by the sacred thirst for learning. Learning was then 



86 



RENAISSANCE 



no mere pursuit of a special and recluse class. It was fashionable 
and it was passionate, pervading all society with the fervour of 
romance. For a generation nursed in decadent scholasticism 
and stereotyped theological formulae it was the fountain cf 
renascent )'outh, beauty and freedom, the shape in which the 
Helen of art and poetry appeared to the ravished eyes of 
medieval Faustus. It was the resurrection of the mightiest 
spirits of the past. " I go," said Cyriac of Ancona, the inde- 
fatigable though uncritical explorer of antiquities, " I go to 
awake the dead I " This was the enthusiasm, this the vitalizing 
faith, which made the work of scholarship in the 15th century 
so highly strung and ardent. The men who followed it knew 
that they were restoring humanity to its birthright after the 
expatriation of ten centuries. They were instinctively aware 
that the effort was for liberty of action, thought and conscience 
in the future. This conviction made young men leave their 
loves and pleasures, grave men quit their counting-houses, 
churchmen desert their missals, to crowd the lecture-rooms cf 
philologers and rhetoricians. When Greek had been acquired, 
MSS. accumulated, libraries and museums formed, came the age 
of printers and expositors. Aldus Manutius in Italy, Froben in 
Basel, the Etiennes in Paris, committed to the press what the 
investigators had recovered. Nor were there wanting men who 
dedicated their powers to Hebrew and Oriental erudition, 
laying, together with the Grecians, a basis for those Biblical 
studies which advanced the Reformation. Meanwhile the 
languages of Greece and Rome had been so thoroughly appro- 
priated that a final race of scholars, headed by Politjan, Pontano, 
Valla, handled once again in verse and prose both antique 
dialects, and thrilled the ears of Europe with new-made pagan 
melodies. The church itself at this epoch lent its influence to 
the prevalent enthusiasm. Nicholas V. and Leo X., not to 
mention intervening popes who showed themselves tolerant of 
humanistic culture, were heroes of the classical revival. Scholar- 
ship became the surest path of advancement to ecclesiastical 
and political honours. Italy was one great school of the new 
learning at the moment when the German, French and Spanish 
nations were invited to her feast. _ 

It will be well to describe briefly, but in detail, what this 
meeting of the modern with the ancient mind effected over the 
Nature of whole field of intellectual interests. In doing so, we 
Italian must be careful to remember that the study of the 
human- classics did but give a special impulse to pent-up 
sm ' energies which were bound in one way or another to 

assert their independence. Without the Revival of Learning 
the direction of those forces would have been different; but 
that novel intuition into the nature of the world and man which 
constitutes what we describe as Renaissance must have emerged. 
As the facts, however, stand before us, it is impossible to dis- 
sociate the rejection of the other world as the sole reality, the 
joyous acceptance of this world as a place to live and act in, the 
conviction that " the proper study of mankind is man," from 
humanism. Humanism, as it actually appeared in Italy, was 
positive in its conception of the problems to be solved, pagan 
in its contempt for medieval mysticism, invigorated for sensuous 
enjoyment by contact .with antiquity, yet holding in itself the 
germ of new religious aspirations, profounder science and sterner 
probings of the mysteries of life than had been attempted even 
by the ancients. The operation of this humanistic spirit has 
now to be traced. 

It is obvious that Italian literature owed little at the outset to 
the Revival of Learning. The Divine Comedy, the Canzoniere 

and the Decameron were works of monumental art, 
fni deriving neither form nor inspiration immediately from 
Petrarch' t ' le c ' ass ' cs > Dut a PP'yi n g the originality of Italian genius 
Boccaccio to matter drawn from previous medieval sources. Dante 
and Villani snowe( l both in his epic poem and in his lyrics that he 
to the nac * not abandoned the sphere of contemporary thought. 

Revlvalof Allegory and theology, the vision and the symbol, still 
Learning, determine the form of masterpieces which for perfection 

of workmanship and for emancipated force of intellect 
rank among the highest products of the human mind. Yet they 
are not medieval in the same sense as the song of Roland or the 



Arthurian cycle. They proved that, though Italy came late into 
the realm of literature, her action was destined to be decisive and 
alterative by the introduction of a new spirit, a firmer and more 
positive grasp on life and aft. These qualities she owed to her 
material prosperity, to her freedom from feudalism, to her secular- 
ized church, her commercial nobility, her political independence in 
a federation of small states. Petrarch and Boccaccio, though they 
both held the medieval doctrine that literature should teach some 
abstruse truth beneath a veil of fiction, differed from Dante in this 
that their poetry and prose in the vernacular abandoned both 
allegory and symbol. In their practice they ignored their theory. 
Petrarch's lyrics continue the Provencal tradition as it had been 
reformed in Tuscany, with a subtler and more modern analysis of 
emotion, a purer and more chastened style, than his masters could 
boast. Boccaccio's tales, in like manner, continue the tradition 
of the fabliaux, raising that literary species to the rank of finished 
art, enriching it with humour and strengthening its substance 
by keen insight into all varieties of character. The Canzoniere 
and the Decameron distinguish themselves from medieval literature, 
not by any return to classical precedents, but by free self-conscious 
handling of human nature. So much had to be premised in order 
to make it clear in what relation humanism stood to the Renais- 
sance, since the Italian work of Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio 
is sufficient to indicate the re-birth of the spirit after ages of ap- 
parent deadness. Had the Revival of Learning not intervened it is 
probable that the vigorous efforts of these writers alone would have 
inaugurated a new age of European culture. Yet, while noting 
this reservation of judgment, it must also be remarked that all' three 
felt themselves under some peculiar obligation to the classics. 
Dante, medieval as his temper seems to us, chose Virgil for his guide, 
and ascribed his mastery of style to the study of Virgilian poetry. 
Petrarch and Boccaccio were, as we have seen, the pioneers of the 
new learning. They held their writings in the vernacular cheap, 
and initiated that contempt for the mother tongue which was a 
note of the earlier Renaissance. Giovanni Villani, the first chroni- 
cler who used Italian for the compilation of a methodical history, 
tells us how he was impelled to write by musing on the ruins of Rome 
and thinking of the vanished greatness of the Latin race. We 
have therefore to recognize that the four greatest writers of the 14th 
century, while the Revival of Learning was yet in its cradle, each 
after his own fashion acknowledged the vivifying touch upon their 
spirit of the antique genius. They seem to have been conscious 
that they could not give the desired impulse to modern literature 
and art without contact with the classics; and, in spite of the 
splendour of their achievements in Italian, they found no immediate 
followers upon that path. 

The fascination of pure study was so powerful, the Italians at 
that epoch were so eager to recover the past, that during the 15th 
century we have before our eyes the spectacle of this great „ , ., 
nation deviating from the course of development begun *T,f oa 
in poetry by Dante and Petrarch, in prose by Boccaccio , "J? 3 "' 
and Villani, into the channels of scholarship and anti- scno i ar . 
quarian research. The language of the Canzoniere and s /,;„aurf 
Decameron was abandoned for revived Latin and dis- literature. 
covered Greek. Acquisition supplanted invention; 
imitation of classical authors suppressed originality of style. 
The energies of the Italian people were devoted to transcrib- 
ing codices, settling texts, translating Greek books into Latin, 
compiling grammars, commentaries, encyclopaedias, dictionaries, 
epitomes and ephemerides. During this century the best histories 
— Bruno's and Poggio's annals of Florence, for example — were 
composed in Latin after the manner of Livy. The best disserta- 
tions, Landino's Camaldunenses, Valla's De Voluptate, were laboured 
imitations of Cicero's Tusculans. The best verses, Pontano's 
elegies, Politian's hexameters, were in like manner Latin; public 
orations upon ceremonial occasions were delivered in the Latin 
tongue; correspondence, official and familiar, was carried on in 
the same language; even the fabliaux received, in Poggio's Facetiae. 
a dress of elegant Latinity. The noticeable barrenness of Italian 
literature at this period is referable to the fact that men of genius 
and talent devoted themselves to erudition and struggled to express 
their thoughts and feelings in a speech which was not natural. 
Yet they were engaged in a work of incalculable importance. At 
the close of the century the knowledge of Greece and Rome had been 
reappropriated and placed beyond the possibility of destruction; 
the chasm between the old and new world had been bridged; 
medieval modes of thinking and discussing had been superseded; 
the staple of education, the common culture which has brought all 
Europe into intellectual agreement, was already in existence. 
Humanism was now an actuality. Owing to the uncritical venera- 
tion for antiquity which then prevailed, it had received a strong 
tincture of pedantry. Its professors, in their revolt against the 
middle ages, made light of Christianity and paraded paganism. 
What was even worse from an artistic point of view, they had con- 
tracted puerilities of style, vanities of rhetoric, stupidities of weari- 
some citation. Still, at the opening of the 16th century, it became 
manifest what fruits of noble quality the Revival of Letters was 
about to bring forth for modern literature. Two great scholars, 
Lorenzo de' Medici and Politian, had already returned to the 



RENAISSANCE 



87 



practice of Italian poetry. Their work is the first absolutely 
modern work, — modern in the sense of having absorbed the stores 
of classic learning and reproduced those treasures in forms of simple, 
natural, native beauty. Boiardo occupies a similar position by 
the fusion of classic mythology with chivalrous romance in his 
Orlando Innamorato. But the victor's laurels were reserved for 
Ariosto, whose Orlando Furioso is the purest and most perfect 
extant example of Renaissance poetry. It was not merely in what 
they had acquired and assimilated from the classics that these 
poets showed the transformation effected in the field of literature 
by humanism. The whole method and spirit of medieval art had 
been abandoned. That of the Cinque Cento is positive, defined, 
mundane. The deity, if deity there be, that rules in it, is beauty. 
Interest is confined to the actions, passions, sufferings and joys 
of human life, to its pathetic, tragic, humorous and sentimental 
incidents. Of the state of souls beyond the grave we hear and 
are supposed to care nothing. In the drama the pedantry of the 
Revival, which had not injured romantic literature, made itself 
perniciQusly felt. Rules were collected from Horace and Aristotle. 
Seneca was chosen as the model of tragedy; Plautus and Terence 
supplied the groundwork of comedy. Thus in the plays of Rucellai, 
Trissino, Sperone and other tragic poets the nobler elements of 
humanism, considered as a revelation of the world and man, ob- 
tained no free development. Even the comedies of the best 
authors are too observant of Latin precedents, although some 
pieces of Machiavelli, Ariosto, Aretino, Cecchi and Gelli are admirable 
for vivid delineation of contemporary manners. 

The relation of the plastic arts to the revival of learning is similar 
to that which has been sketched in the case of poetry. Cimabue 
started with work which owed nothing directly to anti- 
Flnearts. q U ; ty j^ t aDO ut the same time Niccola Pisano (d. 1278) 
studied the style of sculpture in fragments of Graeco-Roman 
marbles. His manner influenced Ciotto, who set painting on a 
forward path. Fortunately for the unimpeded expansion of Italian 
art, little was brought to light of antique workmanship during the 
14th and 15th centuries. The classical stimulus came to painters, 
sculptors and architects chiefly through literature. Therefore 
there was narrow scope for imitation, and the right spirit of humanism 
displayed itself in a passionate study of perspective, nature and 
the nude. Yet we find in the writings of Ghiberti and Alberti, 
we notice in the masterpieces of these men and their compeers 
Brunelleschi and Donatello, how even in the 15th century the minds 
of artists were fascinated by what survived of classic grace and 
science. Gradually, as the race became penetrated with antique 
thought, the earlier Christian motives of the arts yielded to pagan 
subjects. Gothic architecture, which had always flourished feebly 
on Italian soil, was supplanted by a hybrid Roman style. The 
study of Vitruvius gave strong support to that pseudo-classic 
manner which, when it had reached its final point in Palladio's 
work, overspread the whole of Europe and dominated taste during 
two centuries. But the perfect plastic art of Italy, the pure art 
of the Cinque Cento, the painting of Raphael, Da Vinci, Titian 
and Correggio, the sculpture of Donatello, Michelangelo and 
Sansovino, the architecture of Bramante, Omodco and the Venetian 
Lombardi, however much imbued with the spirit of the classical 
revival, takes rank beside the poetry of Ariosto as a free intelligent 
product of the Renaissance. That is to say, it is not so much an 
outcome of studies in antiquity as an exhibition of emancipated 
modern genius fired and illuminated by the masterpieces of the 
past. It indicates a separation from the middle ages, inasmuch as 
it is permanently natural. Its religion is joyous, sensuous, dramatic, 
terrible, but in each and all of its many-sided manifestations 
strictly human. Its touch on classical mythology is original, 
rarely imitative or pedantic. The art of the Renaissance was an 
apocalypse of the beauty of the world and man in unaffected 
spontaneity, without side thoughts for piety or erudition, inspired 
by pure delight in loveliness and harmony for their own sakes. 

In the fields of science and philosophy humanism wrought similar 

important changes. Petrarch began by waging relentless war 

against the logicians and materialists of his own day. 

rf" M( - ' tn t ' le a dvance made in Greek studies scholastic methods 
andphilo- Q j tn ; n ^.; n g f c u ; nto contemptuous oblivion. The newly 
sop y. aroused curiosity for nature encouraged men like Alberti, 
Da Vinci, Toscanelli and Da Porta to make practical experiments, 
penetrate the working of physical forces, and invent scientific 
instruments. Anatomy began to be studied, and the time was not 
far distant when Titian should lend his pencil to the epoch-making 
treatise of Vesalius. The middle ages had been satisfied with 
absurd and visionary notions about the world around them, while 
the body of man was regarded with too much suspicion to be 
studied. Now the right method of interrogating nature with 
patience and loving admiration was instituted. At the same time 
the texts of ancient authors supplied hints which led to discoveries 
so far-reaching in their results as those of Copernicus, Columbus 
and Galileo. In philosophy, properly so called, the humanistic 
scorn for medieval dullness^ and obscurity swept away theological 
metaphysics as valueless. But at first little beyond empty rhetoric 
and clumsy compilation was substituted. The ethical treatises 
of the scholars are deficient in substance, while Ficino's attempt 



to revive Platonism betrays an uncritical conception of his master's 
drift. It was something, however, to have shaken off the shackles 
of ecclesiastical authority; and, even if a new authority, that of 
the ancients, was accepted in its stead, still progress was being 
made toward sounder methods of analysis. This is noticeable 
in Pomponazzo's system of materialism, based on the interpreta- 
tion of Aristotle, but revealing a virile spirit of disinterested and 
unprejudiced research. The thinkers of southern Italy, Telesio, 
Bruno and Campanella, at last opened the two chief lines on which 
modern speculation has since moved. Telesio and Campanella 
may be termed the predecessors of Bacon. Bruno was the pre- 
cursor of the idealistic schools. All three alike strove to disengage 
their minds from classical as well as ecclesiastical authority, proving 
that the emancipation of the will had been accomplished. It must 
be added that their writings, like every other product of the Re- 
naissance, except its purest poetry and art, exhibit a hybrid between 
medieval and modern tendencies. Childish ineptitudes are mingled 
with intuitions of maturest wisdom, and seeds of future thought 
germinate in the decaying refuse of past systems. 

Humanism in its earliest stages was uncritical. It absorbed the 
relics of antiquity with omnivorous appetite, and with very im- 
perfect sense of the distinction between worse and better r ..., 
work. Yet it led in process of time to criticism. The c " tlc ' sm - 
critique of literature began in the lecture-room of Politian, in the 
printing-house of Aldus, and in the school of Vittorino. The critique 
of Roman law started, under Politian's auspices, upon a more 
liberal course than that which had been followed by the powerful 
but narrow-sighted glossators of Bologna. Finally, in the court of 
Naples arose that most formidable of all critical engines, the critique 
of established ecclesiastical traditions and spurious historical docu- 
ments. Valla by one vigorous effort destroyed the False Decretals 
and exposed the Donation of Constantine to ridicule, paving the 
way for the polemic carried on against the dubious pretensions of 
the papal throne by scholars of the Reformation. A similar 
criticism, conducted less on lines of erudition than of persiflage 
and irony, ransacked the moral abuses of the church and played 
around the very foundations of Christianity. This was tolerated 
with approval by men who repeated Leo X.'s witty epigram: 
" What profit has not that fable of Christ brought us !" The same 
critical and philosophic spirit working on the materials of history 
produced a new science, the honours of which belong to Machia- 
velli. He showed, on the one side, how the history of a people 
can be written with a recognition of fixed principles, and at the same 
time with an artistic feeling for personal and dramatic episodes. 
On the other side, he addressed himself to the analysis of man 
considered as a political being, to the anatomy of constitutions 
and the classification of governments, to the study of motives 
underlying public action, the secrets of success and the causes of 
failure in the conduct of affairs. The unscrupulous rigour with 
which he applied his scientific method, and the sinister deductions 
he thought himself justified in drawing from the results it yielded, 
excited terror and repulsion. Nevertheless, a department had 
been added to the intellectual empire of mankind, in which fel- 
low-workers, like Guicciardini at Florence, and subsequently 
Sarpi at Venice, were not slow to follow the path traced by 
Machiavelli. 

The object of the foregoing paragraphs has been to show in what 
way the positive, inquisitive, secular, exploratory spirit of the Renais- 
sance, when toned and controlled by humanism, penetrated 
the regions of literature, art, philosophy and science. It Educa- 
becomes at this point of much moment to consider how * 

social manners in Italy were modified by the same causes, since the 
type developed there was in large measure communicated together 
with the new culture to the rest of Europe. The first subject to 
be noticed under this heading is education. What has come to be 
called a classical education was the immediate product of the Italian 
Renaissance. The universities of Bologna, Padua and Salerno had 
been famous through the middle ages for the study of law, physics 
and medicine; and during the 15th and 16th centuries the first 
two still enjoyed celebrity in these faculties. But at this period 
no lecture-rooms were so crowded as those in which professors of 
antique literature and language read passages from the poets and 
orators, taught Greek, and commented upon the systems of philo- 
sophers. The medieval curriculum offered no defined place for 
the new learning of the Revival, which had indeed no recognizee! 
name. Chairs had therefore to be founded under the title of rhe- 
toric, from which men like Chrysoloras and Guarino, Filelfo and Poli- 
tian expounded orally to hundreds of eager students from every 
town of Italy and every nation in Europe- their accumulated know- 
ledge of antiquity. One mass of Greek and Roman erudition, 
including history and metaphysics, law and science, civic institu- 
tions and the art of war, mythology and magistracies, metrical 
systems and oratory, agriculture and astronomy, domestic manners 
and religious rites, grammar and philology, biography and numis- 
matics, formed the miscellaneous subject-matter of this so-styled 
rhetoric. Notes taken at these lectures supplied young scholars 
with hints for further exploration ; and a certain tradition of treat- 
ing antique authors for the display of general learning, as well as 
for the elucidation of their texts, came into vogue, which has 



88 



RENAISSANCE 



determined the method of scholarship for the last three centuries in 
Europe. The lack of printed books in the first period of the Revival, 
and the comparative rarity of Greek erudition among students, 
combined with the intense enthusiasm aroused for the new gospel 
of the classics, gave special value to the personal teaching of these 
professors. They journeyed from city to city, attracted by promises 
of higher pay, and allured by ever-growing laurels of popular fame. 
Each large town established its public study, academy or uni- 
versity, similar institutions under varying designations, for the 
exposition of the lilerae humaniores. The humanists, or professors 
of that branch of knowledge, became a class of the highest dignity. 
They were found in the chanceries of the republics, in the papal 
curia, in the council chambers of princes, at the headquarters of 
condottieri, wherever business had to be transacted, speeches to 
be made and the work of secretaries to be performed. Further- 
more, they undertook the charge of private education, opening 
schools which displaced the medieval system of instruction, and 
taking engagements as tutors in the families of despots, noblemen 
and wealthy merchants. The academy established by Vittorino 
da Feltre at Mantua under the protection of Gian Francesco Gonzaga 
for the training of pupils of both sexes, might be chosen as the type 
of this Italian method. His scholars, who were lodged in appro- 
priate buildings, met daily to hear the master read and comment 
on the classics. They learned portions of the best authors by heart, 
exercised themselves in translation from one language to another, 
and practised composition in prose and verse. It was Vittorino's 
care to see that, while their memories were duly stored with words 
and facts, their judgment should be formed by critical analysis, 
attention to style, and comparison of the authors of a decadent age 
with those who were acknowledged classics. During the hours 
of recreation suitable physical exercises, as fencing, riding and gym- 
nastics, were conducted under qualified trainers. From this sketch 
it will be seen how closely the educational system which came into 
England during the reigns of the Tudors, and which has prevailed 
until the present time, was modelled upon the Italian type. English 
youths who spend their time at Eton between athletic sports 
and Latin verses, and who take an Ireland with a first class in 
" Greats " at Oxford, are pursuing the same course of physical 
and mental discipline as the princes of Gonzaga or Montefeltro 
in the 15th century. 

The humanists effected a deeply penetrating change in social 
manners. Through their influence as tutors, professors, orators 
Social an< ^ court ' ers ' society was permeated by a fresh ideal of 

culture. To be a gentleman in Italy meant at this epoch 
manners. tQ ^ e a man ac q uam ted with the rudiments at least of 
scholarship, refined in diction, capable of corresponding or of speak- 
ing in choice phrases, open to the beauty of the arts, intelligently 
interested in archaeology, taking for his models of conduct the great 
men of antiquity rather than the saints of the church. He was also 
expected to prove himself an adept in physical exercises and in the 
courteous observances which survived from chivalry. The type 
is set before us by Castiglione in that book upon the courtier which 
went the round of Europe in the 16th century. It is further em- 
phasized in a famous passage of the Orlando Innamorato where 
Boiardo compares the Italian ideal of an accomplished gentleman 
with the coarser type admired by nations of the north. To this 
point the awakened intelligence of the Renaissance, instructed by 
humanism, polished by the fine arts, expanding in genial conditions 
of diffused wealth, had brought the Italians at a period when the 
rest of Europe was comparatively barbarous. 

This picture has undoubtedly a darker side. Humanism, in its 
revolt against the middle ages, was, as we have seen already, 
The moral mun dane, pagan, irreligious, positive. The Renaissance 
defects of ? an ' a ^ teT a "> be regarded only as a period of transition 
the Italian ln wn ' c h much of the good of the past was sacrificed while 
Renals- some of the evil was retained, and neither the bad nor the 
sance. g°°d of the future was brought clearly into fact. Beneath 

the surface of brilliant social culture lurked gross appetites 
and savage passions, unrestrained by medieval piety, untutored 
by modern experience. Italian society exhibited an almost un- 
exampled spectacle of literary, artistic and courtly refinement 
crossed by brutalities of lust, treasons, poisonings, assassinations, 
violence. A succession of worldly pontiffs brought the church into 
flagrant discord with the principles of Christianity. Steeped in 
pagan learning, emulous of imitating the manners of the ancients, 
used to think and feel in harmony with Ovid and Theocritus, and 
at the same time rendered cynical by the corruption of papal Rome, 
the educated classes lost their grasp upon morality. Political 
honesty ceased almost to have a name in Italy. The Christian 
virtues were scorned by the foremost actors and the ablest thinkers 
of the time, while the antique virtues were themes for rhetoric 
rather than moving-springs of conduct. This is apparent to all 
students of Machiavelli and Guicciardini, the profoundest analysts 
of their age the bitterest satirists of its vices, but themselves in- 
fected with its incapacity for moral goodness. Not only were the 
Italians vitiated ; but they had also become impotent for action 
and resistance. At the height of the Renaissance the five great 
powers in the peninsula formed a confederation of independent 
but mutually attractive and repellent states. Equilibrium was 



maintained by diplomacy, in which the humanists played a fore- 
most part, casting a network of intrigue over the nation which 
helped in no small measure to stimulate intelligence and create a 
common medium of culture, but which accustomed statesmen to 
believe that everything could be achieved by wire-pulling. Wars 
were conducted on a showy system by means of mercenaries, who 
played a safe game in the field and developed a system of blood- 
less campaigns. Meanwhile the people grew up unused to arms. 
When Italy between the years 1494 and 1530 became the battle- 
field of French, German and Spanish forces, it was seen to what a 
point of helplessness the political, moral and social conditions of 
the Renaissance had brought the nation. 

It was needful to study at some length the main phenomena 
of the Renaissance in Italy, because the history of that phase 
of evolution in the other Western races turns almost Diffusion 
entirely upon points in which they either adhered of the 
to or diverged from the type established there. Speak- Bew lea ">- 
ing broadly, what France, Germany, Spain and f^^° m 
England assimilated from Italy at this epoch was in the through- 
first place the new learning, as it was then called, out 
This implied the new conception of human life, Europe. 
the new interest in the material universe, the new 
method of education, and the new manners, which we have 
seen to be inseparable from Italian humanism. Under these 
forms of intellectual enlightenment and polite culture the 
renascence of the human spirit had appeared in Italy, where it 
was more than elsewhere connected with the study of classical 
antiquity. But that audacious exploratory energy which 
formed the motive -force of the Renaissance as distinguished 
from the Revival of Learning took, as we shall see, very different 
directions in the several nations who now were sending the 
flower of their youth to study at the feet of Italian rhetoricians. 

The Renaissance ran its course in Italy with strange indiffer- 
ence to consequences. The five great powers, held in equilibrium 
by Lorenzo de' Medici, dreamed that the peninsula could be 
maintained in statu quo by diplomacy. The church saw no 
danger in encouraging a pseudo-pagan ideal of life, violating 
its own principle of existence by assuming the policy of an 
aggrandizing secular state, and outraging Christendom openly 
by its acts and utterances. Society at large was hardly aware 
that an intellectual force of stupendous magnitude and in- 
calculable explosive power had been created by the new learning. 
Why should not established institutions proceed upon the 
customary and convenient methods of routine, while the delights 
of existence were augmented, manners polished, arts developed, 
and a golden age of epicurean ease made decent by a state religion 
which no one cared to break with because no one was left to 
regard it seriously? This was the attitude of the Italians when 
the Renaissance, which they had initiated as a thing of beauty, 
began to operate as a thing of power beyond the Alps. 

Germany was already provided with universities, seven of which 
had been founded between 1348 and 1409. In these haunts of 
learning the new studies took root after the year 1440, 
chiefly through the influence of travelling professors, Peter Reylvat ot 
Luder and Samuel Karoch. German scholars made their LearB '"Z 
way to Lombard and Tuscan lecture-rooms, bringing back ln Ger ~ 
the methods of the humanists. Greek, Latin and Hebrew ma °y- 
erudition soon found itself at home on Teutonic soil. Like Italian 
men of letters, these pioneers of humanism gave a classic turn to 
their patronymics; unfamiliar names, Crotus Rubeanus and Pierius 
Graecus, Capnion and Lupambulus Ganymedes, Oecolampadius and 
Melanchthon, resounded on the Rhine. A few of the German 
princes, among whom Maximilian, the prince cardinal Albert of 
Mainz, Frederick the Wise of Saxony, and Eberhard of Wiirttem- 
berg deserve mention, exercised a not insignificant influence on 
letters by the foundation of new universities and the patronage of 
learned men. The cities of Strassburg, Nuremberg, Augsburg, Basel, 
became centres of learned coteries, which gathered round scholars 
like Wimpheling, Brant, Peutinger, Schedel, and Pirckheimer, 
artists like Durer and Holbein, printers of the eminence of Froben. 
Academies in imitation of Italian institutions came into existence, 
the two most conspicuous, named after the Rhine and the Danube, 
holding their headquarters respectively at Heidelberg and Vienna. 
Crowned poets, of whom the most eminent was Conrad Celtes Pro- 
tucius (Pickel!), emulated the fame of Politian and Pontano. Yet, 
though the Renaissance was thus widely communicated to the 
centres of German intelligence, it displayed a different character 
from that which it assumed in Italy. Gothic art, which was indi- 
genous in Germany, yielded but little to southern influences. Such 



RENAISSANCE 



89 



work as that of Durer, Vischer, Cranach, Schongauer, Holbein, con- 
summate as it was in technical excellence, did not assume Italian 
forms of loveliness, did not display the paganism of the Latin races. 
The modification of Gothic architecture by pseudo-Roman elements 
of style was incomplete. What Germany afterwards took of the 
Palladian manner was destined to reach it on a circuitous route from 
France. In like manner the new learning failed to penetrate all 
classes of society with the rapidity of its expansion in Italy, nor was 
the new ideal of life and customs so easily substituted for the 
medieval. The German aristocracy, as Aeneas Sylvius had noticed, 
remained for the most part barbarous, addicted to gross pleasures, 
contemptuous of culture. The German dialects were too rough to 
receive that artistic elaboration under antique influences which had 
been so facile in Tuscany. The doctors of the universities were too 
wedded to their antiquated manuals and methods, too satisfied with 
dullness, too proud of titles and diplomas, too anxious to preserve 
ecclesiastical discipline and to repress mental activity, for a genial 
spirit of humanism to spread freely. Not in Cologne or Tubingen 
but in Padua and Florence did the German pioneers of the Renais- 
sance acquire their sense of liberal studies. And when they returned 
home they found themselves encumbered with stupidities, jealousies 
and rancours. Moreover, the temper of these more enlightened 
men was itself opposed to Italian indifference and immorality; it 
was pugnacious and polemical, eager to beat down the arrogance of 
monks and theologians rather than to pursue an ideal of aesthetical 
self-culture. To a student of the origins of German humanism it is 
clear that something very different from the Renaissance of Lorenzo 
de' Medici and Leo X. was in preparation from the first upon 
Teutonic soil. Far less plastic and form-loving than the Italian, 
the German intelligence was more penetrative, earnest, disputative, 
occupied with substantial problems. Starting with theological 
criticism, proceeding to the stage of solid studies in the three 
learned languages, German humanism occupied the attention of a 
widely scattered sect of erudite scholars; but it did not arouse the 
interest of the whole nation until it was forced into a violently 
militant attitude by Pfefferkorn's attack on Reuchlin. That 
attempt to extinguish honest thought prepared the Reformation; 
and humanism after 1518 was absorbed in politico-religious warfare. 
The point of contact between humanism and the Reformation in 
Germany has to be insisted on; for it is just here that the relation 
of the Reformation to the Renaissance in general makes 
Relation itself apparent. As the Renaissance had its precur- 
of human- sory movements in the medieval period, so the German 
ism to the Reformation was preceded by Wickliffe and Huss, by the 
discontents of the Great Schism and by the councils of Con- 
stance and Basel. These two main streams of modern 
progress had been proceeding upon different tracks to 
diverse issues, but they touched in the studies stimulated by 
the Revival, and they had a common origin in the struggle of the 
spirit after self-emancipation. Johann Reuchlin, who entered the 
lecture-room of Argyropoulos at Rome in 1482, Erasmus of Rotter- 
dam, who once dwelt at Venice as the house guest of the Aldi, applied 
their critical knowledge of Hebrew and of Greek to the elucidation 
and diffusion of the Bible. To the Germans, as to all nations of 
that epoch, the Bible came as a new book, because they now read it 
for the first time with eyes opened by humanism. The touch of the 
new spirit which had evolved literature, art and culture in Italy 
sufficed in Germany to recreate Christianity. This new spirit in 
Italy emancipated human intelligence by the classics; in Germany 
it emancipated the human conscience by the Bible. The indigna- 
tion excited by Leo X.'s sale of indulgences, the moral rage stirred 
in Northern hearts by papal abominations in Rome, were external 
causes which precipitated the schism between Teutonic and Latin 
Christianity. The Reformation, inspired by the same energy of 
resuscitated life as the Renaissance, assisted by the same engines of 
the printing-press and paper, using the same apparatus of scholar- 
ship, criticism, literary skill, being in truth another manifestation 
of the same world-movement under a diverse form, now posed 
itself as an irreconcilable antagonist to Renaissance Italy. It would 
be difficult to draw any comparison between German and Italian 
humanists to the disparagement of the former. Reuchlin was no less 
learned than Pico; Melanchthon no less humane than Ficino; 
Erasmus no less witty, and far more trenchant, than Petrarch ; 
Ulrich von Hutten no less humorous than Folengo; Paracelsus 
no less fantastically learned than Cardano. But the cause in which 
German intellect and will were enlisted was so different that it is 
difficult not to make a formal separation between that movement 
which evolved culture in Italy and that which restored religion in 
Germany, establishing the freedom of intelligence in the one sphere 
and the freedom of the conscience in the other. The truth is that 
the Reformation was the Teutonic Renaissance. It was the emanci- 
pation of the reason on a line neglected by the Italians, more impor- 
tant indeed in its political consequences, more weighty in its bearing 
on rationalistic developments than the Italian Renaissance, but 
none the less an outcome of the same ground-influences. We have 
already in this century reached a point at which, in spite of 
stubborn Protestant dogmatism and bitter Catholic reaction, we 
can perceive how the ultimate affranchisement of man will be 
the work of both. 



Ism to the 
German 
Reform a 
tion. 



The German Reformation was incapable of propagating itself in 
Italy, chiefly for the reason that the intellectual forces which it 
represented and employed had already found specific _.. 
outlet in that country. It was not in the nature of the catholic 
Italians, sceptical and paganized by the Revival, to be rev ival 
keenly interested about questions which seemed to revive ]n / ta i K< 
the scholastic disputes of the middle ages. It was not in ' 

their external conditions, suffering as they were from invasions, 
enthralled by despots, to use the Reformation as a lever for political 
revolution. Yet when a tumultuary army of so-called Lutherans 
sacked Rome in 1527 no sober thinker doubted that a new agent had 
appeared in Europe which would alter the destinies of the peninsula. 
The Renaissance was virtually closed, so far as it concerned Italy, 
when Clement VII. and Charles V. struck their compact at Bologna 
in 1530. This compact proclaimed the principle of monarchical 
absolutism, supported by papal authority, itself monarchically 
absolute, which influenced Europe until the outbreak of the Revolu- 
tion. A reaction immediately set in both against the Renaissance 
and the Reformation. The council of Trent, opened in 1545 and 
closed in 1563, decreed a formal purgation of the church, affirmed 
the fundamental doctrines of Catholicism, strengthened the papal 
supremacy, and inaugurated that movement of resistance which is 
known as the Counter-Reformation. The complex onward effort 
of the modern nations, expressing itself in Italy as Renaissance, in 
Germany as Reformation, had aroused the forces of conservatism. 
The four main instruments of the reaction were the papacy, which 
had done so much by its sympathy with the revival to promote the 
humanistic spirit it now dreaded, the strength of Spain, and two 
Spanish institutions planted on Roman soil — the Inquisition and the 
Order of Jesus. The principle contended for and established by 
this reaction was absolutism as opposed to freedom — monarchical 
absolutism, papal absolutism, the suppression of energies liberated 
by the Renaissance and the Reformation. The partial triumph of this 
principle was secure, inasmuch as the majority of established powers 
in church and state felt threatened by the revolutionary opinions 
afloat in Europe. Renaissance and Reformation were, moreover, 
already at strife. Both, too, were spiritual and elastic tendencies 
toward progress, ideals rather than solid organisms. 

The part played by Spain in this period of history was deter- 
mined in large measure by external circumstance. The Spaniards 
became one nation by the conquest of Granada and the 
union of the crowns of Castile and Aragon. The war of ^f "„ 
national aggrandizement, being in its nature a crusade, 



the Re- 
naissance 



inflamed the religious enthusiasm of the people. It Derfod _ 
was followed by the expulsion of Jews and Moors, and by '^ . 
the establishment of the Inquisition on a solid basis, with j e # ere> 
powers formidable to the freedom of all Spaniards from the 
peasant to the throne. These facts explain the decisive action of 
the Spanish nation on the side of Catholic conservatism, and help 
us to understand why their brilliant achievements in the field of 
culture during the 16th century were speedily followed by stag- 
nation. It will be well, in dealing with the' Renaissance in Spain, to 
touch first upon the arts and literature, and then to consider those 
qualities of character in action whereby the nation most distinguished 
itself from the rest of Europe. Architecture in Spain, emerging 
from the Gothic stage, developed an Early Renaissance style of 
bewildering richness by adopting elements of Arabic and Moorish 
decoration. Sculpture exhibited realistic vigour of indubitably 
native stamp; and the minor plastic crafts were cultivated with 
success on lines of striking originality. Painting grew from a 
homely stock, until the work of Velazquez showed that Spanish 
masters in this branch were fully abreast of their Italian compeers 
and contemporaries. To dwell here upon the Italianizing versifiers, 
moralists and pastoral romancers who attempted to refine the 
vernacular of the Romancero would be superfluous. They are 
mainly noticeable as proving that certain coteries in Spain were 
willing to accept the Italian Renaissance. But the real force of 
the people was not in this courtly literary style. It expressed 
itself at last in the monumental work of Don Quixote, which places 
Cervantes beside Rabelais, Ariosto and Shakespeare as one of the 
four supreme exponents of the Renaissance. The affectations of 
decadent chivalry disappeared before its humour; the lineaments 
of a noble nation, animated by the youth of modern Europe emerging 
from the middle ages, were portrayed in its enduring pictures 
of human experience. The Spanish drama, meanwhile, untram- 
melled by those false canons of pseudo-classic taste which fettered 
the theatre in Italy and afterwards in France, rose to an eminence in 
the hands of Lope de Vega and Calderon which only the English, and 
the English only in the masterpieces of three or four playwrights, 
can rival. Camoens, in the Lusiad, if we may here group Portugal 
with Spain, was the first modern poet to compose an epic on a purely 
modern theme, vying with Virgil, but not bending to pedantic 
rules, and breathing the spirit of the age of heroic adventures 
and almost fabulous discoveries into his melodious numbers. What 
has chiefly to be noted regarding the achievements of the Spanish 
race in arts and letters at this epoch is their potent national origin- 
ality. The revival of learning produced in Spain no slavish imitation 
as it did in Italy, no formal humanism, and, it may be added, very 
little of fruitful scholarship. The Renaissance here, as in England. 



9 o 



RENAISSANCE 



displayed essential qualities of intellectual freedom, delight in life, 
exultation over rediscovered earth and man. The note of Renais- 
sance work in Germany was still Gothic. This we feel in the 
penetrative earnestness of Diirer, in the homeliness of Hans Sachs, 
in the grotesque humour of Eulenspiegel and the Narrenschiff, 
the sombre pregnancy of the Faust legend, the almost stolid mastery 
of Holbein. It lay not in the German genius to escape from the 
preoccupations and the limitations of the middle ages, for this 
reason mainly that what we call medieval was to a very large 
extent Teutonic. But on the Spanish peninsula, in the master- 
pieces of Velazquez, Cervantes, Camoens, Calderon, we emerge 
into an atmosphere of art, definitely national, distinctly modern, 
where solid natural forms stand before us realistically modelled, 
with light and shadow on their rounded outlines, and where the 
airiest creatures of the fancy take shape and weave a dance of 
rhythmic, light, incomparable intricacy. The Spanish Renaissance 
would in itself suffice, if other witnesses were wanting, to prove 
how inaccurate is the theory that limits this movement to the 
revival of learning. Touched by Italian influences, enriched and 
fortified by the new learning, Spanish genius walked firmly forward on 
its own path. It was only crushed by forces generated in the nation 
that produced it, by the Inquisition and by despotic Catholic 
absolutism. 

In the history of the Renaissance, Spain and Portugal represent 
the exploration of the ocean and the colonization of the other 
Bxolora- hemisphere. The voyages of Columbus and Vespucci 
Hon of *° America, the rounding of the Cape by Diaz and the 
the ocean, discovery of the sea road to India by Vasco da Gama, 
Cortes's conquest of Mexico and Pizarro's conquest of 
Peru, marked a new era for the human race and inaugurated 
the modern age more decisively than any other series of events 
has done. It has recently been maintained that modern European 
history is chiefly an affair of competition between confederated 
states for the possession of lands revealed by Columbus and Da 
Gama. Without challenging or adopting this speculation, it may 
be safely affirmed that nothing so pregnant of results has happened 
as this exploration of the globe. To say that it displaced the centre 
of gravity in politics and commerce, substituting the ocean for the 
Mediterranean, dethroning Italy from her seat of central importance 
in traffic, depressing the eastern and elevating the western powers 
of Europe, opening a path for Anglo-Saxon expansiveness, forcing 
philosophers and statesmen to regard the Occidental nations as a 
single group in counterpoise to other groups of nations, the European 
community as one unit correlated to other units of humanity upon 
this planet, is truth enough to vindicate the vast significance of 
these discoveries. The Renaissance, far from being the re-birth 
of antiquity with its civilization confined to the Mediterranean, 
with its Hercules' Pillars beyond which lay Cimmerian darkness, 
was thus effectively the entrance upon a quite incalculably wider 
stage of life, on which mankind at large has since enacted one great 
drama. 

While Spanish navies were exploring the ocean, and Spanish 
paladins were overturning empires, Charles V. headed the reaction 
Doematlc °^ Catholicism against reform. Stronger as king of Spain 
Catholi- than as emperor, for the Empire was little but a name, 
elsm. " h e ' ent tne we 'ght of his authority to that system of 
coercion and repression which enslaved Italy, desolated 
Germany with war, and drowned the Low Countries in blood. 
Philip II., with full approval of the Spanish nation, pursued the same 
policy in an even stricter spirit. He was powerfully assisted by 
two institutions, in which the national character of Spain expressed 
itself, the Inquisition and the Society of Jesus. Of the former 
it is not needful to speak here. But we have to observe that the 
last great phenomenon of the Spanish Renaissance was Ignatius 
Loyola, who organized the militia by means of which the church 
worked her Counter- Reformation. His motto, Perinde oc cadaver, 
expressed that recognition of absolutism which papacy and 
monarchy demanded for their consolidation (see JESUITS and 
Loyola). 

The logical order of an essay which attempts to show how 
Renaissance was correlated to Reformation and Counter- 
Fraace la Reformation has necessitated the treatment of Italy, 
the Re- Germany and Spain in succession; for these three 
aaissance na tj ons were t ne three main agents in the triple 
' process to be analysed. It was due to their specific 
qualities, and to the diverse circumstances of their external 
development, that the re-birth of Europe took this form of 
duplex action on the lines of intellectual and moral progress, 
followed by reaction against mental freedom. We have now to 
speak of France, which earliest absorbed the influence of the 
Italian revival, and of England, which received it latest. The 
Renaissance may be said to have begun in France with Charles 
VIII. 's expedition to Naples, and to have continued until the 
extinction of the house of Valois. Louis XII. and Francis I. 
spent a considerable portion of their reigns in the attempt to 



secure possession of the Italian provinces they claimed. Henry 
II. 's queen was Catherine of the Medicean family; and her 
children, Charles IX. and Henry III., were Italianated French- 
men. Thus the connexion between France and Italy during 
the period 1494-1589 was continuous. The French passed to 
and fro across the Alps on military and peaceful expeditions. 
Italians came to France as courtiers, ambassadors, men of 
business, captains and artists. French society assumed a 
strong Italian colouring, nor were the manners of the court very 
different from those of an Italian city, except that externally 
they remained ruder and less polished. The relation between 
the crown and its great feudatories, the military bias of the 
aristocracy, and the marked distinction between classes 
which survived from the middle ages, rendered France 
in many vital points unlike Italy. Yet the annals o' 
that age, and the anecdotes retailed by Brantome, prove 
that the royalty and nobility of France had been largely 
Italianized. 

It is said that Louis XII. brought Fra Giocondo of Verona back 
with him to France, and founded a school of architects. But we 
need not have recourse to this legend for the explanation French 
of such Italian influences as were already noticeable archltec- 
in the Renaissance buildings on the Loire. Without ture. 
determining the French style, Italian intercourse helped 
to stimulate its formation and development. There are students 
of the 15th century in France who resent this intrusion of the 
Italian Renaissance. But they forget that France was bound by 
inexorable laws of human evolution to obey the impulse which 
communicated itself to every form of art in Europe. In the school 
of Fontainebleau, under the patronage of Francis I , that Italian 
influence made itself distinctly felt; yet a true French manner 
had been already formed, which, when it was subsequently applied 
at Paris, preserved a marked national quality. The characteristic 
of the style developed by Bullant, De l'Orme and Lescot,, in the 
royal or princely palaces of Chenonceaux, Chambord, Anet, Ecouen, 
Fontainebleau, the Louvre and elsewhere, is a blending of capricious 
fancy and inventive richness of decoration with purity of outline 
and a large sense of the beauty of extended masses. Beginning 
with the older castles of Touraine, and passing onward to the 
Tuileries, we trace the passage from the medieval fortress to the 
modern pleasure-house, and note how architecture obeyed the 
special demands of that new phenomenon of Renaissance civiliza- 
tion, the court. In the general distribution of parts these monu- 
mental buildings express the peculiar conditions wnich French 
society assumed under the influence of Francis I. and Diane de 
Poitiers. In details of execution and harmonic combinations they 
illustrate the precision, logic, lucidity and cheerful spirit of the 
national genius. Here, as in Lombardy, a feeling for serene beauty 
derived from study of the antique has not interrupted the evolution 
of a style indigenous to France and eminently characteristic of the 
French temperament. 

During the reign of Francis I. several Italian painters of eminence 
visited France. Among these, Del Rosso, Primaticcio, Del Sarto 
and Da Vinci are the most famous. But their example c renc t 
was not productive of a really great school of French paint- oa j n ti as! 
ing. It was left for the Poussins and Claude Lorraine anli 
in the next century, acting under mingled Italian and sculpture. 
Flemish influences, to embody the still active spirit of 
the classical revival. These three masters were the contemporaries 
of Corneille, and do not belong to the Renaissance period. Sculp- 
ture, on the contrary, in which art, as in architecture, the medieval 
French had been surpassed by no other people of Europe, was 
practised with originality and power in the reigns of Henry II. 
and Francis I. Ponzio and Cellini, who quitted Italy for France, 
found themselves outrivalled in their own sphere by Jean Goujon, 
Cousin and Pilon. The decorative sculpture of this epoch, whether 
combined with architecture or isolated in monumental statuary, 
ranks for grace and suavity with the best of Sansovino's. At the 
same time it is unmistakably inspired by a sense of beauty different 
from the Italian — more piquant and pointed, less languorous, 
more mannered perhaps, but with less of empty rhythmical effect. 
All this while, the minor arts of enamelling, miniature, glass-paint- 
ing, goldsmith's work, jewellery, engraving, tapestry, wood-carving, 
pottery, &c, were cultivated with a spontaneity and freedom which 
proved that France, in the middle point between Flanders and Italy, 
was able to use both influences without a sacrifice of native taste. 
It may indeed be said in general that what is true of France is 
likewise true of all countries which felt the artistic impulses of 
the Renaissance. Whether we regard Spain, the Netherlands, or 
Germany at this epoch, we find a national impress stamped upon 
the products of the plastic and the decorative arts, notwithstanding 
the prevalence of certain forms derived from the antique and Italy. 
It was only at a later period that the formalism of pseudo-classic 
pedantry reduced natural and national originality to a dead 
unanimity. 



RENAISSANCE 



9* 



French literature was quick to respond to Renaissance influences. 
De Comines, the historian of Charles VIII. 's expedition to Naples, 
Preach differs from the earlier French chroniclers in his way of 
literature " e g ar ding the world of men and affairs. He has the 
perspicuity and analytical penetration of a Venetian 
ambassador. Villon, his contemporary, may rather be ranked, 
so far as artistic form and use of knowledge are concerned, with 
poets of the middle ages, and in particular with the Goliardi. But 
he is essentially modern in the vividness of his self-portraiture, 
and in what we are wont to call realism. Both De Comines and 
Villon indicate the entrance of a new quality into literature. The 
Rhetoriqueurs, while protracting medieval traditions by their use 
of allegory and complicated metrical systems, sought to improve 
the French language by introducing Latinisms. Thus the Revival 
of Learning began to affect the vernacular in the last years of the 
15th century. Marot and his school reacted against this pedantry. 
The Renaissance displayed itself in their effort to purify the form 
and diction of poetry. But the decisive revolution was effected 
by Ronsard and his comrades of the Pleiade. It was their professed 
object to raise French to a level with the classics, and to acclimatize 
Italian species of verse. The humanistic movement led these 
learned writers to engraft the graces of the antique upon their 
native literature, and to refine it by emulating the lucidity of 
Petrarch. The result of their endeavour was immediately apparent 
in the new force added to French rhythm, the new pomp, richness, 
colouring and polish conferred upon poetic diction. French style 
gradually attained to fixity, and the alexandrine came to be recog- 
nized as the standard line in poetry. D'Aubigne's invective and 
Regnier's satire, at the close of the 16th century, are as modern as 
Voltaire's. Meanwhile the drama was emerging from the medieval 
mysteries; and the classical type, made popular by Garnier's 
genius, was elaborated, as in Italy, upon the model of Seneca and 
the canons- of the three unities. The tradition thus formed was 
continued and fortified by the illustrious playwrights of the 17th 
century. Translation from Greek and Latin into French progressed 
rapidly at the commencement of this period. It was a marked 
characteristic of the Renaissance in France to appropriate the 
spoils of Greece and Rome for the profit of the mother tongue. 
Amyot's Plutarch and his Daphnis and Chloe rank among the 
most exquisite examples of beautiful French prose. Prose had now 
the charm of simplicity combined with grace. To mention Bran- 
l6me is to mention the most entertaining of gossips. To speak of 
Montaigne is to speak of the best as well as the first of essayists. 
In all the literary work which has been mentioned, the originality 
and freshness of the French genius are no less conspicuous 
than its saturation with the new learning and with Italian 
studies. But the greatest name of the epoch, the name which 
is synonymous with the Renaissance in France, has yet to be 
uttered. That, of course, is Rabelais. His incommensurable 
and indescribable masterpiece of mingled humour, wisdom, 
satire, erudition, indecency, profundity, levity, imagina- 
tion, realism, reflects the whole age in its mirror of hyper- 
Aristophanic farce. What Ariosto is for Italy, Cervantes for 
Spain, Erasmus for Holland, Luther for Germany, Shakespeare 
for England, that is Rabelais for France. The Renaissance can- 
not be comprehended in its true character without familiarity 
with these six representatives of its manifold and many-sided 
inspiration. 

The French Renaissance, so rich on the side of arts and letters, 
was hardly less rich on the side of classical studies. The revival 

of learning has a noble muster-roll of names in France : 
hi Turnebus, the patriarch of Hellenistic studies; the 

SC hlo' U The ktiennes of Paris, equalling in numbers, industry and 
s „ £__.. learning their Venetian rivals; the two Scaligers; impas- 
llonln ' s ' one d Dolet; eloquent Murct; learned Cujas; terrible 
France Calvin; Ramus, the intrepid antagonist of Aristotle; 

De Thou and De Beze; ponderous Casaubon; brilliant 
young Saumaise. The distinguishing characteristics of French 
humanism are vivid intelligence, critical audacity and polemical 
acumen, perspicuity of exposition, learning directed in its appli- 
cations by logical sense rather than by artistic ideals of taste. 
Some of the names just mentioned remind us that in France, as 
in Germany and Holland, the Reformation was closely connected 
with the revival of learning. Humanism has never been in the 
narrow sense of that term Protestant; still less has it been strictly 
Catholic. In Italy it fostered a temper of mind decidedly averse 
to theological speculation and religious earnestness. In Holland 
and Germany, with Erasmus, Reuchlin and Melanchthon, it de- 
veloped types of character, urbane, reflective, pointedly or gentlv 
critical, which, left to themselves, would not have plunged the north 
of Europe into the whirlpool of belligerent reform. Yet none the 
less was the new learning, through the open spirit of inquiry it 
nourished, its vindication of the private reason, its enthusiasm for 
republican antiquity, and its proud assertion of the rights of human 
independence, linked by a strong and subtle chain to that turbid 
revolt of the individual consciousness against spiritual despotism 
draped in fallacies and throned upon abuses. To this rebellion 
we give the name of Reformation. But, while the necessities of 
antagonism to papal Rome made it assume at first the form of 



narrow and sectarian opposition, it marked in fact a vital struggle 
of the intellect towards truth and freedom, involving future results 
of scepticism and rationalistic audacity from which its earlier 
champions would have shrunk. It marked, moreover, in the con- 
dition of armed resistance against established authority which was 
forced upon it by the Counter-Reformation, a firm resolve to assert 
political liberty, leading in the course of time to a revolution with 
which the rebellious spirit of the Revival was sympathetic. This 
being the relation of humanism in general to reform, French learn- 
ing in particular displayed such innovating boldness as threw many 
of its most conspicuous professors into the camp at war with Rome. 
Calvin, a French student of Picard origin, created the type of 
Protestantism to which the majority of French Huguenots adhered. 
This too was a moment at which philosophical seclusion was hardly 
possible. In a nation so tumultuously agitated one side or the 
other had to be adopted. Those of the French humanists who did 
not proclaim Huguenot opinions found themselves obliged with 
Muretus to lend their talents to the Counter-Reformation, or to 
suffer persecution for heterodoxy, like Dolet. The church, terrified 
and infuriated by the progress of reform, suspected learning on its 
own account. To be an eminent scholar was to be accused of 
immorality, heresy and atheism in a single indictment; and the 
defence of weaker minds lay in joining the Jesuits, as Heinsius was 
fain to do. France had already absorbed the earlier Renaissance 
in an Italianizing spirit before the Reformation made itself felt 
as a political actuality. This fact, together with the strong 
Italian bias of the Valois, serves to explain in some degree 
the reason why the Counter-Reformation entailed those fierce 
entangled civil wars, massacres of St Bartholomew, murders 
of the Guises, regicides, treasons and empoisonments that ter- 
minated with the compromise of Henry IV. It is no part 
of the present subject to analyse the political, religious and 
social interests of that struggle. The upshot was the triumph 
of the Counter- Reformation, and the establishment of its 
principle, absolutism, as the basis of French government. It 
was ,a French king who, when the nation had been reduced to 
order, uttered the famous word of absolutism, " L'Etat, e'est 
moi." 

The Renaissance in the Low Countries, as elsewhere, had its 
brilliant age of arts and letters. During the middle ages the wealthy 
free towns of Flanders flourished under conditions not 
dissimilar to those of the Italian republics. They raised j™f 
miracles of architectural beauty, which were modified in ™<* er- 
the 15th and 16th centuries by characteristic elements /an< **— 



vi Liit new nLyic. 111c van r,ytits, luiioweu uy lviemiing, rf 

Metsys, Mabuse, Lucas van Leyden, struck out a new path ouLh 
in the revival of painting and taught Europe the secret oa i B ti„. 
of oil-colouring. But it was reserved for the 1 7th century 
to witness the flower and fruit time of this powerful art in 
the work of Porbus, Rubens and Vandyck, in the Dutch schools 
of landscape and home-life, and in the unique masterpieces of 
Rembrandt. We have a right to connect this later period with 
the Renaissance, because the distracted state of the Netherlands 
during the 16th century suspended, while it could not extinguish, 
their aesthetic development. The various schools of the 17th 
century, moreover, are animated with the Renaissance spirit no 
less surely than the Florentine school of the 15th or the Venetian 
of the 16th. The animal vigour and carnal enjoyment of Rubens, 
the refined Italianizing beauty of Vandyck, the mystery of light 
and gloom on Rembrandt's panels, the love of nature in Ruysdael, 
Cuyp and Van Hooghe, with their luminously misty skies, silvery 
daylight and broad expanse of landscape, the interest in common 
life displayed by Ter Borch, Van Steen, Douw, Ostade and Teniers, 
the instinct for the beauty of animals in Potter, the vast sea spaces 
of Vanderveldt, the grasp on reality, the acute intuition into char- 
acter in portraits, the scientific study of the world and man, the 
robust sympathy with natural appetites, which distinguish the 
whole art of the Low Countries, are a direct emanation from the 
Renaissance. 

The vernacular in the Netherlands profited at first but little 
by the impulse which raised Italian, Spanish, French and English 
to the rank of classic languages. But humanism, first of _. 
all in its protagonist Erasmus, afterwards in the long *J"„ *! h 
list of critical scholars and editors, Lipsius, Heinsius aa ° y 
and Grotius, in the printers Elzevir and Plantin, developed fjLjf 
itself from the centre of the Leiden university with p ' 
massive energy, and proved that it was still a motive force 
of intellectual progress. In the fields of classical learning the 
students of the Low Countries broke new ground chiefly by 
methodical collection, classification and comprehensive criticism 
of previously accumulated stores. Their works were solid and sub- 
stantial edifices, forming the substratum for future scholarship. 
In addition to this they brought philosophy and scientific thorough- 
ness to bear on studies which had been pursued in a more literary 
spirit. It would, however, be uncritical to pursue this subject 
further; for the encyclopaedic labours of the Dutch philologers 
belong to a period when the Renaissance was overpast. For the 
same reason it is inadmissible to do more than mention the name 
of Spinoza here. 



92 



RENAISSANCE 



The Netherlands became the battlefield of Reformation and 
Counter- Reformation in even a stricter sense than France. Hv" > 
_ . the antagonistic principles were plainly posed in the 

" C t course of struggle against foreign despotism. The 
T'a" ° rf conn ' ct ended in the assertion of political independence 
independ- as QppQggd j absolute dominion. Europe in large measure 
eace. owes the modern ideal of political liberty to that spirit 

of stubborn resistance which broke the power of Spain. Recent 
history, and in particular the history of democracy, claims for its 
province the several stages whereby this principle was developed 
in England and America, and its outburst in the frenzy of the 
French Revolution. It is enough here to have alluded to the part 
played by the Low Countries in the genesis of a motive force which 
may be described as the last manifestation of the Renaissance 
striving after self-emancipation. 

The insular position of England, combined with the nature 
of the English people, has allowed us to feel the vibration of 
England European movements later and with less of shock 
in the Re- than any of the continental nations. Before a wave 
naissance f progress has reached our shores we have had the 
pe od. opportunity of watching it as spectators, and of con- 
sidering how wc shall receive it. Revolutions have passed 
from the tumultuous stages of their origin into some settled 
and recognizable state before we have been called upon to 
cope with them. It was thus that England took the 
influences of the Renaissance and Reformation simultaneously, 
and almost at the same time found herself engaged in that 
struggle with the Counter-Reformation which, crowned by 
the defeat of the Spanish Armada, stimulated the sense of 
nationality and developed the naval forces of the race. Both 
Renaissance and Reformation had been anticipated by at least 
a century in England. Chaucer's poetry, which owed so much 
to Italian examples, gave an early foretaste of the former. 
Wickliffe's teaching was a vital moment in the latter. But 
the French wars, the Wars of the Roses and the persecution 
of the Lollards deferred the coming of the new age; and the 
year 1536, when Henry VIII. passed the Act of Supremacy 
through parliament, may be fixed as the date when England 
entered definitively upon a career of intellectual development 
abreast with the foremost nations of the continent. The 
circumstances just now insisted on explain the specific character 
of the English Renaissance. The Reformation had been adopted 
by consent of the king, lords and commons; and this change 
in the state religion, though it was not confirmed without 
reaction, agitation and bloodshed, cost the nation comparatively 
Combined little disturbance. Humanism, before it affected the 
influences bulk of the English people, had already permeated 
saace"and l tauan an( i French literature. Classical erudition 
Reforms- had been adapted to the needs of modern thought. 
tlon. The hard work of collecting, printing, annotating 

and translating Greek and Latin authors had been 
accomplished. The masterpieces of antiquity had been 
interpreted and made intelligible. Much of the learning 
popularized by our poets and dramatists was derived at second 
hand from modern literature. This does not mean that England 
was deficient in ripe and sound scholars. More, Colet, Ascham, 
Cheke, Camden were men whose familiarity with the classics 
was both intimate and easy. Public schools and universities 
conformed to the modern methods of study; nor were there 
wanting opportunities for youths of humble origin to obtain an 
education which placed them on a level with Italian scholars. 
The single case of Ben Jonson sufficiently proves this. Yet 
learning did not at this epoch become a marked speciality in 
England. There was no class corresponding to the humanists. 
It should also be remembered that the best works of Italian 
literature were introduced into Great Britain together with the 
classics. Phaer's Virgil, Chapman's Homer, Harrington's 
Orlando, Marlowe's Hero and Lcandcr, Fairfax's Jerusalem 
Delivered, North's Plutarch, Hoby's Courtier — to mention only a 
few examples — placed English readers simultaneously in posses- 
sion of the most eminent and representative works of Greece, 
Rome and Italy. At the same time Spanish influences reached 
them through the imitators of Guevara and the dramatists; 
French influences in the versions of romances; German in- 



fluences in popular translations of the Faust legend, Eultn- 
spiegcl and similar productions. The authorized version of the 
Bible had also been recently given to the people — so that almost 
at the same period of time England obtained in the vernacular 
an extensive library of ancient and modern authors. This was 
a privilege enjoyed in like measure by no other nation. It 
sufficiently accounts for the richness and variety of Elizabethan 
literature, and for the enthusiasm with which- the English 
language was cultivated. 

Speaking strictly, England borrowed little in the region of the 
arts from other nations, and developed still less that was original. 
What is called Jacobean architecture marks indeed an . . 
interesting stage in the transition from the Gothic style. 2*» 
But, compared with Italian, French, Spanish, German and T"t 

Flemish work of a like period, it is both timid and dry. ■»<"*« 
Sculpture was represented in London for a brief space by "T'nia. 
Torrigiani; painting by Holbein and Antonio More; music by 
Italians and Frenchmen of the Chape! Royal. But no Englishmen 
rose to European eminence in these departments. With literature 
the case was very different. Wyat and Surrey began by engrafting 
the forms and graces of Italian poetry upon the native stock. They 
introduced the sonnet and blank verse. Sidney followed with the 
scstine and terza rima and with various experiments in classic 
metres, none of which took root on English soil. The translators 
handled the octave stanza. Marlowe gave new vigour to the 
couplet. The first period of the English Renaissance was one of 
imitation and assimilation. Academies after the Italian type were 
founded. Tragedies in the style of Seneca, rivalling Italian and 
French dramas of the epoch, were produced. Attempts to Latinize 
ancestral rhythms, similar to those which had failed in Italy and 
France, were made. Tentative essays in criticism and dissertations 
on the art of poetry abounded. It seemed as thouglvthe Renaissance 
ran a risk of being throttled in its cradle by superfluity of foreign and 
pedantic nutriment. But the natural vigour of the English genius 
resisted influences alien to itself, and showed a robust capacity 
for digesting the varied diet offered to it. As there was nothing 
despotic in the temper of the ruling classes, nothing oppressive in 
English culture, the literature of that age evolved itself freely from 
the people. It was under these conditions that Spenser gave his 
romantic epic to the world, a poem which derived its allegory from 
the middle ages, its decorative richness from the Italian Renaissance, 
its sweetness, purity, harmony and imaginative splendour from the 
most poetic nation of the modern world. Under the same conditions 
the Elizabethan drama, which in its totality is the real exponent of 
the English Renaissance, came into existence. This drama very 
early freed itself from the pseudo-classic mannerism which imposed 
on taste in Italy and France. Depicting feudalism in the vivid 
colours of an age at war with feudal institutions, breathing into 
antique histories the breath of actual life, embracing the romance of 
Italy and Spain, the mysteries of German legend, the fictions of poetic 
fancy and the facts of daily life, humours of the moment and abstrac 
tions of philosophical speculation, in one homogeneous amalgani 
instinct with intense vitality, this extraordinary birth of time, with 
Shakespeare for the master of all ages, left a monument of the Re- 
naissance unrivalled for pure creative power by any other product 
of that epoch. To complete the sketch, wc must set Bacon, the 
expositor of modern scientific method, beside Spenser and Shake- 
speare, as the third representative of the Renaissance in England. 
Nor should Raleigh, Drake, Hawkins, the semi-buccaneer explorers 
of the ocean, be omitted. They, following the lead of Enrllsh 
Portuguese and Spaniards, combating the Counter-Re- reaction 
formation on the seas, opened for England her career . t 

of colonization and plantation. -All this while the political A,thH- 
policy of Tudors and Stewarts tended towards monarchical 



clsm, 
monarch- 



absolutism, while the Reformation in England, modified 
by contact with the Low Countries during their struggles, ,, 7~ h ~ 
was narrowing into strict reactionary intolerance. Pun- /?, 
tanism indicated a revolt of the religious conscience of so ™™' B ' 
the nation against the arts and manners of the Renais- * 
sance, against the encroachments of belligerentCatholicism, nal ' s * ace 
against the corrupt and Italianated court of James I., cuUure - 
against the absolutist pretensions of his son Charles. In its final 
manifestation during the Commonwealth, Puritanism won a tran- 
sient victory over the mundane forces of both Reformation and 
Renaissance, as these had taken shape in England. It also secured 
the eventual triumph of constitutional independence. Milton, the 
greatest humanistic poet of the English race, lent his pen and moral 
energies during the best years of his life to securing that principle 
on which modern political systems at present rest. Thus the geo- 
graphical isolation of England, and. the comparatively late adoption 
by the English of matured Italian and German influences, give 
peculiar complexity to the phenomena of Reformation and Re- 
naissance simultaneously developed on our island. The period of 
our history between 1536 and 1642 shows how difficult it is to 
separate these two factors in the re-birth of Europe, both of which 
contributed so powerfully to the formation of modern English 
nationality. 



RENAIX— RENAN 



93 



It has been impossible to avoid an air of superficiality, and 
the repetition of facts known to every schoolboy, in this sketch 
Ne W of so complicated a subject as the Renaissance, — em- 

poiitical bracing many nations, a great variety of topics and 
relations an indefinite period of time. Yet no other treatment 
dating was possible upon the lines laid down at the outset, 
from the where it was explained why the term Renaissance 
Renals- cannot now be confined to the Revival of Learning 
sance. an( j ^g e ff ec t f antique studies upon literary 
and artistic ideals. The purpose of this article has been 
to show that, while the Renaissance implied a new way of 
regarding the material world and human nature, a new concep- 
tion of man's destiny and duties on this planet, a new culture 
and new intellectual perceptions penetrating every sphere of 
thought and energy, it also involved new reciprocal relations 
between the members of the European group of nations. The 
Renaissance closed the middle ages and opened the modern era, 
— not merely because the mental and moral ideas which then 
sprang into activity and owed their force in large measure to 
the revival of classical learning were opposed to medieval 
modes of thinking and feeling, but also because the political 
and international relations specific to it as an age were at 
variance with fundamental theories of the past. Instead of 
empire and church, the sun and moon of the medieval system, 
a federation of peoples, separate in type and divergent in 
interests, yet bound together by common tendencies, common 
culture and common efforts, came into existence. For obedi- 
ence to central authority was substituted balance of power. 
Henceforth th.e hegemony of Europe attached to no crown, 
imperial or papal, but to the nation which was capable of 
winning it, in the spiritual region by mental ascendancy, and 
in the temporal by force. 

That this is the right way of regarding the subject appears 
from the events of the first two decades of the 16th century, 
Conserva- those years in which the humanistic revival attained its 
tive and highest point in Italy. Luther published his theses in 
s/ve™" I S I 7> sixty-four years after the fall of Constantinople, 
parties la twenty-three years after the expedition of Charles 
modem VIII. to Naples, ten years before the sack of 
Europe. Rome, at a moment when France, Spain and 
England had only felt the influences of Italian culture but 
feebly. From that date forward two parties wrestled for 
supremacy in Europe, to which may be given the familiar 
names of Liberalism and Conservatism, the party of pro- 
gress and the party of established institutions. The triumph 
of the former was most signal among the Teutonic peoples. 
The Latin races, championed by Spain and supported by the 
papacy, fought the battle of the latter, and succeeded for a 
time in rolling back the tide of revolutionary conquest. Mean- 
while that liberal culture which had been created for Europe 
by the Italians before the contest of the Reformation began 
continued to spread, although it was stifled in Italy and Spain, 
retarded in France and the Low Countries, well-nigh extirpated 
by wars in Germany, and diverted from its course in England 
by the counter-movement of Puritanism. The aulos da Ji of 
Seville and Madrid, the flames to which Bruno, Dolet and 
Paleario were flung, the dungeon of Campanella and the seclu- 
sion of Galileo, the massacre of St Bartholomew and the faggots 
of Smithfield, the desolated plains of Germany and the cruelties 
of Alva in the Netherlands, disillusioned Europe of those golden 
dreams which had arisen in the earlier days of humanism, and 
which had been so pleasantly indulged by Rabelais. In truth 
the Renaissance was ruled by no Astraea redux, but rather by a 
severe spirit which brought no peace but a sword, reminding 
men of sternest duties, testing what of moral force and tenacity 
was in them, compelling them to strike for the old order or the new, 
suffering no lukewarm halting between two opinions. That, 
in spite of retardation and retrogression, the old order of 
ideas should have yielded to the new all over Europe, — that 
science should have won firm standing-ground, and political 
liberty should have struggled through those birth-throes of its 
origin, — was in the nature of things. Had this not been, the 



Renaissance or re-birth of Europe would be a term without 
a meaning. (J. A. S.) 

Literature. — The special articles on the several arts and the 
literatures of modern Europe, and on the biographies of great men 
mentioned in this essay, will give details of necessity here omitted. 
Of works on the Renaissance in general may be mentioned Jacob 
Burckhardt, Die Cultur der Renaissance in Italien (Eng. trans., 1878) ; 
G. Voigt, Wiederbelebung des Classischen Alterthums (2 vols. 3rd ed., 
by M. Lehnerdt, 1893); J. A. Symonds, Renaissance in Italy; Marc 
Monnier, Renaissance de Dante a Luther; Eugene Miintz, Precur- 
seurs de la Renaissance (1882), Renaissance en Italie et en France 
(1885), and Hist, de I'art pendant la Renaissance (1889-95); Ludwig 
Geiger, Humanismus und Renaissance in Italien und Deutschland 
(1882), and Cambridge Modern History, vol. i., " The Renaissance " 
(Cambridge, 1903), where full bibliographies will be found. 

RENAIX, a town of Belgium in the province of East Flanders, 
8 m. S. of Oudenarde. It has extensive dyeworks, bleaching 
grounds and manufactories for linen and woollen goods. Pop. 
(1904) 20,760. 

RENAN, ERNEST (1823-1892), French philosopher and 
Orientalist, was born on the 27th of February 1823 at Treguier. 
His father's people were of the fisher-clan of Renans or Ronans; 
his grandfather, having made a small fortune by his fishing 
smack, bought a house at Treguier and settled there, and his 
father, captain of a small cutter and an ardent Republican, 
married the daughter of Royalist trading-folk from the neigh- 
bouring town of Lannion. All his life Renan was divided 
between his father's and his mother's political beliefs. He was 
only five years old when his father died, and his sister Henriette, 
twelve years older than Ernest, a girl of remarkable character, 
was henceforth morally the head of the household. Having in 
vain attempted to keep a school for girls at Treguier, she left her 
native place and went to Paris as teacher in a young ladies' 
boarding-school. Ernest meanwhile was educated in the 
ecclesiastical seminary of his native place. His good-conduct 
notes for this period describe him as " docile, patient, diligent, 
painstaking, thorough." We do not hear that he was brilliant, 
but the priests cared little for such qualities. While the priests 
were grounding him in mathematics and Latin, his mother 
completed his education. She was only half a Breton. Her 
paternal ancestors came from Bordeaux, and Renan used to say 
that in his own nature the Gascon and the Breton were con- 
stantly at odds. 

In the summer of 1838 Renan carried off all the prizes at the 
college of Treguier. His sister in Paris told the doctor of the 
school in which she taught about the success of her brother, 
and he carried the news to F. A. P. Dupanloup, then engaged in 
organizing the ecclesiastical college of St Nicholas du Char- 
donnet, a school in which the young Catholic nobility and the 
most gifted pupils of the Catholic seminaries were to be educated 
together, with a view to cementing the bond between the 
aristocracy and the priesthood. Dupanloup sent for Renan at 
once. He was fifteen and a half. He had never been outside 
his Breton province. " I learned with stupor that knowledge 
was not a privilege of the church ... I awoke to the meaning 
of the words talent, fame, celebrity." Above all, religion seemed 
to him wholly different in Treguier and in Paris. The super- 
ficial, brilliant, pseudo-scientific Catholicism of the capital did not 
satisfy Renan, who had accepted the austere faith of his Breton 
masters. 

In 1840 Renan left St Nicholas to study philosophy at the 
seminary of Issy. He entered with a passion for Catholic 
scholasticism. The rhetoric of St Nicholas had wearied him, 
and his serious intelligence hoped to satisfy itself with the vast 
and solid material of Catholic theology. Reid and Malebranche 
first attracted him among the philosophers, and after these he 
turned to Hegel, Kant and Herder. Renan began to perceive 
the essential contradiction between the metaphysics which he 
studied and the faith that he professed, but an appetite for 
truths that can be verified restrained his scepticism. " Philo- 
sophy excites and only half satisfies the appetite for truth; I 
am eager for mathematics," he wrote to his sister Henriette. 
Henriette had accepted in the family of Count Zamoyski an en- 
gagement more lucrative than her former place. She exercised 



94 



,RENAN 



the strongest influence over her brother, and her published 
letters reveal a mind almost equal, a moral nature superior, to 
his own 

It was not mathematics but philology which was to settle the 
gathering doubts of Ernest Renan. His course completed at 
Issy, he entered the college of St Sulpice in order to take his 
degree in philology prior to entering the church; and here he 
began the study of Hebrew. He saw that the second part of 
Isaiah differs from the first not only in style but in date; that the 
grammar and the history of the Pentateuch are posterior to the 
time of Moses; that the book of Daniel is clearly apocryphal. 
It followed from his training that, if you admit one error in a 
revealed text, you incriminate the whole. Secretly, Renan felt 
himself cut off from the communion of saints, and yet with his 
whole heart he desired to livt the life of a Catholic priest 
Hence a struggle between vocation and conviction; owing to 
Henriette, conviction gained the day. In October 1845 Renan 
left the seminary of St Sulpice for Stavistas, a lay college of the 
Oratorians. Finding himself even there too much under the 
domination of the church, a few weeks later he reluctantly broke 
the last tie which bound him to the religious life and entered 
M. Crouzet's school for boys as an usher. 

It is always dangerous to educate a really great mind in only 
one order of truth. Renan, brought up by priests in a world 
ruled by authority and curious only of feeling and opinion, was to 
accept the scientific ideal with an extraordinary expansion of all 
his faculties. He was henceforth ravished by the splendour 
of the cosmos. At the end of his life he wrote of Amiel, " The 
man who has time to keep a private diary has never understood 
the immensity of the universe." The certitudes of physical and 
natural science were revealed to Renan in 1846 by the chemist 
Marcellin Berthelot, then a boy of eighteen, his pupil at M. 
Crouzet's school. To the day of Renan's death their friendship 
continued. Renan was occupied as usher only in the evenings. 
In the daytime he continued his researches in Semitic philology. 
In 1847 he obtained the Prix Volney — one of the principal dis- 
tinctions awarded by the Academy of Inscriptions — for the 
manuscript of his " General History of Semitic Languages." 
In 1847 he took his degree as Agrege de Philosophie; that is to 
say, fellow of the university, and was offered a place as master 
in the lycee of Vendome. In 1848 a small temporary appoint- 
ment to the lycee of Versailles permitted him to return to the 
capital and resume his studies. 

The revolution of 1 848 aroused in Renan that side of him which 
loved the priesthood because " the priest lives for his fellows." 
He for the first time confronted the problems of Democracy. 
The result was an immense volume, The Future of Science, 
which remained in manuscript until 1890. L'Avenir de la 
science is an attempt to conciliate the privileges of a necessary 
Mile with the diffusion of the greatest good of the greatest 
number. The difficulty haunted Renan throughout his life. 
By the time he had finished his elaborate scheme for regenerating 
society by means of a devoted aristocracy of knowledge, and the 
diffusion of culture, the year 1848 was past, and with it his fever 
of Democracy. In 1849 the French government sent him to 
Italy on a scientific mission. He remained eight months abroad, 
during which he forgot his anxiety about the toilers' lot. 
Hitherto he had known nothing of art. In Italy the artist in him 
awoke and triumphed over the savant and the reformer. On 
his return to Paris Renan lived with his sister Henriette. A small 
post at the National Library, together with his sister's savings, 
furnished him with the means of livelihood. In the evenings he 
wrote for the Revue des deux mondes and the Debats the 
exquisite essays which appeared in 1857 and 1859 under the 
titles Etudes d'histoire religieuse and Essais de morale el de 
critique. In 1852 his book on Averroes had brought him not 
only his doctor's degree, but his first reputation as a thinker. 
In his two volumes of essays Renan shows himself a Liberal, but 
no longer a Democrat. Nothing, according to his philosophy, 
is less important than prosperity. The greatest good of the 
greatest number is a theory as dangerous as it is illusory. Man 
is not born to be prosperous, but to realize, in a little vanguard of 



chosen spirits, an ideal superior to the ideal of yesterday. Only 
the few can attain a complete development. Yet there is a 
solidarity between the chosen few and the masses which produce 
them; each has a duty to the other. The acceptance of this 
duty is the only foundation for a moral and just society The 
aristocratic idea has seldom been better stated. 

The success of the Etudes d'histoire religieuse and the Essais 
de morale had made the name of Renan known to a cultivated 
public. While Mademoiselle Renan remained shut up at home 
copying her brother's manuscripts or compiling material for his 
work, the young philosopher began to frequent more than one 
Parisian salon, and especially the studio of Ary Scheffer, at that 
time a noted social centre. In 1856 he proposed to marry 
Cornelie Scheffer, the niece and adopted daughter of the great 
Dutch painter. Not without a struggle Henriette consented 
not only to the marriage, but to make her home with the young 
couple, whose housekeeping depended on the sum that she 
could contribute. The history of this romance has been told by 
Renan in the memorial essay which he wrote some six years later, 
entitled Ma Sceur Henriette. His marriage brought much 
brightness into his life, a naturalness into his style and a greater 
attention to the picturesque. He did not forsake his studies in 
Semitic philology, and in 1859 appeared his translation of the 
Book of Job with an introductory essay, followed in 1859 by the 
Song of Songs. 

Renan was now a candidate for the chair of Hebrew and 
Chaldaic languages at the College de France, which he had 
desired since first he studied Hebrew at the seminary of St 
Sulpice. The death of the scholar Quatremere had left this post 
vacant in 1857. No one in France save Renan was capable of 
filling it. The Catholic party, upheld by the empress, would 
not appoint an unfrocked seminarist, a notorious heretic, to a 
chair of Biblical exegesis. Yet the emperor wished to conciliate 
Ernest Renan. He offered to send the young scholar on an 
archaeological mission to Phoenicia. Renan immediately accepted. 
Leaving his wife at home with their baby son, Renan left France, 
accompanied by his sister, in the summer of i860. Madame 
Renan joined them in January 1861, returning to France in 
July. The mission proved fruitful in Phoenician inscriptions 
which Renan published in his Mission de Phenicie. They form 
the base of that Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum on which he 
used in later years to declare that he founded his claim to re- 
membrance. He wished to complete his exploration of the 
upper range of Lebanon; he remained, therefore, with Henriette 
to affront the dangerous miasma of a Syrian autumn. At 
Amshit, near Byblos, Henriette Renan died of intermittent 
fever on the 24th of September 1861. Her brother, himself at 
death's door, was carried unconscious on board a ship waiting 
in harbour and bound for France. The sea air revived him, 
but he reached France broken apparently in heart and health. 
His sister in her last days had entreated him not to give up his 
candidature for the chair of Hebrew, and on the nth of January 
1862 the Minister of Public Instruction ratified Renan's election 
to the post. But his opening lecture, in which, amid the 
applause of the students, Renan declared Jesus Christ " an 
incomparable Man," alarmed the Catholic party. Renan's 
lectures were pronounced a disturbance of the public peace, and 
he was suspended. On the 2nd of June 1864, on opening the 
newspaper, Renan saw that he had been transferred from the 
chair of Hebrew at the College of France to the post of sub- 
librarian at the National Library. He wrote to the Minister of 
Public Instruction: " Pecunia tua tecum sit!" He refused 
the new position, was deprived of his chair, and henceforth 
depended solely upon his pen. 

Henriette had told him to write the life of Jesus. They had 
begun it together in Syria, she copying the pages as he wrote 
them, with a New Testament and a Josephus for all his library. 
The book bears the mark of its origin — it is filled with the 
atmosphere of the East. It is the work of a man familiar with 
the Bible and theology, and no less acquainted with the inscrip- 
tions, monuments, types and landscapes of Syria. But it is 
scarcely the work of a great scholar: Renan's debt to the school 



RENARD 



95 



of Tubingen has been exaggerated, in so far as regards the Life 
of Jesus. The book appeared on the 23rd of June 1863; before 
November sixty thousand' copies of it were in circulation. 
Renan still used his literary gifts to pursue a scientific ideal. 
In the days when he had composed his huge, immature treatise 
on the Future of Science, he had written: " I envy the man who 
shall evoke from the past the origins of Christianity. Such a 
writer would compose the most important book of the century." 
He set to work to realize this project, and produced the Apostles 
in 1866, and St Paul in 1869, after having visited Asia Minor 
with his wife, where he studied the scenes of the labours of 
St Paul as minutely as in 1861 he had observed the material 
surroundings of the life of Jesus. 

Renan was not only a scholar. In St Paul, as in the Apostles, 
he shows his concern with the larger social life, his sense of 
fraternity, and a revival of the democratic sentiment which 
had inspired L'Avenir de la science. In 1869 he presented 
himself as the candidate of the liberal opposition at the parlia- 
mentary election for Meaux. While his temper had become 
less aristocratic, his Liberalism had grown more tolerant. On 
the eve of its dissolution Renan was half prepared to accept the 
Empire, and, had he been elected to the Chamber of Deputies, 
he would have joined the group of I' Empire liberal. But he 
was not elected. A year later war was declared with Germany, 
the Empire fell, and Napoleon III. went into exile. The 
Franco-German War was a turning-point in Renan's history. 
Germany had always been to him the asylum of thought and 
disinterested science. Now he saw the land of his ideal destroy 
and ruin the land of his birth; he beheld the German no longer 
as a priest, but as an invader. His heart turned to France. In 
La Reforme intcllectuelle et morale (187 1) he endeavoured at 
least to bind her wounds, to safeguard her future. Yet he 
was still under the influence of Germany. The ideal and the 
discipline which he proposed to his defeated country were those 
of her conqueror — a feudal society, a monarchical government, 
an elite, which the rest of the nation exists merely to support 
and nourish; an ideal of honour and duty imposed by a chosen 
few on the recalcitrant and subject multitude. The errors of 
the Commune confirmed Renan in this reaction. At the same 
time the irony always perceptible in his work grows more bitter. 
His Dialogues philosophiques, written in 1871, his Ecclesiastcs 
(1882) and his Antichrist (1876) (the fourth volume of the 
Origins of Christianity, dealing with the reign of Nero) are 
incomparable in their literary genius, but they are examples of 
a disenchanted and sceptical temper. He had vainly tried to 
make his country follow his precepts. He resigned himself to 
watch her drift towards perdition. The progress of events 
showed him, on the contrary, a France which every day left a 
little stronger, and he aroused himself from his disbelieving, 
disillusioned mood, and observed with genuine interest the 
struggle for justice and liberty of a democratic society. For 
his mind was the broadest of the age. The fifth and sixth 
volumes of the Origins of Christianity (the Christian Church and 
Marcus A urelius) show him reconciled with democracy, confident 
in the gradual ascent of man, aware that the greatest catastrophes 
do not really interrupt the sure if imperceptible progress of the 
world — reconciled also in some measure, if not with the truths, 
at least with the moral beauties of Catholicism, and with the 
remembrance of his pious youth. 

On the threshold of old age the philosopher cast a glance at 
the days of his childhood. He was nearly sixty when, in 1883, 
he published those Souvenirs d'enfance el de jeunesse which, 
after the Life of Jesus, are the work by which he is chiefly 
known. They possess that lyric note of personal utterance 
which the public prizes in a man already famous. They showed 
the Mas? modern reader that a world no less poetic, no less 
primitive than that of the Origins of Christianity exists, or still 
existed within living memory, on the north-western coast of 
France. They have the Celtic magic of ancient romance and 
the simplicity, the naturalness, the veracity which the 19th 
century prised so highly. But his Ecclesiastes, published a few 
months earlier, his Drames philosophiques, collected in 1888, 



give a more adequate image of his fastidious critical, disen- 
chanted, yet not unhopeful spirit. These books are often bitter 
and melancholy, yet not destitute of optimism. They show the 
attitude towards uncultured Socialism of a philosopher liberal 
by conviction, by temperament an aristocrat. We learn in 
them how Caliban (democracy), the mindless brute, educated 
to his own responsibility, makes after all an adequate ruler; 
how Prospero (the aristocratic principle, or, if we will, the mind) 
accepts his dethronement for the sake of greater liberty in the 
intellectual world, since Caliban proves an effective policeman, 
and leaves his superiors a free hand in the laboratory; how 
Ariel (the religious principle) acquires a firmer hold on life, and 
no longer gives up the ghost at the faintest hint of change. 
Indeed, Ariel flourishes in the service of Prospero under the 
external government of the many-headed brute. For the 
one thing needful is not destined to succumb. Religion and 
knowledge are as imperishable as the world they dignify. Thus 
out of the depths rises unvanquished the essential idealism of 
Ernest Renan. 

Renan was a great worker. At sixty years of age, having 
finished the Origins of Christianity, he began his History of Israel, 
based on a lifelong study of the Old Testament and on the 
Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum, published by the Academie 
des Inscriptions under Renan's direction from the year 1881 
till the end of his life. The first volume of the History of Israel 
appeared in 1887, the third and finest volume in 1891, the last 
two only after the historian's decease. As a history of facts and 
theories the book has many faults; as an essay on the evolution 
of the religious idea it is (despite some passages of frivolity, 
irony, or incoherence) of extraordinary importance; as a reflec- 
tion of the mind ji Ernest Renan it is the most lifelike of images. 
In a volume of collected essays, Feuillcs detaches, published 
also in 1891, we find the same mental attitude, an affirmation 
of the necessity of piety independent of dogma. On the 12th 
of October 1892 he died after a few days' illness. In his last 
years he received many marks of honour, being made an 
administrator of the College de France and grand officer of the 
Legion of Honour. Two volumes of the History of Israel, his 
correspondence with his sister Henriette, his Letters to M. 
Berthelot, and the History of the Religious Policy of Philippe-le- 
Bel, which he wrote in the years immediately before his marriage, 
all appeared during the last eight years of the 19th century. 

See Desportes and Bournand, E. Renan, sa vie et son ceuvre (1892); 
E. Grant Duff, Ernest Renan, in memoriam (1893); Seailles, 
E. Renan, essai de biographie psychologique (1894); G. Monod, Les 
maitres de Vhistoire (1894) ; Allier, La Philosophie d"E. Renan (1895) ; 
M. J. Darmesteter, La vie de E. R. (1898); Platzhoff, E. Renan, ein 
Lebensbild (1900); Brauer Philosophy of Ernest Renan (1904); W. 
Barry, Renan (1905); Sorel, Le Systeme historique de R. (1905-1906). 

(A. M. F. D.;.X.) 

RENARD, ALPHONSE FRANCOIS (1842-1903), Belgian geolo- 
gist and petrographer, was born at Renaix, in Eastern Flanders, 
on the 27th of September 1842. He was educated for the church 
of Rome, and from 1866 to 1869 he was superintendent at the 
College de la Paix, Namur. In 1870 he entered the Jesuit Train- 
ing College at the old abbey of Maria Laach in the Eifel, and 
there, while engaged in studying philosophy and science, he 
became interested in the geology of the district, and especially 
in the volcanic rocks. Thenceforth he worked at chemistry 
and mineralogy, and qualified himself for those petrographical 
researches for which he was distinguished. In 1874 he became 
professor of chemistry and geology in the college of the Belgian 
Jesuits at Louvain, a few years later he was appointed one of 
the curators of the Royal Natural History Museum at Brussels, 
and in 1882 he relinquished his post at Louvain. In 1888 he 
was chosen professor of geology at the university of Ghent, and 
retained the post until the close of his life. Meanwhile he had 
been ordained priest in 1877, and had intended to enter the 
Society of Jesus. He was known as the Abbe Renard; but, as 
remarked by Sir A. Geikie, " As years passed, the longing for 
mental freedom grew ever stronger, until at last it overmastered 
all the traditions and associations of a lifetime, and he finally 
separated himself from the church of Rome." His first work, 



96 



RENAUD DE MONTAUBAN— RENAUDOT, T. 



written in conjunction with Charles de la Vallee-Poussin (1827- 
1904), was the Mimoire sur les caracleres miner alogiques et 
stratigraphiques des roches dites pluloniennes de la Belgique 
et de I'Ardenne franqaise (1876). In later essays and papers 
he dealt with the structure and mineral composition of many 
igneous and sedimentary rocks, and with the phenomena of 
metamorphism in Belgium and other countries. In acknow- 
ledgment of his work the Bigsby Medal was in 1885 awarded to 
him by the Geological Society of London. Still more important 
were his later researches connected with the Challenger Expedi- 
tion. The various rock specimens and oceanic deposits were 
submitted to him for examination in association with Sir John 
Murray, and their detailed observations were embodied in the 
Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. " Chal- 
lenger." Deep Sea Deposits (1891). The more striking additions 
to our knowledge included " the detection and description of 
cosmic dust, which as fine rain slowly accumulates on the ocean 
floor; the development of zeolitic crystals on the sea-bottom 
at temperatures of 32 and under; and the distribution and 
mode of occurrence of manganiferous concretions and of phos- 
phatic and glauconite deposits on the bed of the ocean " (Geikie). 
Renard died at Brussels on the 9th of July 1903. 

Obituaries by Sir A. Geikie in Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, lx. 1904, 
and in Geol. Mag., Nov. 1903. 

RENAUD DE MONTAUBAN (Rinaldo di Montalbano), one of 
the most famous figures of French and Italian romance. His 
story was attached to the geste of Doon of Mayence by the 13th- 
century trouvere who wrote the chanson de geste of Renaus de 
Montauban, better known perhaps as Les quatre fils Aymon. 
The four sons of Aymon give their name to inns and streets in 
nearly every town of France, and the numerous prose versions 
show what a hold the story gained on the popular imagination. 
Renaud's sword Floberge, and his horse Bayard passed with 
him into popular legend. The poem of Renaus de Montauban 
opens with the story of the dissensions between Charlemagne 
and the sons of Doon of Mayence, Beuves d'Aigremont, Doon 
de Nanteuil and Aymon de Dordone. The rebellious vassals 
are defeated by the imperial army near Troyes, and, peace 
established, Aymon rises in favour at court, and supports the 
emperor, even in his persecution of his four sons, Renaud, 
Alard, Guichard and Richard. A second feud arises from a 
quarrel between Renaud and Bertolai, Charlemagne's nephew, 
over a game of chess, in the course of which Renaud kills Ber- 
tolai with the chess-board. The hero then mounts his steed 
Bayard, and escapes with his brothers to the Ardennes, where 
they build the castle of Montessor overlooking the Meuse. At 
Chateau Renaud, near Sedan, there existed in the 18th century 
a ruined castle with a tower called the " tour Maugis " and the 
reputed stable of Bayard. The outlaws are eventually persuaded 
to seek their fortune outside Charlemagne's kingdom, and cross 
the Loire to take service with King Yon of Gascony against 
the Saracens, accompanied by their cousin, the enchanter Maugis. 
Yon, however, is compelled by Charlemagne to withdraw his 
protection, and the castle of Montauban, which the brothers 
have built on the Dordogne, is besieged by the emperor. They 
next seek refuge beyond the Rhine, and sustain a third siege 
at Tremoigne (Dortmund), after which the emperor is per- 
suaded by the barons to make peace. Bayard is abandoned 
to Charlemagne, and thrown into the Meuse, only to rise again. 
He still gallops over the hills of the Ardennes on St John's 
Eve. Renaud, who throughout the story is a type of the 
Christian and chivalric virtues, makes a pilgrimage to the Holy 
Land and is invested with some of the exploits of Godfrey de 
Bouillon. On his return he gives himself up to religion, working 
as a mason on the church of St Peter at Cologne, where he 
receives martyrdom at the hands of his jealous fellow-labourers. 

The story is closely connected with the legend of Girard 
de Roussillon. The chanson de geste of Renaus de Montauban 
falls into sections which had probably been originally the 
subject of separate recitals. These may have arisen at different 
dates, and were not necessarily told in the first instance of 
the same person, the account of Renaud on the crusade being 



obviously a late interpolation. The outlaw life of the brothers 
in the Ardennes bears the marks of trustworthy popular tradition, 
and it was even at one time suggested that the Gascon and 
Rhenish episodes were reduplications of the story of Montessor. 
The connexion of the four brothers with Montessor, Dortmund, 
Mayence and Cologne, and the abundant local tradition, 
mark the heroes as originating from the region between the 
Rhine and the Meuse. Nevertheless, their adventures in 
Gascony are corroborated by historical evidence, and this 
section of the poem is the oldest. The enemy of Renaud was 
Charles Martel, not Charlemagne; Yon was Odo of Gascony, 
known indifferently as duke, prince, or king; the victory over 
the Saracens at Toulouse, in which the brothers are alleged 
to have taken part, was won by him in 721, and in 719 he 
sheltered refugees from the dominions of Charles Martel, Chil- 
peric II., king of Neustria, and his mayor of the palace, Ragin- 
fred, whom he was compelled to abandon. In a local chronicle 
of Cologne it is stated that Saint Reinoldus died in 697, and in 
the Latin rhythmical Vila his martyrdom is said to have taken 
place under Bishop Agilolf (d. 717). Thus the romance was 
evidently composite before it took its place in the Carolingian 
cycle. 

In Italy Renaud had his greatest vogue. His connexion with 
the treacherous family of Mayence was thrust into the back- 
ground, and many episodes were added, as well as the personage 
of the hero's sister, Bradamante. Rinaldo di Montalbano had 
been the subject of many Italian poems before II Rinaldo of 
Tasso. 

Bibliography. — The chanson of Maugis d'Aigremont and the 
prose romance of the Conqueste de Trebizonde belong to the same 
cycle. The prose Ystoire de Regnault de Montauban (Lyons, c. 1480) 
had a great vogue. It was generally printed asZ.es quatre fils Aymon, 
and was published in English, The Foure Sonnes of Aymon, by 
William Caxton, and subsequently by Wynkyn de Worde and 
William Copland. See Hist. litt. de la France, xxii., analysis by 
Paulin Paris; Renaus de Montauban (Stuttgart, 1862), edited by 
H. Michelant; F. Wulff, Recherches sur les sagas de Magus et de 
Geirard (Lund, 1873); Magus saga, ed. G. Cederschiold (Lund, 
1876); Renout von Montalbaen, ed. J. C. Matthis (Groningen, 
1873); A. Longnon, in Revue des questions historiques (1879); 
R. Zwick, Vber die Sprache des Renaut von Montauban (Halle, 1884) ; 
F. Pfaff, Das deutsche Volksbuch von den Heymonskindern (Freiburg 
in Breisgau, 1887), with a general introduction to the study of the 
saga; The Four Sonnes of Aimon (E. E. Text. Soc, ed. Octavia 
Richardson, 1884); a special bibliography of the printed editions 
of the prose romance in L. Gautier's Bibl. des chansons de geste 
(1897); rejuvenations of the story by Karl Simrock (Frankfort, 
1845), and by Richard Steel (London, 1897); Storia di Rinaldino, 
ed. C. Minutoli (Bologna, 1865). Stage versions are: Renaud de 
Montauban, a play translated from Lope de Vega was played at the 
Th&itre italien, Paris, in 1717 ; Les quatre fils Aymon, opera comique 
by MM. de Leuven and Brunswick, music by Balfe, in 1884. 

RENAUDOT, EUSEBE (1646-1720), French theologian and 
Orientalist, was born in Paris in 1646, and educated for the 
church. Notwithstanding his taste for theology and his titlfe 
of abbe, much of his life was spent at the French court, where 
he attracted the notice of Colbert and was often employed in 
confidential affairs. The unusual learning in Eastern tongues 
which he acquired in his youth and maintained amid the dis- 
tractions of court life did not bear fruit till he was sixty-two. 
His best-known books are HistoriaPatriarcharum Alexandrinorum 
(Paris, 1713) and Liturgiarum orientalium collectio (2 vols., 
1715-16). The latter was designed to supply proofs of the 
" perpetuity of the faith " of the church on the subject of the 
sacraments, the topic on which most of his theological writings 
turned, and which was then, in consequence of the controversies 
attaching to Arnauld's Perpituite de lafoi, a burning one between 
French Catholics and Protestants. Renaudot was not a fair 
controversialist, but his learning and industry are unquestion- 
able. He died in 1720. 

RENAUDOT, THEOPHRASTE (1586-1653), French physician 
and philanthropist, was born at Loudun (Vienna), and 
studied surgery in Paris. He was only nineteen when he 
received, by favour apparently, the degree of doctor at Mont- 
pellier. After some time spent in travel he began to practise 
in his native town. In 161 2 he was summoned to Paris by 



RENDEZVOUS— RENE I. 



97 



Richelieu, partly because of his medical reputation, but more 
because of his philanthropy. He received the titles of physician 
and councillor to the king, and was desired to organize a scheme 
of public assistance. Many difficulties were put in his way, 
however, and he therefore returned until 1624 to Poitou, where 
Richelieu made him " commissary general of the poor." It 
was six years before he was able to begin his work in Paris by 
opening an information bureau at the sign of the Grand Coq 
near the Pont Saint-Michel. This bureau d'adresse was labour 
bureau, intelligence department, exchange and charity organiza- 
tion in one; and the sick were directed to doctors prepared 
to give them free treatment. Presently he established a free 
dispensary in the teeth of the opposition of the faculty in Paris. 
The Paris faculty refused to accept the new medicaments pro- 
posed by the heretic from Montpellier, restricting themselves to 
the old prescriptions of blood-letting and purgation. In addition 
to his bureau d'adresse Renaud established a system of lectures 
and debates on scientific subjects, the reports of which from 
1633 to 1642 were published in 1651 with the title Recueil des 
conferences publiques. Under the protection of Richelieu he 
started the first French newspaper, the Gazette (1631), which 
appeared weekly and contained political and foreign news. 
He also edited the Mercure franc,ais and published all manner 
of reports and pamphlets. In 1637 he opened in Paris the first 
Mont de Piete, an institution of which he had seen the advantages 
in Italy. In 1640 the medical faculty, headed by Guy Patin, 
started a campaign against the innovator of the Grand Coq. 
After the death of Richelieu and of Louis XIII. the victory of 
Renaudot's enemies was practically certain. The parlement of 
Paris ordered him to return the letters patent for the establish- 
ment of his bureau and his Mont de Piete, and refused to allow 
him to practise medicine in Paris. The Gazette remained, and 
in 1646 Renaudot was appointed by Mazarin historiographer 
to the king. During the first Fronde he had his printing presses 
at Saint-Germain. He died on the 25th of October 1653. His 
difficulties had been increased by his Protestant opinions. His 
sons Isaac (d. 1688) and Eusebe (d. 1679) were students for ten 
years before they could obtain their doctorates from the faculty. 
They carried on their father's work, and defended the virtues 
of antimony, laudanum and quinine against the schools. 

See E. Hatin, Theodore Renaudot (Poitiers, 1883), and La Maison 
du Coq (Paris, 1885); Michel Emery, Renaudot et I' introduction de la 
mMication chimique (Paris, 1889) ; and G. Bonnefont, Un Oublie. 
Theophraste Renaudot (Limoges, n.d.). 

RENDEZVOUS, a place of meeting appointed or arranged 
for the assembling of troops, ships or persons. The word was 
adopted in English at the end of the 16th century from the 
French substantival use of the imperative rendez vous, i.e. 
" render or betake yourselves." 

RENDSBURG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province 
of Schleswig-Holstein, situated on the Eider and on the Kaiser 
Wilhelm canal, in a flat and sandy district, 20 m. W. of Kiel, on 
the Altona-Vamdrup railway. Pop. (1905) 15,577. It consists 
of three parts — the crowded Altstadt, on an island in the Eider; 
the Neuwerk, on the south bank of the river; and the Kronwerk, 
on the north bank. .Rendsburg is the chief place in the basin of 
the Eider, and when in the possession of Denmark was main- 
tained as a fortress. Its present importance, however, rests on 
the commercial facilities afforded by its connexion with the 
North Sea and the Baltic through the Kaiser Wilhelm canal, 
by which transit trade is carried on in grain, timber, Swedish 
iron and coals. The principal industries are cotton-weaving, 
tanning and the manufacture of artificial manures. 

Rendsburg came into existence under the shelter of a castle 
founded by the Danes about the year 1100 on an island of the 
Eider, and was an object of dispute between the Danish kings 
and the counts of Holstein. In 1252 it was adjudged to the 
latter. The town was surrounded with ramparts in 1539, but 
the fortifications of the Kronwerk were not constructed till 
the end of the 17th century. During the Thirty Years' War 
Rendsburg was taken both by the Imperialists and the Swedes, 
but in 1645 it successfully resisted a second siege by the latter. 



The war of 1848-50 began with the capture of Rendsburg by 
the Holsteiners by a coup de main, and it formed the centre of 
the German operations. On the departure of the German 
troops in 1852 the Danes demolished the fortifications on the 
north side. Immediately after the death of King Frederick VII. 
(15th of November 1863) the town was occupied by the Saxon 
troops acting as the executive of the German Confederation, and 
it was the base of the operations of the Austrians and Prussians 
against Schleswig in the spring of the following year. On the 
termination of the Danish war in 1864 Rendsburg was jointly 
occupied by Austrian and Prussian military until 1866, when 
it fell to Prussia. 

See Warmstedt, Rendsburg (Kiel, 1850). 

RENE I. (1400-1480), duke of Anjou, of Lorraine and Bar, 
count of Provence and of Piedmont, king of Naples, Sicily and 
Jerusalem, was born at Angers on the 16th of January 1409, 
the second son of Louis II., king of Sicily, duke of Anjou, 
count of Provence, and of Yolande of Aragon. Louis II. died 
in 1417, and his sons, together with their brother-in-law, after- 
wards Charles VII. of France, were brought up under the 
guardianship of their mother. The elder, Louis III., succeeded 
to the crown of Sicily and to the duchy of Anjou, Rene being 
known as the count of Guise. By his marriage treaty (1419) 
with Isabel, elder daughter of Charles II., duke of Lorraine, he 
became heir to the duchy of Bar, which was claimed as the 
inheritance of his mother Yolande, and, in right of his wife, heir 
to the duchy of Lorraine. Rene, then only ten, was to be brought 
up in Lorraine under the guardianship of Charles II. and Louis, 
cardinal of Bar, both of whom were attached to the Burgundian 
party, but he retained the right to bear the arms of Anjou. 
He was far from sympathizing with the Burgundians, and, 
joining the French army at Reims in 1429, was present at the 
coronation of Charles VII. When Louis of Bar died in 1430 
Rene came into sole possession of his duchy, and in the next 
year, on his father-in-law's death, he succeeded to the duchy 
of Lorraine. But the inheritance was claimed by the heir-male, 
Antoine de Vaudemont, who with Burgundian help defeated 
Rene at Bulgneville in July 1431. The Duchess Isabel effected 
a truce with Antoine de Vaudemont, but the duke remained a. 
prisoner of the Burgundians until April 1432, when he recovered 
his liberty on parole on yielding up as hostages his two sons, 
Jean and Louis of Anjou. His title as duke of Lorraine was 
confirmed by his suzerain, the Emperor Sigismund, at Basel 
in 1434. This proceeding roused the anger of the Burgundian 
duke, Philip the Good, who required him early in the next year 
to return to his prison, from which he was released two years 
later on payment of a heavy ransom. He had succeeded to 
the kingdom of Naples through the deaths of his brother Louis III. 
and of Jeanne II. de Duras, queen of Naples, the last heir 
of the earlier dynasty. Louis had been adopted by her in 
1 43 1, and she now left her inheritance to Rene. The marriage 
of Marie de Bourbon, niece of Philip of Burgundy, with John, 
duke of Calabria, Rene's eldest son, cemented peace between the 
two princes. After appointing a regency in Bar and Lorraine, 
he visited his provinces of Anjou and Provence, and in 1438 
set sail for Naples, which had been held for him by the Duchess 
Isabel. Rene's captivity, and the poverty of the Angevin 
resources due to his ransom, enabled Alphonso of Aragon, who 
had been first adopted and then repudiated by Jeanne II., 
to make some headway in the kingdom of Naples, especially 
as he was already in possession of the island of Sicily. In 1441 
Alphonso laid siege to Naples, which he sacked after a six months' 
siege. Rene returned to France in the same year, and though 
he retained the title of king of Naples his effective rule was never 
recovered. Later efforts to recover his rights in Italy failed. 
His mother Yolande, who had governed Anjou in his absence, 
died in 1442. Rene took part in the negotiations with the 
English at Tours in 1444, and peace was consolidated by the 
marriage of his younger daughter, Margaret, with Henry VI. 
at Nancy. Rene now made over the government of Lorraine 
to John, duke of Calabria, who was, however, only formally 
installed as duke of Lorraine on the death of Queen Isabel io 

11 



9 8 



RENEE OF FRANCE— RENFREWSHIRE 



1453. Rene had the confidence of Charles VII., and is said to 
have initiated the reduction of the men-at-arms set on foot by 
the king, with whose military operations against the English 
he was closely associated. He entered Rouen with him in 
November 1449, and was also with him at Formigny and Caen. 
After his second marriage with Jeanne de Laval, daughter 
of Guy XIV., count of Laval, and Isabel of Brittany, Rene took 
a less active part in public affairs, and devoted himself more to 
artistic and literary pursuits. The fortunes of his house declined 
in his old age. The duke of Calabria, after repeated misfortunes 
in Italy, was offered the crown of Aragon in 1467, but died, 
apparently by poison, at Barcelona on the 16th of December 
1470; the duke's eldest son Nicholas perished in 1473, also 
under suspicion of poisoning; Rene's daughter Margaret was 
a refugee from England, her son Prince Edward was murdered 
in 1471, and she herself became a prisoner, to be rescued by 
Louis XL in 1476. His only surviving male descendant was 
then Rene II., duke of Lorraine, son of his daughter Yolande, 
comtesse de Vaudemont, who was gained over to the party 
of Louis XL, who suspected the king of Sicily of complicity 
with his enemies, the duke of Brittany and the Constable Saint- 
Pol. Rene retired to Provence, and in 1474 made a will by 
which he left Bar to his grandson Rene II., duke of Lorraine; 
Anjou and Provence to his nephew Charles, count of Le Maine. 
Louis seized Anjou and Bar, and two years later sought to 
compel the king of Sicily to exchange the two duchies for 
a pension. The offer was rejected, but further negotiations 
assured the lapse to the crown of the duchy of Anjou, and the 
annexation of Provence was only postponed until the death 
of the count of Le Maine. Rene died on the 10th of July 1480, 
his charities having earned for him the title of " the good." 
He founded an order of chivalry, the Ordre du Croissant, which 
was anterior to the royal foundation of St Michael, but did not 
survive Rene. 

The king of Sicily's fame as an amateur of painting has 
led to the attribution to him of many old paintings in Anjou 
and Provence, in many cases simply because they bear his 
arms. These works are generally in the Flemish style, and 
were probably executed under his patronage and direction, so 
that he may be said to have formed a school of the fine arts 
in sculpture, painting, gold work and tapestry. Two of the 
most famous works formerly attributed to Rene are the triptych, 
the " Burning Bush," in the cathedral of Aix, showing portraits 
of Rene and his second wife, Jeanne de Laval, and an illumin- 
ated Book of Hours in the Bibliotheque nationale, Paris. The 
" Burning Bush " was in fact the work of Nicolas Froment, a 
painter of Avignon. Among the men of letters attached to his 
court was Antoine de la Sale, whom he made tutor to his son, 
the duke of Calabria. He encouraged the performance of 
mystery plays; on the performance of a mystery of the Passion 
at Saumur in 1462 he remitted four years of taxes to the 
town, and the representations of the Passion at Angers were 
carried out under his auspices. He exchanged verses with his 
kinsman, the poet Charles of Orleans. The best of his poems 
is the idyl of Regnault and Jeanneton, representing his own 
courtship of Jeanne de Laval. Le Livre des lournois, a book 
of ceremonial, and the allegorical romance, Conqueste qu'un 
chevalier nomme le Cuer d'amour espris feist d'une dame appelee 
Doulce Mercy, with other works ascribed to him, were perhaps 
dictated to his secretaries, or at least compiled under his direc- 
tion. His CEuwes were published by the comte de Quatrebarbes 
(4 vols., Paris and Angers, 1845-46). 

See A. Lecoy de la Marche, Le Roi Rene" (2 vols., 1875) ; A. Vallet 
de Viriville, in the Nouvelle Biographie generate, where there is some 
account of the MSS. of his works; and J. Renouvier, Les Peintres 
et enlumineurs du roi Rene (Montpellier, 1857). 

RENJSE OF FRANCE (1510-1575), second daughter of 
Louis XII. and Anne of Brittany, was born at Blois on the 25th 
of October rsic After being betrothed successively to Gaston 
de Foix, Charles of Austria (the future emperor Charles V.), 
his brother Ferdinand, Henry VIII. of England, and the 
elector Joachim II. of Brandenburg, she married in 1528 



Hercules of Este, son of the duke of Ferrara, who succeeded his 
father six years later. Renee's court became a rendezvous of 
men of letters and a refuge for the persecuted French Calvinists. 
She received Clement Marot and Calvin at her court, and 
finally embraced the reformed religion. Her husband, however, 
who viewed these proceedings with disfavour, banished her 
friends, took her children from her, threw her into prison, 
and eventually made her abandon at any rate the outward 
forms of Calvinism. After his death in 1559, Renee returned 
to France and turned her duchy of Montargis into a centre of 
Protestant propaganda. During the wars of religion she was 
several times molested by "the Catholic troops, and in 1562 her 
chateau was besieged by her son-in-law, the duke of Guise. 
She died at Montargis. 

See B. Fontana, Renata di Francia (Rome, 1889 seq.); and E. 
Rodocanachi, Renee de France (Paris, 1896). 

RENEVIER, EUGENE (183 1- ), Swiss geologist, was born 
at Lausanne on the 26th of March 1831. In 1857 he became 
professor of geology and palaeontology in the university at 
Lausanne. He is distinguished for his researches on the geology 
and palaeontology of the Alps, on which subjects he published 
numerous papers in the proceedings of the scientific societies in 
Switzerland and France. With F. J. Pictet he wrote a memoir 
on the Fossiles du terrain aptien de la Perte-du- Rhone (1854). 
In 1894 he was appointed president of the Swiss Geological 
Commission, and also of the International Geological Congress 
held that year at Zurich, in the previous meetings of which he had 
taken a prominent part. He published a noteworthy Tableau 
des terrains s&dimentaires (1874); and a second more elaborate 
edition, accompanied by an explanatory article Chronographe 
geologique, was issued in 1897 as a supplement to the Report of 
the Zurich Congress. This new table was printed on coloured 
sheets, the colours for each geological system corresponding 
with those adopted on the International geological map of 
Europe. 

RENFREW, a royal, municipal and police burgh and county 
town of Renfrewshire, Scotland, near the southern bank of the 
Clyde, 7 m. W. by N. of Glasgow, via Cardonald, by the Glasgow 
& South-Western and Caledonian railways (5 m. by road). 
Pop. (1891) 6777; (1901) 9296. Industries include ship- 
building (the construction of dredgers and floating docks is a 
speciality), engineering, dyeing, weaving, chemicals and cabinet- 
making. The Clyde trust has constructed a large dock here. 
Renfrew belongs to the Kilmarnock district group of parlia- 
mentary burghs (with Kilmarnock, Dumbarton, Rutherglen 
and Port Glasgow). Robert III. gave a charter in 1396, but it 
was a burgh (Renifry) at least 250 years earlier. About 1160 
Walter Fitzalan, the first high steward of Scotland, built a castle 
on an eminence by the side of the Clyde (still called Castle Hill), 
the original seat of the royal house of Stewart. Close to the 
town, on the site of Elderslie House, Somerled, lord of the 
Isles, was defeated and slain in 11 64 by the forces of Malcolm IV., 
against whom he had rebelled. In 1404 Robert II. bestowed 
upon his son James (afterwards James I.) the title of Baron of 
Renfrew, still borne by the prince of Wales. 

RENFREWSHIRE, a south-western county of Scotland, 
bounded N. by the river and firth of Clyde, E. by Lanarkshire, 
S. and S.W. by Ayrshire and W. by the firth of Clyde. A small 
detached portion of the parish of' Renfrew, situated on the 
northern bank of the Clyde, is surrounded on the landward side 
by Dumbartonshire. The county has an area of 153,332 acres, 
or 239-6 sq. m. Excepting towards the Ayrshire border on the 
south-west, where the principal heights are Hill of Stake (1711 ft.1, 
East Girt Hill (1673), Misty Law (1663) and Creuch Hill (1446), 
and the confines of Lanarkshire on the south-east, where a few 
points attain an altitude of 1200 ft. — the surface is undulating 
rather than rugged. Much of the higher land in the centre is 
well wooded. The Clyde forms part of the northern boundary 
of the shire. In the N.W. Loch Thom and Gryfe Reservoir 
provide Greenock with water, and Balgray Reservoir and Glen 
Reservoir reinforce the water-supply of a portion of the Glasgow 
area. The other lakes are situated in the S. and S.E. and 



RENFREWSHIRE 



99 



include Gastle Semple Loch, Long Loch, Brother Loch, Black 
Loch, Binend Loch and Dunwan Dam. The Glasgow, Paisley 
and Johnstone canal has been converted since 1882 into the track 
of the Glasgow & South-Western railway. Strathgryfe is the 
only considerable vale in the shire. It extends from the 
reservoir to below Bridge of Weir, a distance of 10 m. The 
scenery at its head is somewhat wild and bleak, but the lower 
reaches are pasture land. The wooded ravine of Glenkillock, 
to the south of Paisley, is watered by Killock Burn, on which 

are three falls. 

Geology. — Carboniferous rocks form the substratum of this county. 
The hilly ground from the neighbourhood of Eaglesham north- 
westward is formed of volcanic rocks, basalts, porphyrites, tuffs 
and agglomerates of the age of the Cementstone group of the Cal- 
ciferous Sandstone series. Here and there the sites of the volcanic 
cones are distinguishable, the best being those between Misty Law 
and Queenside Muir. Beneath the volcanic rocks are some red 
sandstones and conglomerates which occupy a small tract between 
Loch Thorn and the neighbourhood of Inverkip. Resting upon 
the volcanic rocks is the Carboniferous Limestone series which at 
the base consists of ashy sandstones and grits followed by the three 
subdivisions prevalent in southern Scotland. With unimportant 
exceptions, all the area north of the volcanic rocks is occupied by 
the Carboniferous Limestone series. The beds lie in a faulted 
basin around Linwood, and the following strata may be distinguished 
from below upwards: the Hurlet coal and limestone, Lillies oil 
shale, Hosie limestone, Johnstone clay ironstone and Cowglass lime- 
stone along with other beds of ironstone and coal. The sandstone 
of Giffnock, used for building; the limestone and coal of Orchard 
with a very fossiliferous shale bed; and the limestone and coal of 
Arden all belong to the same series. Besides the contemporaneous 
volcanic rocks numerous intrusive sheets are found in the Carbon- 
iferous rocks such as the large mass of basalt south of Johnstone; 
and doleritic sheet of Quarrelton and the similar sheets N.E. of 
Paisley. In the eastern part of the county, near the border the 
coals and ironstones of this series near Shawlands and Crossmyloof 
are faulted directly against the coal measures of Rutherglen. Tertiary 
basalt dikes cut the older rocks in a S.E.-N.W. direction, for example 
those on Misty Law. Glacial striae abound on the hilly ground, 
those in the north indicating that the ice took a south-easterly 
direction which farther south became south-westerly. Boulder 
clays, gravels and sands also cover considerable areas. Copper 
ore has been worked in the volcanic rocks near Lochwinnoch and 
in the grey sandstones near Gourock. 

Climate and Agriculture. — The climate is variable. As the 
prevailing west and south-west winds come in from the Atlantic 
warm and full of moisture, contact with the land causes heavy 
rains, and the western area of the shire is one of the wettest districts 
in Scotland, the mean annual rainfall exceeding 60 in. The 
temperature for the year averages about 48° F., for January 38°-5 F., 
and for July 58°-5 F. The hilly tract contains much peat-moss and 
moorland, but over those areas which are not thus covered the 
soil, which is a light earth on a substratum of gravel, is deep enough 
to produce good pasture. In the undulating central region the 
soil is better, particularly in the basins of the streams, while on the 
flat lands adjoining the Clyde there is a rich alluvium which, 
except when soured by excessive rain, yields heavy crops. Of the 
total area three-fifths is under cultivation, more than half of this 
being permanent pasture. Oats are grown extensively, and wheat 
and barley are also cultivated. Potatoes, turnips and swedes, 
and beans are the leading green crops. Near the populous centres 
orchards and market gardens are found, and an increasing acreage 
is under wood. Horses are kept mostly for farming operations, 
and the bulk of the cattle are maintained in connexion with dairying. 
Sheep-farming, though on the increase, is not prosecuted so vigor- 
ously as in the other southern counties of Scotland, and pig-rearing 
is on the decline. 

Other Industries. — Coal, iron, oil-shale and fireclay are the prin- 
cipal minerals. Limestone is largely quarried for smelting purposes, 
and for the manufacture of lime. Sandstone is also quarried. 
The thread industry at Paisley .is the most important in the world. 
Cotton spinning, printing, bleaching and dyeing are carried on 
at Paisley, Pollokshaws, Renfrew, Barrhead and elsewhere; 
woollens and worsteds are produced at Paisley, Greenock and 
Renfrew. Engineering works and iron and brass foundries are 
found at Greenock, Port-Glasgow, Paisley, Renfrew, Barrhead and 
Johnstone. Sugar is a staple article of trade in Greenock and 
there are chemical works at Hurlet, Nitshill and Renfrew. Brewing 
and distilling are carried on at Greenock, Paisley and other places. 
Shipbuilding is especially important at Greenock and Port-Glasgow. 
Paper mills are established in Greenock, Cathcart and Johnstone, 
and tanneries in Paisley and Kilbarchan. Numerous miscellaneous 
industries — such as the making of starch, cornflour and preserves- 
have also grown up in Paisley and elsewhere. The sea and river 
ports are Greenock, Port-Glasgow and Renfrew. 

Railway communication is ample in the north, the centre and 
towards the south-west. The Caledonian railway runs westwards 



from Glasgow by Paisley to Greenock, Gourock and Wemyss Bay; 
south-westwards to Barrhead and other stations; and southwards 
to Busby. The Glasgow & South-Western railway runs to 
Greenock by Paisley, Johnstone and Kilmalcolm; to Nitshill and 
other places south-westwards; by Lochwinnoch (for Dairy and 
Ardrossan in Ayrshire); and to Renfrew jointly with the Cale- 
donian. The Clyde and the railway steamers call at Renfrew, 
Prince's Pier (Greenock), Gourock and Wemyss Bay. 

Population and Administration. — In 1891 the population 
numbered 230,812, and in 1901 it was 268,980, or 11 23 to the 
sq. m. In 1901 there were 40 persons who spoke Gaelic only 
and 5585 Gaelic and English. Thus though the shire is 
but twenty-seventh in point of size of the 33 Scottish 
counties, it is fifth in respect of population, and only Lanarkshire 
and Mid Lothian are more densely populated. The county is 
divided into the upper ward, embracing the easterly two-thirds, 
with Paisley as district centre, and the lower ward, consisting of 
the parishes of Inverkip, Greenock, Port-Glasgow and Kil- 
malcolm, with Greenock as district centre. The chief towns 
are Paisley (pop. 79,363), Greenock (68,142), Port-Glasgow 
(16,857), Pollokshaws (11,369), Johnstone (11,331), Barrhead 
(9855), Renfrew (9296), Gourock (5261), Cathcart (5808). The 
shire returns one member to parliament for the eastern, and 
another for the western division. Paisley and Greenock return 
each one member, and Renfrew and Port-Glasgow belong to the 
Kilmarnock district group of parliamentary burghs. Renfrew- 
shire forms a sheriffdom with Bute, and there is a resident 
sheriff-substitute at Paisley and one at Greenock. The county 
is under school-board jurisdiction. For secondary and special- 
ized education there are an academy at Greenock and a grammar 
school and technical school at Paisley, while some of the schools 
in the county earn grants for higher education. The county 
secondary committee also makes provision for the free educa- 
tion of Renfrewshire children in Glasgow High School and the 
Spier School at Beith. The Paisley Technical School and the 
Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College are subsidized 
out of the " residue " grant, part of which also defrays the 
travelling expenses of students and supports science and art 
and technological classes in the burghs and towns in the county. 

History. — At the time of the Roman advance from the Solway 
the land was peopled by the British tribe of Damnonii. To 
hold the natives in check the conquerors built in 84. the fort of 
Vanduara on high ground now covered by houses and streets 
in Paisley; but after the Romans retired (410) the territory 
was overrun by Cumbrian Britons and formed part of the 
kingdom of Strathclyde, the capital of which was situated 
at Alclyde, the modern Dumbarton. In the 7th and 8th cen- 
turies the region practically passed under the supremacy of 
Northumbria, but in the reign of Malcolm Canmore became 
incorporated with the rest of Scotland. During the first half 
of the 12th century, Walter Fitzalan, high steward of Scotland, 
ancestor of the royal house of Stuart, settled in Renfrewshire 
on an estate granted to him by David I. Till their accession 
to the throne the Stuarts identified themselves with the district, 
which, however, was only disjoined from Lanarkshire in 1404. 
In that year Robert III. erected the barony of Renfrew and 
the Stuart estates into a separate county, which, along with 
the earldom of Carrick and the barony of King's Kyle (both in 
Ayrshire), was bestowed upon his son, afterwards James I. 
From their grant are derived the titles of earl of Carrick and 
baron of Renfrew, borne by the eldest son of the sovereign. 
Apart from such isolated incidents as the defeat of Somerled 
near Renfrew in 1164, the battle of Langside in 1568 and the 
capture of the 9th earl of Argyll at Inchinnan in 1685, the 
history of the shire is scarcely separable from that of Paisley or 
the neighbouring county of Lanark. 

Bibliography. — Description of the Sheriffdom of Lanark and 
Renfrew (Maitland Club, 1831); W. Hector, Lichens from an Old 
Abbey (Paisley, 1876); Vanduara (Paisley, 1881); Gilmour, 
Paisley, Weavers of Other Days (Paisley, 1879); D. Campbell, His- 
torical Sketches of the Town and Harbours of Greenock (1879-81); 
Old Greenock (Greenock, 1888); Craig, Historical Notes on -Paisley 
(Paisley, 1881); A. H. Millar, Castles and Mansions of Renfrew 
(Glasgow, 1889). 



IOO 



RENNELL— RENNEVILLE 



RENNELL, JAMES(i742-i83o), British geographer, was born 
on the 3rd of December 1742, near Chudleigh in Devonshire. 
His father, an officer in the Artillery, was killed in action shortly 
after the birth of his son. He entered the navy as a mid- 
shipman in 1756, and was present at the attack on Cherbourg 
(1758), and the disastrous action of St Cast in the same year. 
At the end of the Seven Years' War, seeing no chance of pro- 
motion, he entered the service of the East India Company, and 
was appointed surveyor of the Company's dominions in Bengal 
(1764), with the rank of captain in the Bengal Engineers. To 
this work he devoted the next thirteen years. In 1766 he 
received a severe wound in an encounter with some Sannyasis, 
or religious fanatics, from which he never thoroughly recovered; 
and in 1777 he retired as major on a pension of £600 a year. 
The remaining fifty-three years of his life were spent in London, 
and were devoted to geographical research chiefly among the 
materials in the East India House. His most valuable works 
include the Bengal Atlas (1779), the first approximately correct 
map of India (1783), the Geographical System of Herodotus (1800), 
the Comparative Geography of Western Asia (183 1), and im- 
portant studies on the geography of northern Africa — in intro- 
ductions to the Travels of Mungo Park and Hornemann — and 
the currents of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. He also 
contributed papers to Archaeologia on the site of Babylon, the 
island of St Paul's shipwreck, and the landing-place of Caesar 
in Britain. He was elected F.R.S. in 1781; and he received 
the Copley medal of the Royal Society in 1791, and the gold 
medal of the Royal Society of Literature in 1825. While in 
India he had married (1772) Jane Thackeray, a great-aunt of 
the novelist. He died on the 29th of March 1830, and was 
buried in the nave of Westminster Abbey. 

See Sir Clements Markham Major James Rennell and the Rise of 
Modern English Geography Condon, 1895). 

RENNES, a town of western France, formerly the capital of 
Brittany and now the chief town of the department of Ule-et- 
Vilaine. Pop. town, 62,024; commune, 75,640. Rennes is 
situated at the meeting of the Me and the Vilaine and at the 
junction of several lines of railway connecting it with Paris 
(232 m. E.N.E.), St Malo (51 m. N.N.W.), Brest (155 m. 
W.N.W.). A few narrow winding streets with old houses are 
left in the vicinity of the cathedral, but the town was for the 
most part rebuilt on a regular plan after the seven days' fire of 
1720. Dark granite was used as building material. The old 
town or Ville-Haute, where the chief buildings are situated, 
occupies a hill bounded on the south by the Vilaine, on the 
west by the canalized Me. The Vilaine flows in a deep hollow 
bordered with quays and crossed by six bridges leading to the 
new town or Ville-Basse on its left bank. The cathedral of 
Rennes was rebuilt in a pseudo-Ionic style between 1787 and 
1844 on the site of two churches dating originally from the 
4th century. The west facade with its twin towers was finished 
in 1700 and is in the Renaissance style. The interior is richly 
decorated, a German altar-piece of the 15th century being 
conspicuous for its carving and gilding. The archbishop's 
palace occupies in part the site of the abbey dedicated to St 
Melaine, whose church is the sole specimen of n-i3th cen- 
tury architecture among the numerous churches in the town. 
A colossal statue of the Virgin was placed above its dome in 
1867. The Mordelaise Gate, by which the dukes and bishops 
used to make their state entry into the town, is a curious example 
of 15th-century architecture, and preserves a Latin inscription 
of the 3rd century, a dedication by the Redones to the emperor 
Gordianus. The finest building in Rennes is the old parliament 
house (now the law-court), designed by Jacques Debrosse in 
the 1 7th century, and decorated with statues of legal celebrities, 
carving, and paintings by Jean Jouvenet and other well-known 
artists. The town hall was erected in the first half of the 18th 
century. It contains the library and the municipal archives, 
which are of great importance for the history of Brittany. In 
the Palais Universitaire, a modern building occupied by the 
university, there are scientific collections and important galleries 
of painting =uid sculpture, the chief work being the " Perseus 



delivering Andromeda " of Paul Veronese. About 2 m. from 
the town is the castle (16th century) of La Prevalaye, a hamlet 
famous for its butter. 

Rennes is the seat of an archbishop and a prefect, head- 
quarters of the X. army corps and centre of an acadimie (educa- 
tional division). Its university has faculties of law, science and 
letters, and a preparatory school of medicine and pharmacy, 
and there are training colleges, a lycee and schools of agriculture, 
dairying, music, art, architecture and industry (Ecole pratique). 
The town is also the seat of a court of appeal, of a court of 
assizes, of tribunals of first instance and commerce, and of a 
chamber of commerce, and has a branch of the Bank of France. 
Tanning, iron-founding, timber-sawing and the production of 
furniture and wooden goods, flour-milling, flax-spinning and the 
manufacture of tenting and other coarse fabrics, bleaching and 
various smaller industries are carried on. Trade is chiefly in 
butter made in the neighbourhood, and in grain, flour, leather, 
poultry, eggs and honey. 

Rennes, the chief city of the Redones, was formerly (like some 
other places in Gaul) called Condate (hence Condat, Conde), 
probably from its position at the confluence of two streams. 
Under the Roman empire it was included in Lugdunensis Tertia, 
and became the centre of various Roman" roads still recognizable 
in the vicinity The name Urbs Rubra given to it on the oldest 
chronicles is explained by the bands of red brick in the founda- 
tions of its first circuit of walls. About the close of the 10th 
century Conan le Tort, count of Rennes, subdued the whole 
province, and his son and successor Geoffrey first took the title 
duke of Brittany. The dukes were crowned at Rennes, and 
before entering the city by the Mordelaise Gate they had to 
swear to preserve the privileges of the church, the nobles and 
the commons of Brittany. During the War of Succession the 
city more than once suffered siege, notably in 1356-57, when 
Bertrand du Guesclin saved it from capture by the English 
under Henry, first duke of Lancaster. The parlement of 
Brittany, founded in 1551, held its sessions at Rennes from 1561, 
they having been previously shared with Nantes. During the 
troubles of the League Philip Emmanuel, duke of Mercosur, 
attempted to make himself independent at Rennes (1589), but 
his scheme was defeated by the loyalty of the parlement. 
Henry IV. entered the city in state on the 9th of May 1598. 
In 1675 an insurrection at Rennes, caused by the taxes imposed 
by Louis XIV. in spite of the advice of the parlement, was 
cruelly suppressed by Charles, duke of Chaulnes, governor of 
the province. The parlement was banished to Vannes till 1689, 
and the inhabitants crushed with forfeits and put to death in 
great numbers. The fire of 1720, which destroyed eight hundred 
houses, completed the ruin of the town. At the beginning of 
the Revolution Rennes was again the scene of bloodshed, caused 
by the discussion about doubling the third estate for the con- 
vocation of the states-general. In January 1789, Jean Victor 
Moreau (afterwards general) , led the law-students in their 
demonstrations on behalf of the parlement against the royal 
government. During the Reign of Terror Rennes suffered less 
than Nantes, partly through the courage and uprightness of the 
mayor, Jean Leperdit. It was soon afterwards the centre of the 
operations of the Republican army against the Vendeans. The 
bishopric, founded in the 5th century, in 1859 became an arch- 
bishopric, a rank to which it had previously been raised from 
1790 to 1802. In 1899 the revision of the sentence of Captain 
Alfred Dreyfus was carried out at Rennes. 

See Orain, Rennes et ses environs (Reims, 1904). 

RENNEVILLE, RENE AUGUSTE CONSTANTIN DE (1650- 
1723), French writer, was born at Caen in 1650. In consequence 
of his Protestant principles, he left France for Holland in 1699, 
and on his return three years later he was denounced as a spy 
and imprisoned in the Bastille, where he remained until 17 13. 
During his imprisonment he wrote on the margins of a copy 
of Auteurs diguisis (Paris, 1690) poems which he called Olia 
bastiliaca. These were rediscovered by Mr James Tregaski in 
1906. Renneville was set at liberty through the intercession of 
Queen Anne, and made his way to England, where he published 



RENNIE— RENOUF 



IOI 



his Histoire de la Bastille (7 vols., 1713-24), dedicated to George I. 
At the time of his death in 1723 he was a major of artillery in the 
service of the elector of Hesse. His other important work is a 
Recueil des voyages qui ont servi A I'itablissement de la Compagnie 
des Indes Orientates aux Provinces Unies (10 vols., new ed., 
Rouen, 1725). 

RENNIE, JOHN (1 761-1821), British engineer, was the youngest 
son of James Rennie, a farmer at Phantassie, Haddingtonshire, 
where he was born on the 7th of June 1761. On his way to 
the parish school at East Linton he used to pass the workshop 
of Andrew Meikle (17 19-1800), the inventor of the threshing 
machine, and its attractions were such that he spent there much 
of the time vhat was supposed to be spent at school. In his 
twelfth year he was placed under Meikle, but after two years he 
was sent to Dunbar High School, where he showed marked 
aptitude for mathematics. On his return to Phantassie he 
occasionally assisted Meikle, and soon began to erect corn mills 
on his own account. In 1780, while continuing his millwright's 
business, he began to attend the classes on physical science at 
Edinburgh University. Four years later he was commissioned 
by Boulton and Watt, to whom he was introduced by Professor 
John Robison (1739-1805), his teacher at Edinburgh, to super- 
intend the construction of the machinery for the Albion flour 
mills, which they were building at the south end of Blackfriars 
Bridge, London, and a feature of his work there was the use of 
iron for many portions of the machines which had formerly been 
made of wood. The completion of these mills established his 
reputation as a mechanical engineer, and soon secured him a 
large business as a maker of millwork of all descriptions. But 
his fame chiefly rests on his achievements in civil engineering. 
As a canal engineer his services began to be in request about 
1790, and the Avon and Kennet, the Rochdale and the Lancaster 
canals may be mentioned among his numerous works in England. 
His skill solved the problem of draining and reclaiming extensive 
tracts of marsh in the eastern counties and on the Solway Firth. 
As a bridge engineer he was responsible for many structures in 
England and Scotland, among the most conspicuous being three 
over the Thames — Waterloo Bridge, Southwark Bridge and 
London Bridge — the last of which he did not live to see com- 
pleted. A noteworthy feature in many of his designs was the 
flat roadway. Among the harbours and docks in the construction 
of which he was concerned may be mentioned those at Wick, 
Torquay, Grimsby, Holyhead, Howth, Kingstown and Hull, 
together with the London dock and the East India dock on the 
Thames, and he was consulted by the government in respect of 
improvements at the dockyards of Portsmouth, Sheerness, 
Chatham and Plymouth, where the breakwater was built from 
his plans. He died in London on the 4th of October 1821, and 
was buried in St Paul's. In person he was of great stature and 
strength, and a bust of him by Chantrey (now in the National 
Gallery), when exhibited at Somerset House, obtained the name 
of Jupiter Tonans. Of his family, the eldest son George, who was 
born in London on the 3rd of September 1791 and died there 
on the 30th of March 1866, carried on his father's business in 
partnership with the second son John, who was born in London 
on the 30th of August 1794 and died near Hertford on the 3rd 
of September 1874. George devoted himself especially to the 
mechanical side of the business. John completed the con- 
struction of London Bridge, and at its opening in 1831 was made 
a knight. He succeeded his father as engineer to the Admiralty, 
and finished the Plymouth breakwater, of which he published 
an account in 1848. He was also the author of a book on the 
Theory, Formation and Construction of ■ British and Foreign 
Harbours (1851-54), and his Autobiography appeared in 1875. 
He was elected president of the Institution of Civil Engineers 
in 1845, and held the office for three years. 

RENO, a city and the county-seat of Washoe county, Nevada, 
U.S.A., in the W. part of the state, on the Truckee river, and 
about 244 m. E. of San Francisco. Pop. (1890) 3563; (1900) 
4500 (915 foreign-born); (1910 census) 10,867. It is served by 
the Southern Pacific, the Virginia & Truckee and the Nevada- 
California-Oregon railways. The city lies near the foot of the 



Sierra Nevada Mountains, 4484 ft. above the sea, and is in the 
most humid district of a state which has little rainfall. Among 
the public institutions are the university of Nevada (see Nevada), 
a United States Agricultural Experiment Station, a public library 
(1903), the Nevada Hospital for Mental Diseases (1882), the City 
and County Hospital and the People's Hospital. At Reno are 
railway shops (of the Nevada- California-Oregon railway) and re- 
duction works, and the manufactures include flour, foundry and 
machine-shop products, lumber, beer, plaster and packed meats. 
Farming and stock-raising are carried on extensively in the 
vicinity. On the site of the present city a road house was 
erected in 1859 for the accommodation of travellers and freight 
teams on their way to and from California. By 1863 this place 
had become known as Lake's Crossing, and five years later" it was 
chosen as a site for a station by the Central (now the Southern) 
Pacific railway, then building through the Truckee Valley. 
The new station was then named Reno, in honour of Gen. Jesse 
Lee Reno (1823-1862), a Federal officer during the Civil War, 
who was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers in 
November 1861 and major-general of volunteers in July 1862, 
and led the Ninth Corps at South Mountain, where he was killed. 
The city twice suffered from destructive fires, in 1873 and 1879. 
Reno was incorporated as a town in 1879 and chartered as a city 
in 1899. Its city charter was withdrawn in 1901, but it was 
rechartered in 1903. 

RENOIR, FIRMIN AUGUSTE (1841- ), French painter, 
was born at Limoges in 1841. In his early work he followed, 
with pronounced modern modifications, certain traditions of 
the French 18th-century school, more particularly of Boucher, 
of whom we are reminded by the decorative tendency, the pink 
and ivory flesh tints and the facile technique of Renoir. In 
the 'seventies he threw himself into the impressionist movement 
and became one of its leaders. In some of his paintings he 
carried the new principle of the division of tones to its extreme, 
but in his best work, notably in some of his paintings of the 
nude, he retained much of the refined sense of beauty of colour 
of the 1 8th century. Renoir has tried his skill almost in every 
genre — in portraiture, landscape, flower-painting, scenes of modern 
life and figure subject; and though he is perhaps the most un- 
equal of the great impressionists, his finest works rank among the 
masterpieces of the modern French school. Among these are 
some of his nude " Bathers," the " Rowers' Luncheon," the 
" Ball at the Moulin de la Galette," " The Box," " The Terrace," 
" La Penste," and the portrait of " Jeanne Samary." He is 
represented in the Caillebotte room at the Luxembourg, in the 
collection of M. Durand-Ruel, and in most of the collections of 
impressionist paintings in France and in the United States. 
Comparatively few of his works have come to England, but the 
full range of his capacity was seen at the exhibition of impres- 
sionist art held at the Grafton Galleries in London in 1905. 
At the Viau sale in Paris in 1907, a garden scene by Renoir, 
" La Tonnelle," realized 26,000 frs., and a little head, " Inginue," 
25,100 frs. 

RENOUF, SIR PETER LE PAGE (1822-1897), Egyptologist, 
was born in Guernsey, on the 23rd of August 1822. He was 
educated at Elizabeth College there, and proceeded to Oxford, 
which, upon his becoming a Roman Catholic, under the influence 
of Dr Newman, he quitted without taking a degree. Like many 
other Anglican converts, he proved a thorn in the side of the 
Ultramontane party in the Roman Church, though he did not, 
like some of them, return to the communion of the Church of 
England. He opposed the promulgation of the dogma of Papal 
Infallibility, and his treatise (1868) upon the condemnation of 
Pope Honorius for heresy by the council of Constantinople in 
A.D. 680 was placed upon the index of prohibited books. He 
had been from 1855 to 1864 professor of ancient history and 
Oriental languages in the Roman Catholic university which 
Newman vainly strove to establish in Dublin, and during part 
of this period edited the Atlantis and the Home and Foreign 
Review, which latter had to be discontinued on account of the 
hostility of the Roman Catholic hierarchy. In 1864 he was 
appointed a government inspector of schools, which position he 



102 



RENOUVIER— RENT 



held until 1886, when his growing celebrity as an Egyptologist 
procured him the appointment of Keeper of Oriental Antiquities 
in the British Museum, in succession to Dr Samuel Birch. He 
was also elected in 1887 president of the Society of Biblical 
Archaeology, to whose Proceedings he was a constant contri- 
butor. The most important of his contributions to Egyptology 
are his Hibbert Lectures on " The Religion of the Egyptians," 
delivered in 1879; and the translation of The Book of the Dead, 
with an ample commentary, published in the Transactions of the 
society over which he presided. He retired from the Museum 
under the superannuation rule iii 1891, and died in London on 
the 14th of October 1897. He had been knighted the year 
before his death. He married in 1857 Ludovica von Brentano, 
member of a well-known German literary family. 

RENOUVIER, CHARLES BERNARD (1815-1903), French 
philosopher, was born at Montpellier on the 1st of January 181 8, 
and educated in Paris at the Ecole Polytechnique. In early 
life he took an interest in politics, and the approval extended by 
Hippolyte Carnot to his Manuel republicain de I'homme et du 
citoyen (1848) was the occasion of that minister's fall. He 
never held public employment, but spent his life writing, retired 
from the world. He died on the 1st of September 1903. Ren- 
ouvier was the first Frenchman after Malebranche to formulate 
a complete idealistic system, and had a vast influence on the 
development of French thought. His system is based on Kant's, 
as his chosen term " Neo-criticisme " indicates; but it is a trans- 
formation rather than a continuation of Kantianism. The two 
leading ideas are a dislike to the Unknowable in all its forms, 
and a reliance on the validity of our personal experience. The 
former accounts for his acceptance of Kant's phenomenalism, 
combined with rejection of the thing in itself. It accounts, too, 
for his polemic on the one hand against a Substantial Soul, a 
Buddhistic Absolute, an Infinite Spiritual Substance; on the 
other hand against the no less mysterious material or dynamic 
substratum by which naturalistic Monism explains the world. 
He holds that nothing exists except presentations, which are 
not merely sensational, and have an objective aspect no less 
than a subjective. To explain the formal organization of 
our experience he adopts a modified version of the Kantian 
categories. The insistence on the validity of personal experience 
leads Renouvier to a yet more important divergence from Kant 
in his treatment of volition. Liberty, he says, in a much wider 
sense than Kant, is man's fundamental characteristic. Human 
freedom acts in the phenomenal, not in an imaginary notimenal 
sphere. Belief is not intellectual merely, but is determined by 
an act of will affirming what we hold to be morally good. In 
his religious views Renouvier makes a considerable approxima- 
tion to Leibnitz. He holds that we are rationally justified in 
affirming human immortality and the existence of a finite God 
who is to be a constitutional ruler, but not a despot, over the 
souls of men. He would, however, regard atheism as preferable 
to a belief in an infinite Deity. 

His chief works are: Essais de critique generate (1854-64), Science 
de la morale (1869), Uckronie (1876), Esqttisse d'une classification 
systematique des doctrines philosophiques (1885-86), Philosophic 
analytique de Vhistoire (1896-97), Histoire et solution des problemes 
metaphysiques (1901); Victor Hugo: Le Poete (1893), Le Philo- 
sophe (1900); Les Dilemmes de la metaphysique pure (1901); Le 
Personnalisme (1903) ; Critique de la doctrine de Kant (1906, pub- 
lished by L. Prat). 

See L. Prat, Les Dernier s entretiens de Charles Renouvier (1904) ; 
M. Ascher, Renouvier und der franzosische Neu-Kriticismus (1900) ; 
E. Janssens, Le Neocriticisme de C. R. (1904) ; A. Darlu, La Morale 
de Renouvier (1904); G. Seailles, La Philosophic de C. R. (1905); 
A. Arnal, La Philosophic religieuse de C. R. (1907). 

RENSSELAER, a city of Rensselaer county, New York, 
U.S.A., in the eastern part of the state, on the E. bank of the 
Hudson river, opposite Albany. Pop. (1900) 7466, of whom 
1089 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 10,711. It is served 
by the New York Central and the Boston & Albany rail- 
ways, which have shops here, and is connected with Albany 
by three bridges across the Hudson. Rensselaer, originally 
called Greenbush, was first settled in 1631, and the site formed 
part of the large tract bought from the Indians by the agents 



of Killian van Rensselaer and known as Rensselaerwyck. In 
1810 a square mile of land within the present city limits was 
acquired by a land speculator, was divided into lots and offered 
for sale. Development followed, and five years later the village 
was incorporated. In 1897 Greenbush was chartered as a 
city, and its name was changed to Rensselaer. Its limits were 
extended in 1902 by the annexation of the village of Bath 
(pop. in 1900, 2504) and the western part of the township of 
East Greenbush. Rensselaer manufactures knit-goods, wool 
shoddy, felt, &c. 

RENT. Various species of rent appear in Roman Law: rent 
(canon) under the long leasehold tenure of Emphyteusis; rent 
(reditus) of a farm; ground-rent (solarium); rent of state 
lands (vectigal); and the annual rent (prensio) payable 
for the jus superficiarum or right to the perpetual enjoy- 
ment of anything built on the surface of land. (See Roman 
Law.) 

English Law. (As to the rent of apartments, &c, see 
Lodger and Lodgings.) — Rent is a certain and periodical 
payment or service made or rendered by the tenant of a corporeal 
hereditament and issuing out of (the property of) such heredita- 
ment. Its characteristics, therefore, are (1) certainty in amount; 
(2) periodicity in payment or rendering; (3) the fact that rent 
is yielded and is, therefore, said " to lie in render," as distinguished 
from profits d prendre in general, which are taken, and are, 
therefore, said to lie in prendre; (4) that it must issue out of 
(the profits of) a corporeal hereditament. A rent cannot be 
reserved out of incorporeal hereditaments such as advowsons 
(Co. Litt. 47a, 142a). But rent may be reserved out of estates 
in reversion or remainder (see Real Property) which are not 
purely incorporeal. It is not essential that rent should consist 
in a payment of money. Apart from the rendering of services, 
the delivery of hens, horses, wheat; &c, may constitute a rent. 
But, at the present day, rent is generally a sum of money paid 
for the occupation of land. It is important to notice that this 
conception of rent was attained at a comparatively late period 
in the history of the law. The earliest rent seems to have been 
a form of personal service, generally labour on land, and was 
fixed by custom. The exaction of a competition or rack rent 
beyond that limited by custom was, if one may judge from the old 
Brehon law of Ireland, due to the presence upon the land of 
strangers in blood, probably at first outcasts from some other 
group. 1 The strict feudal theory of rent admitted labour on 
the lord's land as a lower form, and developed the military 
service due to the crown or a lord as a higher form. Rent service 
is the oldest and most dignified kind of existing rent. It is 
the only one to which the power of distress attaches at common 
law, giving the landlord a preferential right over other creditors 
exercisable without the intervention of judicial authority (see 
Distress). The increasing importance of socage tenure, 
arising in part from the convenience of paying a certain amount, 
whether in money or kind, rather than comparatively uncertain 
services, led to the gradual evolution of the modern view of 
rent as a sum due by contract between two independent persons. 
At the same time the primitive feeling which regarded the 
position of landlord and tenant from a social rather than a 
commercial point of view is still of importance. 

Rents, as they now exist in England, are divided C i a ff es t 
into two great classes — rent service and rent charge. 

Rent Service. — A rent service is so called because by 'it a 
tenure by means of service is created between the landlord 
and the tenant. The service is now represented by fealty, and 
is nothing more than nominal. Rent service is said to be 
incident to the reversion— that is, a grant of the reversion carries 
the rent with it (see Remainder). A power of distress is incident 

'"The three rents are: rack rent from a person of a strange 
tribe, a fair rent from one of the tribe, and the stipulated rent which 
is paid equally by the tribe and the strange tribe." — Senchus Mor, 
p. 159, cited by Maine, Village Communities, p. 187. See also 
Vinogradoff, Villainage in England (Oxford, 1892), pp. 181, 188, 
215 ; The Growth of the Manor (by the same author) (London, 1905), 
pp. 230, 328; Pollock and Maitland, Hist. Eng. Law (Cambridge, 
1895), ii. 128-134. 



RENT 



103 



at common law to this form of rent. Copyhold rents and rents 
reserved on lease fall into this class. 

Rent Charge. — A rent charge is a grant of an annual sum 
payable out of lands in which the grantor has an estate. It 
may be in fee, in tail, for life— the most common form— or for^ 
years. It must be created by deed or will, and may be either 
at common law or under the Statute of Uses (1536). The 
grantor has no reversion, and the grantee has at common law no 
power of distress, though such power may be given him by the 
instrument creating the rent charge. The Statute of Uses (1536) 
gave a power of distress for a rent charge created under the 
statute. The Conveyancing Act 1881, § 44, has given a power 
of distress for a sum due on any rent charge which is twenty-one 
days in arrear. By § 45 a power of redemption of certain per- 
petual rents in the nature of rent charges is given to the owner 
of the land out of which the rent issues. Rent charges granted 
since April 26th, 1855, otherwise than by marriage settlement 
or will for a life or lives or for any estate determinable on a life 
or lives must, in order to bind lands against purchasers, mort- 
gagees or creditors, be registered in the Land Registry in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields (Judgments Act 1855 and Land Charges 
Act 1900). In certain other cases it is also necessary to register 
rent charges, for instance, under the Improvement of Land 
Act 1864 and the Land Transfer Acts 1873 and 1897. Rent 
charges are barred by non-payment or non-acknowledgment 
for twelve years. The period of limitation for the arrears of 
such rent is six years. 

Various Forms of Rent Charge. — Forms of rent charge of special 
interest are tithe rent charge (see Tithes), and the rent charges 
formerly used for the purpose of creating " faggot votes." The 
device was adopted of creating parliamentary voters by splitting 
up freehold interests into a number of rent-charges of the annual 
value of 40s., so as to satisfy the freeholders' franchise. But 
such rent charges are now rendered ineffective by the Repre- 
sentation of the People Act 1884, § 4, which enacts (subject to a 
saving for existing rights and an exception in favour of owners 
of tithe rent charge) that a man shall not be entitled to be 
registered as a voter in respect of the ownership of any rent 
charge. 

A rent charge reserved without power of distress is termed a 
rent-seek {reditus siccus) or " dry rent," from the absence of the 
power of distress. But, as power of distress for rents-seek was 
given by the Landlord and Tenant Act 1736, the legal effect 
of such rents has been since the act the same as that of a rent 
charge. 

Other Varieties of Rent. — Rents of assize or Quit rents are a relic 
of the old customary rents. They are presumed to have been 
established by usage, and cannot be increased or diminished. A 
Quit rent {quietus reditus) is a yearly payment made from time 
immemorial by freeholders or copyholders of a manor to the lord. 
The term implies that the tenant thereby becomes free and quit 
from all other services. Owing to the change in the value of money, 
these rents are now of little value. Under the Conveyancing Act 
1881 (s. 45) they may be compulsorily redeemed by the freehold 
tenant; and the Copyhold Act 1894 provides similarly for their 
extinction in the case of manors. Quit rents, like ordinary rent 
charges, are barred by non-payment, or non-acknowledgment, for 
twelve years. Those paid by freeholders are called chief rents. 
Fee farm rents are rents reserved on grants in fee. According to 
some authorities, they must be at least one-fourth of the value of 
the lands. They, like quit rents, now occur only in manors, 
unless existing before the Statute of Quia Emptores or created by 
the crown (see Real Property). A rent which is equivalent 
or nearly equivalent in amount to the full annual value of the land 
is a rack rent. A rent which falls appreciably short of a rack rent 
is usually styled a ground rent (q.v.). It is generally reserved on 
land which the lessee agrees to cover with buildings, and is calculated 
on the value of the land, though the buildings to be erected increase 
the security for the rent and revert to the lessor at the end of the 
term. A dead rent is a fixed annual sum paid by a person working 
a mine or quarry, in addition to royalties varying according to the 
amount of minerals taken. 

The object of a dead rent is twofold — first, to provide a specified 
income on which the lessor can rely; secondly (and this is the 
more important reason), as a security that the mine will be worked, 
and worked with reasonable rapidity. Rents in kind still exist 
to a limited extent; thus the corporation of London is tenant of 
some lands in Shropshire by payment to the crown of an annual 



rent of a fagot. All peppercorn, or nominal, rents seem to fall under 
this head. 1 The object of the peppercorn rent is to secure the 
acknowledgment by the tenant of the landlord's right. In modern 
building leases a peppercorn rent is sometimes reserved as the 
rent for the first few years. Services rendered in lieu of payment 
by tenants in grand and petit serjeanty may also be regarded as 
examples of rents in kind. Grand serjeanty is a form of tenure in 
chivalry under which the king's tenants (servientes) in chief owed 
special military or personal services to the king; e.g. carrying his 
banner. Petit serjeanty — a form of tenure in socage; — was usually 
applied to tenure of the king or a mesne lord by some fixed service 
of trivial value, e.g. feeding his hounds. These forms of tenure 
were abolished in 1660. Labour rents are represented by those 
cases, not untrequent in agricultural leases, where the tenant is 
bound to render the landlord a certain amount of team work or 
other labour as a part of his rent. It was held in the court of 
queen's bench in 1845 that tenants who occupied houses on the 
terms of sweeping the parish church and of ringing the church bell 
paid rent within the meaning of the Limitation Act of 1833 (see 
Doe v. Benham (1845), 7 Q.B. 976). 
As to the apportionment of rents, see Apportionment. 

Payment of Rent. — Rent is due in the morning "of the day 
appointed for payment, but a tenant is not in arrears until after 
midnight on that day. Rent made payable in advance 
by agreement between a landlord and his tenant is asto 
called forehand rent. It is not uncommon in letting payment. 
a furnished house, or as to the last quarter of the 
term of a lease of unfurnished premises, to stipulate that the 
rent shall be paid in advance. As soon as such rent is payable 
under the agreement the landlord has the same rights in regard 
to it as he has in the case of ordinary rent. If a tenant pays 
his rent before the day on which it is due, he runs the risk of 
being called upon in certain circumstances to pay it over again. 
Such a payment is an advance to the landlord, subject to an 
agreement that, when the rent becomes due, the advance shall be 
treated as a fulfilment of the tenant's obligation to pay rent. The 
payment is, therefore, generally speaking, a defence to an action 
by the landlord or his heirs. But if the landlord mortgages his 
reversion, either before or after the advance, the assignee will, 
by giving notice to the tenant, before the proper rent-day, to pay 
rent to him, become entitled to the rent then falling due. Pay- 
ment by cheque is conditional payment only, and if the cheque is 
dishonoured the original obligation revives. Where a cheque 
in payment of rent is lost in the course of transmission through 
the post, the loss falls on the tenant, unless the landlord has 
expressly or impliedly authorized it to be forwarded in that 
way: and the landlord's consent to take the risk of such trans- 
mission will not be inferred from the fact that payments were 
ordinarily made in this manner in the dealings between the 
parties. A tenant may deduct from his rent (i) the " land- 
lord's property tax " (on the annual value of the premises for 
income tax purposes), which is paid by the tenant, if the statute 
imposing the tax authorizes the deduction (which should be 
made from the rent next due after the payment); (ii) taxes or 
rates which the landlord had undertaken to pay but had not 
paid, payment having thereupon been made by the tenant; (iii) 
payments made by the tenant which ought to have been made 
by the landlord, e.g. rent due to a superior landlord; (iv) com- 
pensation under the Agricultural Holdings Acts 1883-1900. 

Remedies for Non-payment of Rent. — A landlord's main remedy 
for non-payment of rent is distress (Lat. distringere, to draw 
asunder, detain, occupy), i.e. the right to seize all goods found 
upon the demised premises, whether those of the tenant or of 
a stranger, except goods specially privileged, and to detain and, 
if need be, to sell them, in satisfaction of his claim. The 
requisites of a valid distress are these: (a) There must be " a 
certain and proper rent," i.e. rent due in respect of an actual 
tenancy of corporeal hereditaments: (b) the rent must be in 
arrear; (c) there must be a reversion in the person distrain- 
ing; and (d) there must be goods on the premises liable to be 
distrained. 

1 When peppercorn rents were instituted, in the middle ages, 
they were not, however, nominal, the cost of spices being then very 
great. A peppercorn rent, generally an obligation to pay I ft) of 
pepper at the usual rent days, constituted a substantial impost 
even as late as the 18th century. 



104 



RENT 



All personal chattels are distrainable with the following excep- 
tions: (i) Goods absolutely privileged — (a) fixtures (q.v.); Q>) goods 
sent to the tenant in the way of trade; (c) things which cannot be 
restored, e.g. meat and milk; growing corn and corn in sheaves 
formerly fell within this category, but the Distress for Rent Act 
'737 ( s - 8) abolished this exemption in the case of the former, 
and a statute of 1690 abolished it' in that of the latter; (d) things 
in actual use, e.g. a horse while it is drawing a cart ; (e) animals 
ferae naturae (does and tame deer or deer in an enclosed park 
may be distrained) ; (/) things in the custody of the law, e.g. in the 
possession of a sheriff under an execution (q.v.) ; (g) straying cattle ; 
(h) in the case of agricultural holdings under the Agricultural 
Holdings Acts 1883-1900 hired agricultural machinery and breeding 
stock; (*') the wearing apparel and "bedding" — a term which 
includes " bedstead " — of tenant and his family, and the tools 
and implements of his trade to the value of £5 (Law of Distress 
Amendment Act 1888) ; (j) the goods of ambassadors and their 
suites (Diplomatic Privileges Act 1708). (ii) Goods conditionally 
privileged, i.e. privileged if there are sufficient goods of other kinds 
on the premises to satisfy the distress — (a) implements of trade not 
in actual use; (b) beasts of the plough and sheep; (c) agisted 
cattle; (d) growing crops sold under an execution (Landlord and 
Tenant Act 185 1, s. 2); (e) lodgers' goods. The Lodgers' Goods 
Protection Act 187 1 provides that where a lodger's goods have 
been seized by the superior landlord the lodger may serve him with 
a notice stating that the intermediate landlord had no interest in 
the property seized, but that it is the property, or in the lawful 
possession, of the lodger, and setting forth the amount of the rent 
due by the lodger to his immediate landlord. On payment or 
tender of such rent the landlord cannot proceed with the distress 
against the goods in question. 

In general, a landlord cannot distrain except upon the premises 
demised, but he has a statutory right to follow things clandestinely 
or fraudulently removed from the premises within 30 days after 
their removal, unless they have been in the meantime sold bona 
fide and for valuable consideration. A landlord may, by statute 
(Landlord and Tenant Act 1709, s. 6), distrain within six months 
after the determination of the lease provided that the tenant has 
remained in possession. A distress must be made in the daytime, 
i.e. not before sunrise or after sunset. Six years' arrears of rent 
only are recoverable by distress (Real Property Limitation Act 
1833, s. 12): the Real Property Limitation Act 1874 (s. 1), which 
bars distress for rent after twelve years, applies to rent-charges 
and not to rent under a lease, and the six years' arrears may be 
recovered in spite of the lapse of time. In the case of agricultural 
tenancies falling within the Agricultural Holdings Acts 1883-1900, 
the right of distress is confined to one year's arrears of rent. Where 
the tenant is bankrupt, a distress levied after the bankruptcy is 
limited to six months' rent accrued due prior to the date of adjudica- 
tion; see Bankruptcy Act 1883 (s. 42) and 1890 (s. 28). Where 
a company is being wound up, the landlord may not distrain without 
the leave of the court. An extension of time is allowed in cases 
where in the ordinary course of dealing between landlord and tenant 
the payment of rent has been allowed to be deferred for a quarter 
or half year after the rent became legally due (act of 1883, s. 4). 
The landlord may distrain in person or may employ a certificated 
bailiff (Law of Distress Amendment Act 1888, s. 7). An uncerti- 
ficated person levying a distress is liable to a fine of £10, without 
prejudice to his civil liability (Law of Distress Amendment Act 
1895, s - 2 )- The seizure must not be excessive (statute of Henry III., 
1267); but enough must be taken to satisfy the claim, for the 
landlord cannot distrain twice for the same rent where he could have 
taken sufficient in the first instance. After being seized, the goods 
must be impounded (Distress for Rent Act 1707, s. 10; arid see 
the statute of 1690, s. 3, on impounding of corn, straw, hay; the 
Distress for Rent Act 1737, s. 8, on impounding of growing crops; 
and the statute of 1554 and the Cruelty to Animals Act 1849, s. 5, 
on impounding of cattle) ; and the landlord has a statutory power 
of sale (statute of 1690, s. 5). It is illegal to proceed with a distress 
if the tenant tenders the rent before the impounding; and a tenant 
has, by statute (1690, c. 5), five clear days' grace, excluding the date 
of seizure, between impounding and sale. On the written request 
of the tenant, this period will be extended to fifteen days (Law of 
Distress Amendment Act 1888, s. 6). A tenant may, before sale, 
recover goods illegally distrained by an action of replevin (L. Lat. 
replegiare, to redeem a thing taken by another). Where no rent 
was due to the distrainer the tenant may recover by action double 
the value of the goods sold (statute 1690, s. 5) ; and summary 
remedies for the recovery of the property have been created by 
modern enactments (Law of Distress Amendment Act 1895, s. 4, 
on distress of privileged goods; Agricultural Holdings Act 1883, 
s. 46). Where rent was due, but the distress was irregular, the 
tenant can only recover special damage (Distress for Rent Act 1737, 
s. 19). 

Goods taken under an execution {q.v.) are not removable till 
one year's rent has been paid to the landlord (Landlord and Tenant 
Act 1709). 

The landlord has, besides distress, his ordinary remedy by action. 
In addition, special statutory remedies are given in the case of tenants 



holding over after the expiration of their tenancy. By the Distress 
for Rent Act 1737 any tenant giving notice to quit, and holding 
over, is liable to pay double rent for such time as he continues in 
possession (see further under Ejectment). 

Ireland. — The main differences between Irish and English 
law have been caused by legislation (see Ejectment; Land- 
lord and Tenant). 

Scotland. — Rent is properly the payment made by tenant 
to landlord for the use of lands held under lease (see Landlord 
and Tenant). In agricultural tenancies the legal terms 
for the payment of rent are at Whitsunday after the crop has 
been shown, and at Martinmas after it has been reaped. But 
a landlord and tenant may substitute conventional terms of 
payment, either anticipating (fore, or forehand rent) or post- 
poning (back, or backhand rent) the legal term. The rent paid 
by vassal to superior is called feu-duty (see Feu). Its nearest 
English equivalent is the fee farm rent. The remedy of dis- 
tress does not exist in Scots law. Rents are recovered (i) by 
summary diligence, proceeding on a clause, in the lease, of 
consent to registration for execution; (ii) by an ordinary peti- 
tory action; (iii) by an action of " maills and duties " (the 
rents of an estate in money or grain: " maills " was a coin at 
one time current in Scotland) in the Sheriff Court or the Court 
of Session; and (iv) in non-agricultural tenancies by procedure 
under the right of hypothec, where that still exists; the right 
of hypothec over land exceeding 2 acres in extent let for agri- 
culture or pasture was abolished as from November 11, 1881 
(see Hypothec); (v) by action of removing (see Ejectment). 
Arrears of rent prescribe in five years from the time of the 
tenant's removal from the land. 

Labour or service rents were at one time very frequent in Scot- 
land. The events of 171 5 and 1745 showed the vast influence over 
the tenantry that the great proprietors acquired by such means. 
Accordingly acts of 1716 and 1746 provided for the commutation 
of services into money rents. Such services may still be created 
by agreement, subject to the summary power of commutation by 
the sheriff given by the Conveyancing Act 1874 (§§ 2 °> 2I )- " In 
the more remote parts of Scotland it is understood that there still 
exist customary returns in produce of various kinds, which being 
regulated by the usage of the district or of the barony or estate 
cannot be comprehended under any general rule " (Hunter, Landlord 
and Tenant, ii. 298). Up to 1848 or 1850 there existed in Scot- 
land " steelbow " leases — analogous to the chetel de fer of French 
law (see Landlord and Tenant) — by which the landlord stocked 
the farm with corn, cattle, implements, &c, the tenant returning 
similar articles at the expiration of his tenancy and paying in 
addition to the ordinary rent a steelbow rent of 5 % on the value 
of the stock. 

As to the rent of apartments, &c, see Lodger and Lodgings. 

United Stales. — The law is in general accordance with that 
of England. The tendency of modern state legislation is 
unfavourable to the continuance of distress as a remedy. In 
the New England states, attachment on mesne process has, to 
a large extent, superseded it. In New York and Missouri it 
has been abolished by statute; in Mississippi the landlord has 
a claim for one year's rent on goods seized under an execution 
and a lien on the growing crop. In Ohio, Tennessee and 
Alabama it is not recognized, but in Ohio the landlord has a 
share in the growing crops in preference to the execution creditor. 
The legislatures of nearly all the states agree with the law of 
England as to the exemption from distress of household goods, 
wearing apparel, &c. (see Dillon's Laws and Jurisprudence of 
England and America, pp. 360, 361; also Homestead). As 
to the rent of apartments, &c, see Lodger and Lodgings. 
Fee farm rents exist in some states, like Pennsylvania, which 
have not adopted the statute of Quia Emptores as a part of their 
common law (Washburn's Real Property, ii. 252). 

Other Laws. — Under the French Code Civil (art. 2102) the land- 
lord is a privileged creditor for his rent. If the lease is by authentic 
act, or under private signature for a fixed term, he has a right over 
the year's harvest and produce, the furniture of the house and 
everything employed to keep it up, and (if a farm) to work it, in 
order to satisfy all rent due up to the end of the term. If the lease 
is not .by authentic act nor for a specified term, the landlord's 
claim is limited to the current year and the year next following 
(see law of 12th Feb. 1872). The goods of a sub-lessee are protected : 
and goods bailed or deposited with the tenant are in general not 



RENTON— REPLEVIN 



105 



liable to be seized. The French law is in force in Mauritius, and 
has been reproduced in substance in the Civil Codes of Quebec 
(arts. 2005 et seq.) and St Lucia (arts. 1888 et seq.). There are 
analogous provisions in the Spanish Civil Code (art. 1922). The 
subject of privileges and hypothecs is regulated in Belgium by a 
special law of the 16th Dec. 1 851; and in Germany by ss. 1 1 13 
et seq. of the Civil Code. The law of British India as to rent (Transfer 
and Property Act 1882) and distress (cf., e.g., Act 15 of 1882) is 
similar to English law. The British dominions generally tend in 
the same direction. See, e.g., New South Wales (the consolidating 
Landlord and Tenant Act 1899); Newfoundland (Act 4 of 1899); 
Ontario (Act I of 1902, s. 22, giving a tenant five days for tender 
of rent and expenses after distress); Jamaica (Law 17 of 1900, 
certification of landlord's bailiffs) ; Queensland (Act 15 of 1904). 

Authorities. — English Law: Woodfall, Landlord and Tenant 
(18th ed., London, 1907) ; Foa, Landlord and Tenant (4th ed., London, 
1907); Fawcett, Landlord and Tenant (3rd ed., London, 1905); 
Gilbert on Distress and Replevin (London, 1823) ; Bullen, Law of 
Distress (2nd ed., London, 1899) ; Oldham and Foster, Law of Distress 
(2nd ed., London, 1889). Scots Law: Hunter on Landlord and 
Tenant (4th ed., Edin., 1876); Erskine's Principles (20th ed., by 
Rankine, Edin., 1903) ; Rankine's Law of Landowner ship in Scot- 
land (3rd ed., Edin., 1891); Rankine's Law of Leases in Scotland 
(2nd ed., Edin., 1893). American Law: McAdam, Law of Landlord 
and Tenant (New York, 1900) ; Bouvier's Law Dictionary (ed. G. 
Rawle) (London and Boston, 1897), tit. " Distress " in " Ruling 
Cases"; Landlord and Tenant (American Notes) (London and 
Boston, 1894-1901). (A. W. R.) 

RENTON, a manufacturing town of Dumbartonshire* Scotland. 
Pop. (1901) 5067. It is situated on the Leven, 2 m. N.N.W. 
of Dumbarton by the North British and Caledonian railways. 
The leading industry is Turkey red dyeing, and calico-printing 
and bleaching are also carried on. A parish church stands on 
the site of Dalquhurn House, the birthplace of Tobias Smollett 
the novelist, to whose memory a Tuscan column was erected 
in 1774, the inscription for which was revised by Dr Johnson 
when he visited Bonhill in that year with Boswell. The town 
was founded in 1782 by Mrs Smollett— previously Mrs Telfer — 
of Bonhill (sister of Tobias Smollett), who resumed her maiden 
name when she succeeded to the Smollett estates; it was named 
after Cecilia Renton, daughter of John Renton of Blackadder, 
who had married Mrs Smollett's son, Alexander Telfer. 

RENWICK, JAMES (1662-1688), Scottish covenanting leader, 
was born at Moniaive in Dumfriesshire on the 15th of February 
1662, being the son of a weaver, Andrew Renwick. Educated at 
Edinburgh University, he joined the section of the Covenanters 
known as the Cameronians about 1681 and soon became pro- 
minent among them. Afterwards he studied theology at the 
university of Groningen and was ordained a minister in 1683. 
Returning to Scotland " full of zeal and breathing forth threats 
of organized assassination," says Mr Andrew Lang, he became 
one of the field-preachers and was declared a rebel by the 
privy council. He was largely responsible for the " apologetical 
declaration " of 1684 by which he and his followers disowned 
the authority of Charles II.; the privy council replied by 
ordering every one to abjure this declaration on pain of death. 
Unlike some of his associates, Renwick refused to join the 
rising under the earl of Argyll in 1685; in 1687, when the 
declarations of indulgence allowed some liberty of worship to 
the Presbyterians, he and his followers, often called Renwickites, 
continued to hold meetings in the fields, which were still illegal. 
A reward was offered for his capture, and early in 1688 he was 
seized in Edinburgh. Tried and found guilty of disowning 
the royal authority and other offences, he refused to apply for 
a pardon and was hanged on the 17th of February 1688. Ren- 
wick was the last of the convenanting martyrs. 

See R. Wodrow, History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scot- 
land, vol. iv. (Glasgow, 1838); and A. Smellie, Men of the Covenant 
(1904) ; also Renwick's life by Alexander Shields in the Biographia 
Presbyteriana (1827). 

REP, Repp, or Reps, a cloth made of silk, wool or cotton. 
The name is said to have been adapted from the French reps, 
a word of unknown origin; it has also been suggested that it 
is a corruption of " rib." It is woven in fine cords or ribs 
across the width of the piece. In silk it is used for dresses, 
and to some extent for ecclesiastical vestments, &c. In wool 
and cotton it is used for various upholstery purposes. 



REPAIRS (from Lat. reparare, to make ready again), acts 
necessary to restore things to a sound state after damage; 
the question of repairs is important in the relations between 
landlord and tenant. (See the articles Flat; Landlord and 
Tenant.) 

REPEAL (O.F. rapel, modern rappel, from rapeler, rappder, 
revoke, re and appeler, appeal), the abrogation, revocation or 
annulling of a law (see Abrogation and Statute). The word 
is particularly used in English history of the movement led by 
Daniel O'Connell (q.v.) for the repeal of the act of Union between 
Great Britain and Ireland in 1830 and 1841-46, which in its later 
development became known as the Nationalist or Home Rule 
movement (see Ireland, History). 

REPIN, ILJA JEFIMOVICH (1844- ), Russian painter, 
was born in 1844 at Tschuguev in the department of Charkov, 
the son of parents in straitened circumstances. He learned 
the rudiments of art under a painter of saints named Bunakov, 
for three years gaining his living at this humble craft. In 1863 
he obtained a studentship at the Academy of Fine Arts of St 
Petersburg, where he remained for six years, winning the gold 
medal and a travelling scholarship which enabled him to visit 
France and Italy. He returned to Russia after a short absence, 
and devoted himself exclusively to subjects having strong 
national characteristics. In 1894 he became professor of 
historical painting at the St Petersburg Academy. Repin's 
paintings are powerfully drawn, with not a little imagination 
and with strong dramatic force and characterization. A 
brilliant colourist, and a portrait-painter of the first rank, he 
also became known as a sculptor and etcher of ability. His 
chief pictures are " Procession in the Government of Kiev," 
" Home-coming," " The Arrest," " Ivan the Terrible's murder 
of his Son," and, best known of all, " The Reply of the Cossacks 
to Sultan Mahmoud IV." The portraits of the Baroness V. I. 
Ulskiil, of Anton Rubinstein and of Count Leo Tolstoy are 
among his best achievements in this class. The Tretiakov 
gallery at Moscow contains a very large collection of his work. 
See " Professor Repin," by Prince Bojidar Karageorgevich, 
in the Magazine of Art, xxiii. p. 783 (1899); " Russian Art," a paper 
by E. Brayley Hodgetts in the Proceedings of the Anglo-Russian 
Literary Society (5th of May 1896); " Ilja Jefimovich Repin," 
by Julius Norden, in Velhagen and Klasing's Monatshefte, xx. p. I 
(1905) ; also R. Muther, History of Modern Painting (ed. 1907), 
iv. 272. (E. F. S.) 

REPINGTON (or Repyngdon), PHILIP (d. 1424), English 
bishop and cardinal, was educated at Oxford and became an 
Augustinian canon at Leicester before 1382. A man of some 
learning, he came to the front as a defender of the doctrines 
taught by John Wycliffe; for this he was suspended and after- 
wards excommunicated, but in a short time he was pardoned 
and restored by Archbishop William Courtenay, and he appears 
to have completely abandoned his unorthodox opinions. In 
1394 he was made abbot of St Mary de Pre at Leicester, and 
after the accession of Henry IV. to the English throne in 1399 
he became chaplain and confessor to this king, being described 
as " clericus specialissimus domini regis Henrici." In 1404 he 
was chosen bishop of Lincoln, and in 1408 Pope Gregory XII. 
made him a cardinal. He resigned his bishopric in 1419. Some 
of Repington's sermons are in manuscript at Oxford and at 
Cambridge. 

REPLEVIN, an Anglo-French law term (derived from replevir, 
to replevy; see Pledge for further etymology) signifying the 
recovery by a person of goods unlawfully taken out of his 
possession by means of a special form of legal process; this 
falls into two divisions — (1) the " replevy," the steps which the 
owner takes to secure the physical possession of the goods, by 
giving security for prosecuting the action and for the return 
of the goods if the case goes against him, and (2) the " action 
of replevin " itself. The jurisdiction in the first case is in the 
County Court; in the second case the Supreme Court has also 
jurisdiction in certain circumstances. The proceedings are now 
regulated by the County Courts Act 1888. At common law, 
the ordinary action for the recovery of goods wrongfully taken 
would be one of detinue; but no means of immediate recovery 



io6 



REPNIN— REPORTING 



was possible till the action was tried, and until the Common 
Law Procedure Act 1854 the defendant might exercise an 
option of paying damages instead of restoring the actual goods. 
The earliest regulations with regard to the action of replevin 
are to be found in the Statute of Marlborough (Marlebridge), 
1267, cap. 21. For the early history, see Blackstone's Com- 
mentaries, iii. 145 seq. Only goods and cattle can be the subjects 
of an action for replevin. Although the action can be brought 
for the wrongful taking of goods generally, as long as the initial 
taking was wrongful and it was from the possession of the 
owner, it is practically confined to goods taken by an illegal 
as opposed to an excessive distress (see Distress and Rent, 
§ Legal). 

REPNIN, the name of an old Russian princely family, the first 
of whom to gain distinction was 

Prince Anikita Ivanovich Repnin (1668-17 26), Russian 
general, and one of the collaborators of Peter the Great, with 
whom he grew up. On the occasion of the Sophian insurrection 
of 1689, he carefully guarded Peter in the Troitsa monastery, 
and subsequently took part in the Azov expedition, during 
which he was raised to the grade of general. He took part in 
all the principal engagements of the Great Northern War. 
Defeated by Charles XII. at Holowczyn, he was degraded to the 
ranks, but was pardoned as a reward for his valour at Lyesna 
and recovered all his lost dignities. At Poltava he commanded 
the centre. From the Ukraine he was transferred to the Baltic 
Provinces and was made the first governor-general of Riga after 
its capture in 17 10. In 1724 he succeeded the temporarily 
disgraced favourite, Menshikov, as war minister. Catherine I. 
created him a field-marshal 

See A. Bauman, Russian Statesmen of the Olden Time (Rus.), vol. i. 
(Petersburg,